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Journal Article

ℒ1 Adaptive Flutter Suppression Control Strategy for Highly Flexible Structure

2013-09-17
2013-01-2263
The aim of this work is to apply an innovative adaptive ℒ1 techniques to control flutter phenomena affecting highly flexible wings and to evaluate the efficiency of this control algorithm and architecture by performing the following tasks: i) adaptation and analysis of an existing simplified nonlinear plunging/pitching 2D aeroelastic model accounting for structural nonlinearities and a quasi-steady aerodynamics capable of describing flutter and post-flutter limit cycle oscillations, ii) implement the ℒ1 adaptive control on the developed aeroelastic system to perform initial control testing and evaluate the sensitivity to system parameters, and iii) perform model validation and calibration by comparing the performance of the proposed control strategy with an adaptive back-stepping algorithm. The effectiveness and robustness of the ℒ1 adaptive control in flutter and post-flutter suppression is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Virtual and Experimental Analysis of Brake Assist Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-0477
The paper deals with the virtual and experimental analysis of two commercial Mechanical Brake Assist systems. They are described in detail, then modeled and experimentally evaluated through a Hardware-In-the-Loop test bench and road tests. Three different kinds of drivers are compared, from the point of view of the performance increase promised by Brake Assist during an emergency brake maneuver. The three driver types are based on the measurement of the behavior of real drivers, as it is presented in specific research activities in literature.
Technical Paper

Virtual Simulation for Clutch Thermal Behavior Prediction

2018-05-30
2018-37-0021
The clutch is that mechanical part located in an internal combustion engine vehicle which allows the torque transmission from the shaft to the wheels, permitting at the same time gear shifting and supporting engine revolutions while the car is idling. This component exploits friction as working principle, therefore heat generation is in its own nature. The comprehension of all the critical issues related to thermal emission, and also of the principal physical parameters driving the phenomena are a must in design phases. The subject of this paper is the elaboration of an accurate, but also easy to use and easily replicable, methodology to simulate thermal behavior of a clutch operating inside its usual environment. The present methodology allows to prevent corrective actions in the last phase of the projects (real testing), such as changes in gear ratios, that likely worsen CO2 emissions, permitting to achieve the wished thermal performance of the clutch avoiding late changes.
Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

2011-09-11
2011-24-0141
In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Simulation to Develop an Active Roll Control System

2007-04-16
2007-01-0828
Active Roll Control (ARC) is one of the most promising active systems to improve vehicle comfort and handling. This paper describes the simulation based procedure adopted to conceive a double-channel Active Roll Control system, characterized by the hydraulic actuation of the stabilizer bars of a sedan. The first part of the paper presents the vehicle model adopted for this activity. It is Base Model Simulator (BMS), the 14 Degrees-of-Freedom vehicle model by Politecnico di Torino. It was validated through road tests. Then the paper describes the development of the control algorithm adopted to improve the roll dynamics of the vehicle. The implemented control algorithm is characterized by a first subsystem, capable of obtaining the desired values of body roll angle as a function of lateral acceleration during semi-stationary maneuvers.
Journal Article

Use of an Innovative Predictive Heat Release Model Combined to a 1D Fluid-Dynamic Model for the Simulation of a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0012
An innovative 0D predictive combustion model for the simulation of the HRR (heat release rate) in DI diesel engines was assessed and implemented in a 1D fluid-dynamic commercial code for the simulation of a Fiat heavy duty diesel engine equipped with a Variable Geometry Turbocharger system, in the frame of the CORE (CO2 reduction for long distance transport) Collaborative Project of the European Community, VII FP. The 0D combustion approach starts from the calculation of the injection rate profile on the basis of the injected fuel quantities and on the injection parameters, such as the start of injection and the energizing time, taking the injector opening and closure delays into account. The injection rate profile in turn allows the released chemical energy to be estimated. The approach assumes that HRR is proportional to the energy associated with the accumulated fuel mass in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of a Cast Iron Exhaust Manifold: a Comparison Between the Traditional and a New Methodology

2010-04-12
2010-01-0498
Thermo-structural analysis of components is usually carried out by means of two FE models, one that solves the thermal problem and one that, using the results of the thermal model, computes strains and stresses. The interaction between the two models is based on the superposition principle, but it means that the mutual effects and the non-linearities between the two physical problems are neglected. In this paper a multiphysics approach based on the Cell Method is proposed and it is applied to a time dependent thermo-mechanical case study represented by an exhaust manifold simulacrum: the coupled thermal and mechanical problems are solved in an unique run, giving the opportunity to take into account mutual effects. Comparing the results with the traditional FE analysis the advantages in terms of accuracy and computational time achieved through the proposed methodology are highlighted.
Journal Article

Theoretical and Experimental Flutter Predictions in High Aspect Ratio Composite Wings

