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Technical Paper

Virtual Set-up of a Racing Engine for the Optimization of Lap Performance through a Comprehensive Engine-Vehicle-Driver Model

In Motorsports the understanding of the real engine performance within a complete circuit lap is a crucial topic. On the basis of the telemetry data the engineers are able to monitor this performance and try to adapt the engine to the vehicle's and race track's characteristics and driver's needs. However, quite often the telemetry is the sole analysis instrument for the Engine-Vehicle-Driver (EVD) system and it has no prediction capability. The engine optimization for best lap-time or best fuel economy is therefore a topic which is not trivial to solve, without the aid of suitable, reliable and predictive engineering tools. A complete EVD model was therefore built in a GT-SUITE™ environment for a Motorsport racing car (STCC-VW-Scirocco) equipped with a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) turbocharged S.I. engine and calibrated on the basis of telemetry and test bench data.
Technical Paper

Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of a Cast Iron Exhaust Manifold: a Comparison Between the Traditional and a New Methodology

Thermo-structural analysis of components is usually carried out by means of two FE models, one that solves the thermal problem and one that, using the results of the thermal model, computes strains and stresses. The interaction between the two models is based on the superposition principle, but it means that the mutual effects and the non-linearities between the two physical problems are neglected. In this paper a multiphysics approach based on the Cell Method is proposed and it is applied to a time dependent thermo-mechanical case study represented by an exhaust manifold simulacrum: the coupled thermal and mechanical problems are solved in an unique run, giving the opportunity to take into account mutual effects. Comparing the results with the traditional FE analysis the advantages in terms of accuracy and computational time achieved through the proposed methodology are highlighted.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Electric Exhaust Gas Turbocharging for HD Diesel Engines

The potential of an electric assisted turbocharger for a heavy-duty diesel engine has been analyzed in this work, in order to evaluate the turbo-lag reductions and the fuel consumption savings that could be obtained in an urban bus for different operating conditions. The aim of the research project was to replace the current variable geometry turbine with a fixed geometry turbine, connecting an electric machine which can be operated both as an electric motor and as an electric generator to the turbo shaft. The electric motor can be used to speed up the turbocharger during the acceleration transients and reduce the turbo-lag, while the generator can be used to recover the excess exhaust energy when the engine is operated near the rated speed, in order to produce electrical power that can be used to drive engine auxiliaries. In this way the engine efficiency can be improved and a kind of “electric turbocompounding” can be obtained.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Crankcase Clearance Volume on Two-Stroke S.I. Engine Performance

The performance of two-stroke spark-ignition engines is greatly influenced by the scavenging process The variation of the crankcase clearance volume has here been investigated as a method for engine-load reduction. This method allows the reduction of the load without throttling or only by partial throttling with a theoretical increase of the engine efficiency. A comparison of two methods (air throttling and crankcase clearance volume variation) has therefore been carried out. The reduction of pumping work, due to the use of the variable crankcase clearance volume, has not always caused a consequent reduction of the specific fuel consumption. This is mainly due to deterioration of the scavenging process and to the occurrence of pre-ignition which occur above all at light loads.
Technical Paper

The Impact of WLTP on the Official Fuel Consumption and Electric Range of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Europe

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) are one of the main technology options for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and helping vehicle manufacturers (OEMs) to meet the CO2 targets set by different Governments from all around the world. In Europe OEMs have introduced a number of PHEV models to meet their CO2 target of 95 g/km for passenger cars set for the year 2021. Fuel consumption (FC) and CO2 emissions from PHEVs, however, strongly depend on the way they are used and on the frequency with which their battery is charged by the user. Studies have indeed revealed that in real life, with poor charging behavior from users, PHEV FC is equivalent to that of conventional vehicles, and in some cases higher, due to the increased mass and the need to keep the battery at a certain charging level.
Journal Article

The Effects of Neat Biodiesel Usage on Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a Small Displacement Passenger Car Diesel Engine

