Water Injection Contribution to Enabling Stoichiometric Air-to-Fuel Ratio Operation at Rated Power Conditions of a High-Performance DISI Single Cylinder Engine
The next generation of gasoline turbo-charged engines will have to deal with the continuous tightening of emissions regulations. In fact, to better represent real-world emission figures, WLTP and RDE cycles focus on stricter criteria; spanning higher speeds and loads potentially covering the whole engine operating map. It is common practice at present to use overfueling to avoid catastrophic failure of turbine and aftertreatment systems at very high engine speeds and loads due to excessive temperatures. A past technology, which is presently enjoying a resurgence of interest, is water injection. In particular, for high-specific-power applications, this could be used as replacement strategy for overfueling, potentially enabling full operating range stoichiometric operation with no compromise in terms of maximum performance with respect to today.