2011-10-18
2011-01-2722
Next generation of composite civil aircrafts and unconventional configurations, such as High Altitude Long Endurance HALE-UAV, exhibit aeroelastic instabilities quite different from their rigid counterparts. Consequently, one has to deal with phenomena not usually considered in classical aircraft design. Alternative design criteria are needed in order to maintain the safety levels imposed by the regulations and required for certification. The A2-Net-Team project aims to build a multi-disciplinary network of researchers with complementary expertise to develop analytical methods used for a better understanding and assessment of the factors contributing to the occurrence of critical aeroservoelastic instabilities. Along with modeling and numerical investigations a test article will also provide the opportunity to modify and calibrate theoretical models, to highlight and explore their limits, to recommend the necessary modifications and future pertinent investigations.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Supersonic Stream on the Dependence "Amplitude-Frequency" of Nonlinear Vibrations of Flexible Plate

2013-09-17
2013-01-2160
The stability analysis of plates and shells in high speed flow deals with the determination of the flutter instability boundary. A linear analysis is made using the basic principles of the theory of aero-elasticity of isotropic bodies, the theories of flexible plates, the stability equations and associated boundary conditions obtained through a linear formulation. Herein, the nonlinear stability of flexible plate immersed in a high speed gas flow is considered. The model takes into account quadratic and cubic aerodynamic nonlinearities as well as cubic geometric nonlinearities. It is shown that the inclusion of quadratic aerodynamic nonlinear components can lead to the appearance of “amplitude-frequency” phenomena in both the pre-critical as well as in the post-critical flow speed regimes. The influence of the free stream flow speed on the “amplitude-frequency” dependence phenomena is also presented.
Technical Paper

Supercar Hybridization: A Synergic Path to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Improve Performance

2018-05-30
2018-37-0009
The trend towards powertrain electrification is expected to grow significantly in the next future also for super-cars. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess, through numerical simulation, the impact on both fuel economy and performance of different 48 Volt mild hybrid architectures for a high-performance sport car featuring a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition (TDISI) engine. In particular the hybrid functionalities of both a P0 (Belt Alternator Starter - BAS) and a P2 (Flywheel Alternator Starter - FAS) architecture were investigated and optimized for this kind of application through a global optimization algorithm. The analysis pointed out CO2 emission reductions potential of about 6% and 25% on NEDC, 7% and 28% on WLTC for P0 and P2 respectively. From the performance perspective, a 10% reduction in the time-to-torque was highlighted for both architectures in a load step maneuver at 2000 RPM constant speed.
Technical Paper

Steering Feedback Torque Definition and Generation in a Steer by Wire System

2008-04-14
2008-01-0498
Steer by wire (SbW) system is examined, considering the positive effects of the lack of direct mechanical connection between steering wheel and rack. SbW system's steering wheel has to generate a resistant torque which adds to the friction one. Such torque must be felt as natural by the average driver and carry information about vehicle dynamic condition. System prototype is obtained from a classical steering system. Steering wheel is linked to a brushless 12V DC current electric motor designed to develop resistance torque, after steering column is removed, triple stadium planetary gear is necessary to increase the torque output. A hardware in the loop test bench is realized in order to test feedback torque generation and steering wheel efficiency influence on vehicle behaviour. Steering wheel is fixed to the bench and its rotation acquired by an optic encoder. Steering wheel angle is used as input for a ten degrees of freedom vehicle model through an acquisition data board.
Journal Article

Sideslip Angle Estimation of a Formula SAE Racing Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1662
A method for estimating the sideslip angle of a Formula SAE vehicle with torque vectoring is presented. Torque vectoring introduces large tire longitudinal forces which lead to a reduction of the tire lateral forces. A novel tire model is utilized to represent this reduction of the lateral forces. The estimation is realized using an extended Kalman filter which takes in standard sensor measurements. The developed algorithm is tested by simulating slalom and figure eight maneuvers on a validated VI-CarRealTime vehicle model. Results indicate that the algorithm is able to estimate the sideslip angle of the vehicle reliably on a high friction surface track.
Technical Paper

Shock Absorber Modeling and Experimental Testing

2007-04-16
2007-01-0855
Simulation is becoming the fundamental tool to design the main components of a vehicle. The paper describes the shock absorber model which was implemented by the Vehicle Dynamics Research Team of Politecnico di Torino. It is a modular model which can be adopted both for mono-tube and twin-tube shock absorbers. It can be used at different levels of approximation, as a function of the kind of user and his/her targets. The main data which have to be inserted in the model are fluid properties, the basic dimensions of the component and the characteristics of the orifices of the shock absorber. An experimental test bench was conceived to obtain the diagrams plotting flow rate through an orifice of a shock absorber versus the pressure drop between input and output ports. The test rig and the procedure to perform the experimental tests and insert the results in the shock absorber model are described in detail.
Technical Paper

Road to Virtual Tuning: New Physical Lump Model and Test Protocol to Support Damper Tuning in Hyundai Motor Europe Technical Center