The effects of using neat FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) in a modern small displacement passenger car diesel engine have been evaluated in this paper. In particular the effects on engine performance at full load with standard (i.e., without any special tuning) ECU calibration were analyzed, highlighting some issues in the low end torque due to the lower exhaust gas temperatures at the turbine inlet, which caused a remarkable decrease of the available boost, with a substantial decrease of the engine torque output, far beyond the expected engine derating due to the lower LHV of the fuel. However, further tests carried out after ECU recalibration, showed that the same torque levels measured under diesel operation can be obtained with neat biodiesel too, thus highlighting the potential for maintaining the same level of performance.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Post Injection Coupled with Extremely High Injection Pressure on Combustion Process and Emission Formation in an Off-Road Diesel Engine: A Numerical and Experimental Investigation

In this paper, a numerical and experimental assessment of post injection potential for soot emissions mitigation in an off-road diesel engine is presented, with the aim of supporting hardware selection and engine calibration processes. As a case study, a prototype off-road 3.4 liters 4-cylinder diesel engine developed by Kohler Engines was selected. In order to explore the possibility to comply with Stage V emission standards without a dedicated aftertreatment for NOx, the engine was equipped with a low pressure cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR), allowing high EGR rates (above 30%) even at high load. To enable the exploitation of such high EGR rates with acceptable soot penalties, a two-stage turbocharger and an extremely high-pressure fuel injection system (up to 3000 bar) were adopted. Moreover, post injections events were also exploited to further mitigate soot emissions with acceptable Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) penalties.
Technical Paper

The Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment (DEXA) Cluster: A Systematic Approach to Diesel Particulate Emission Control in Europe

The DEXA Cluster consisted of three closely interlinked projects. In 2003 the DEXA Cluster concluded by demonstrating the successful development of critical technologies for Diesel exhaust particulate after-treatment, without adverse effects on NOx emissions and maintaining the fuel economy advantages of the Diesel engine well beyond the EURO IV (2000) emission standards horizon. In the present paper the most important results of the DEXA Cluster projects in the demonstration of advanced particulate control technologies, the development of a simulation toolkit for the design of diesel exhaust after-treatment systems and the development of novel particulate characterization methodologies, are presented. The motivation for the DEXA Cluster research was to increase the market competitiveness of diesel engine powertrains for passenger cars worldwide, and to accelerate the adoption of particulate control technology.
Technical Paper

Supercar Hybridization: A Synergic Path to Reduce Fuel Consumption and Improve Performance

The trend towards powertrain electrification is expected to grow significantly in the next future also for super-cars. The aim of this paper is therefore to assess, through numerical simulation, the impact on both fuel economy and performance of different 48 Volt mild hybrid architectures for a high-performance sport car featuring a Turbocharged Direct Injection Spark Ignition (TDISI) engine. In particular the hybrid functionalities of both a P0 (Belt Alternator Starter - BAS) and a P2 (Flywheel Alternator Starter - FAS) architecture were investigated and optimized for this kind of application through a global optimization algorithm. The analysis pointed out CO2 emission reductions potential of about 6% and 25% on NEDC, 7% and 28% on WLTC for P0 and P2 respectively. From the performance perspective, a 10% reduction in the time-to-torque was highlighted for both architectures in a load step maneuver at 2000 RPM constant speed.
Technical Paper

Structural and Aerodynamics Analysis on Different Architectures for the Elettra Twin Flyer Prototype

This paper deals with the design and development of an innovative airship concept which is remotely-controlled and intended to be used for monitoring, surveillance, exploration and reconnaissance missions. Two potential solutions have been analyzed: the first consists of a double-hull configuration, characterized by the presence of a primary support structure connected by appropriated bindings to a couple of twin inflatable hulls. The second architecture is a soap-shaped exoskeleton configuration which features a single inflated section, incorporating two separate elements held internally by a system of ribs. The aim of this study is to analyze and compare the two configurations, to determine the most appropriate solution in terms of performance, cost and maneuvering capabilities
Journal Article

Steady-State and Transient Operations of a Euro VI 3.0L HD Diesel Engine with Innovative Model-Based and Pressure-Based Combustion Control Techniques

In the present work, different combustion control strategies have been experimentally tested in a heavy-duty 3.0 L Euro VI diesel engine. In particular, closed-loop pressure-based and open-loop model-based techniques, able to perform a real-time control of the center of combustion (MFB50), have been compared with the standard map-based engine calibration in order to highlight their potentialities. In the pressure-based technique, the instantaneous measurement of in-cylinder pressure signal is performed by a pressure transducer, from which the MFB50 can be directly calculated and the start of the injection of the main pulse (SOImain) is set in a closed-loop control to reach the MFB50 target, while the model-based approach exploits a heat release rate predictive model to estimate the MFB50 value and sets the corresponding SOImain in an open-loop control. The experimental campaign involved both steady-state and transient tests.
Technical Paper

Speed and Acceleration Impact on Pollutant Emissions

This paper intends to analyze the simultaneous impact of speed and acceleration on exhaust pollutant emissions. For this purpose, actual driving recording were used. Kinematic sequences were randomly selected amongst the recorded data, in order to constitute a representative set of driving conditions. For each sequence, average levels of speed and positive acceleration were calculated. Instantaneous and integrated pollutant emissions were calculated using an existing emission model, developed for calculating pollutant emissions and fuel consumption as functions of instantaneous speed and acceleration. This model is based on instantaneous emission measurements on a chassis dynamometer using actual driving cycles, over a sample of 150 European cars. Emissions of CO, CO2, HC, NOx were analyzed considering the average speed and positive acceleration, for different categories of vehicles Diesel, conventional and catalyst vehicles.
Technical Paper

Road to Virtual Tuning: New Physical Lump Model and Test Protocol to Support Damper Tuning in Hyundai Motor Europe Technical Center

Vehicle dynamics is a fundamental part of vehicle performance. It combines functional requirements (i.e. road safety) with emotional content (“fun to drive”, “comfort”): this balance is what characterizes the car manufacturer (OEM) driving DNA. To reach the customer requirements on Ride & Handling, integration of CAE and testing is mandatory. Beside of cutting costs and time, simulation helps to break down vehicle requirements to component level. On chassis, the damper is the most important component, contributing to define the character of the vehicle, and it is defined late, during tuning, mainly by experienced drivers. Usually 1D lookup tables Force vs. Velocity, generated from tests like the standard VDA, are not able to describe the full behavior of the damper: different dampers display the same Force vs. Velocity curve but they can give different feeling to the driver.
Technical Paper

Reduction in Pollutant Emissions in an “Off-Road” DI Diesel Engine by Means of Exhaust Gas Recirculation

The aim of this work was to obtain a reduction in pollutant emissions, in particular for NOx and Soot, in an “Off-Road” DI Diesel Engine, equipped with a common rail injection system, by means of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). First, an engine simulation was performed using a one-dimensional code, and the model was then calibrated with experimental results obtained from a previous research work conducted on bench tests. Thanks to the engine model, specific emissions were then determined in all conditions, that is, in “eight modes” pertaining to engine loads and speeds. Both the injection advance and EGR amount were changed for all of these conditions in order to obtain the best compromise between fuel consumption and emissions and to respect standard regulations. The investigation was performed using both the Wiebe and a more complex combustion models; this latter allows in fact to determine the soot emission through the Nagle-Strickland model.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Predictive Modeling of Combustion and NOx Formation in Diesel Engines Under Transient Conditions

The present work has the aim of developing a fast approach for the predictive calculation of in-cylinder combustion temperatures and NOx formation in diesel engines, under steady state and transient conditions. The model has been tested on a PC, and found to require very little computational time, thus suggesting it could be implemented in the ECU (Engine Control Unit) of engines for model-based control tasks. The method starts with the low-throughput predictive combustion model that was previously developed by the authors, which allows the predictive estimation of the heat-release rate and of the in-cylinder pressure trace to be made on the basis of the injection parameters and of a few quantities measured by the ECU, such as the intake manifold pressure and temperature.
Technical Paper