2019-04-02
2019-01-0855
Vehicle dynamics is a fundamental part of vehicle performance. It combines functional requirements (i.e. road safety) with emotional content (“fun to drive”, “comfort”): this balance is what characterizes the car manufacturer (OEM) driving DNA. To reach the customer requirements on Ride & Handling, integration of CAE and testing is mandatory. Beside of cutting costs and time, simulation helps to break down vehicle requirements to component level. On chassis, the damper is the most important component, contributing to define the character of the vehicle, and it is defined late, during tuning, mainly by experienced drivers. Usually 1D lookup tables Force vs. Velocity, generated from tests like the standard VDA, are not able to describe the full behavior of the damper: different dampers display the same Force vs. Velocity curve but they can give different feeling to the driver.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Shock Absorbers and the Role of the Motion Rectifier

2016-04-05
2016-01-1552
The development of suspension systems has seen substantial improvements in the last years due to the use of variable dampers. Furthermore, the efficiency increase in the subsystems within the automotive chassis has led to the use of regenerative solutions, in which electric machines can be employed as generators to recover part of the energy otherwise dissipated. However, the harvesting capability of regenerative suspensions is often limited by friction and inertial phenomena. The former ones waste mechanical energy into heat, while the latter ones hamper the shock absorption by locking the suspension when subject to dynamic excitation. Besides a suitable design and sizing of components, recent research works highlight the use of the so-called motion rectifier to improve energy recovery by constraining the motion of the electric motor to a single sense of rotation.
Technical Paper

Racing Simulation of a Formula 1 Vehicle with Kinetic Energy Recovery System

2008-12-02
2008-01-2964
This paper deals with the development of a Lap Time Simulator in order to carry out a first approximate evaluation of the potential benefits related to the adoption of the Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS). KERS will be introduced in the 2009 Formula 1 Season. This system will be able to store energy during braking and then use it in order to supply an extra acceleration during traction. Different technologies (e.g. electrical, hydraulic and mechanical) could be applied in order to achieve this target. The lap time simulator developed by the authors permits to investigate the advantages both in terms of fuel consumption reduction and the improvement of the lap time.
Journal Article

Pressure Following Strategy for Conventional Braking Control Applied to a HIL Test Bench

2017-09-17
2017-01-2496
Brake systems represent important components for passenger cars since they are strictly related to vehicle safety: Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) are the most well-known examples. The paper is focused on the characterization of the braking hydraulic plant and on the design of a pressure following control strategy. This strategy is aimed at pursuing performances and/or comfort objectives beyond the typical safety task. The low-level logic (focus of the paper) consists of a Feedforward and Proportional Integral controller. A Hardware In the Loop (HIL) braking test bench is adopted for pressure controller validation by providing some realistic reference pressure histories evaluated by a high-level controller. Results prove that innovative control strategies can be applied to conventional braking systems for achieving targets not limited to braking issues, i.e., comfort or NVH tasks.
Technical Paper

Performance Optimization for the XAM Hybrid Electric Vehicle Prototype

2012-04-16
2012-01-0773
Given the ever-increasing concern about environmental issues, the automotive industry is focusing on the development of innovative technologies that allow reduction of gas emissions and fuel consumption. Over the last few years, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) and Fuel Cell Vehicles have been developed as the most promising alternative solutions for many car manufacturers. Although fuel cells are considered as the best technology to have zero emission, the impact on infrastructure for a large-scale deployment is not yet solved. For this reason, HEV represent a valid shorter-term alternative that guarantees drastic emissions reduction and reduced fuel consumption with a much lower infrastructural impact. This paper reports the results obtained by the optimization of the emissions and fuel performances of a hybrid electric city vehicle for urban transportation named XAM (eXtreme Automotive Mobility). In order to optimize these performances, a 1D model of the vehicle has been created.
Technical Paper

Pem Fuel Cell Performance Under Particular Operating Conditions Causing the Production of Liquid Water: A Morphing on Bipolar Plate's Channels Approach

2011-04-12
2011-01-1349
A fuel-cell-based system's performance is mainly identified in the overall efficiency, strongly depending on the amount of power losses due to auxiliary devices to supply. In such a situation, everything that causes either a decrease of the available power output or an increment of auxiliary losses would determine a sensible overall efficiency reduction.
Journal Article

On the Contact Interfaces between the Driver and the Vehicle Seat

2013-04-08
2013-01-0455
In mathematical and mechanical modeling terms, automotive seating is characterized by boundary conditions at the nonlinear contact interfaces. These contact interfaces are subjected to vibro-impacts (slaps) and frictional slips. The slaps occur in contact interfaces at high amplitude vibrations, being characterized by very short duration, rapid dissipation of energy and large accelerations and decelerations. By considering friction in contact interface modeling, the simulation of the interaction between the driver and the vehicle seat becomes more realistic. Vibro-impacts and frictional slips can be simultaneously developed in a contact surface. The boundary conditions identification for a seat and a wide range of drivers' body types is performed using the concept of interference distance or penetration. The interference distance is introduced as an optimization problem. It is shown that the optimization problem provides robust solutions to minimum distance and interference problems.
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