Racing Simulation of a Formula 1 Vehicle with Kinetic Energy Recovery System

This paper deals with the development of a Lap Time Simulator in order to carry out a first approximate evaluation of the potential benefits related to the adoption of the Kinetic Energy Recovery System (KERS). KERS will be introduced in the 2009 Formula 1 Season. This system will be able to store energy during braking and then use it in order to supply an extra acceleration during traction. Different technologies (e.g. electrical, hydraulic and mechanical) could be applied in order to achieve this target. The lap time simulator developed by the authors permits to investigate the advantages both in terms of fuel consumption reduction and the improvement of the lap time.
Journal Article

Potentialities of Boot Injection Combined with After Shot for the Optimization of Pollutant Emissions, Fuel Consumption and Combustion Noise in Passenger Car Diesel Engines

The present paper illustrates an investigation about the potentialities of injection rate shaping coupled with an after injection. A pilot shot can either be absent or present before the rate-shaped boot injection. The experimental tests have been performed on a partial PCCI Euro 5 diesel engine endowed with direct-acting piezoelectric injectors. Starting from optimized triple pilot-main-after injection strategies, boot injection was implemented by maintaining the direct-acting piezo injector needle open at part lift. The results of two steady state working conditions have been presented in terms of engine-out emissions, combustion noise and brake specific fuel consumption. In addition, in-cylinder analyses of the pressure, heat-release rate, temperature and emissions have been evaluated. Considering the in-cylinder pressure traces and the heat release rate curves, the injection rate shaping proved to influence combustion in the absence of a pilot injection to a great extent.
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of a Turbocharged Spark Ignition Engine Fuelled with CNG and CNG/Hydrogen Blends

An experimental investigation was performed on a turbocharged spark-ignition 4-cylinder production engine fuelled with natural gas and with two blends of natural gas and hydrogen (15% and 25% in volume of H₂). The engine was purposely designed to give optimal performance when running on CNG. The first part of the experimental campaign was carried out at MBT timing under stoichiometric conditions: load sweeps at constant engine speed and speed sweeps at constant load were performed. Afterwards, spark advance sweeps and relative air/fuel ratio sweeps were acquired at constant engine speed and load. The three fuels were compared in terms of performance (fuel conversion efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, brake specific energy consumption and indicated mean effective pressure) and brake specific emissions (THC, NOx, CO).
Technical Paper

Performance and Emission Comparison between a Conventional Euro VI Diesel Engine and an Optimized PCCI Version and Effect of EGR Cooler Fouling on PCCI Combustion

Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) is an advanced combustion mode that has the aim of simultaneously reducing particulate matter and nitrogen oxide exhaust emissions, compared with conventional diesel combustion, thanks to a partially premixed charge and low temperature combustion. In this work, PCCI combustion has been implemented by means of an early single-injection strategy and large amounts of recirculated exhaust gas. Starting from a commercial Euro VI on-road engine, the engine hardware has been modified to optimize PCCI operations. This has involved adopting a smaller turbo group, a new combustion chamber and injectors, and a dedicated high-pressure exhaust gas recirculation system. The results, in terms of engine performance and exhaust emissions, under steady-state operation conditions, are presented in this work, where the original Euro VI calibration of the conventional engine has been compared with the PCCI calibration of the optimized hardware engine.
Technical Paper

Performance Optimization for the XAM Hybrid Electric Vehicle Prototype

Given the ever-increasing concern about environmental issues, the automotive industry is focusing on the development of innovative technologies that allow reduction of gas emissions and fuel consumption. Over the last few years, Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV) and Fuel Cell Vehicles have been developed as the most promising alternative solutions for many car manufacturers. Although fuel cells are considered as the best technology to have zero emission, the impact on infrastructure for a large-scale deployment is not yet solved. For this reason, HEV represent a valid shorter-term alternative that guarantees drastic emissions reduction and reduced fuel consumption with a much lower infrastructural impact. This paper reports the results obtained by the optimization of the emissions and fuel performances of a hybrid electric city vehicle for urban transportation named XAM (eXtreme Automotive Mobility). In order to optimize these performances, a 1D model of the vehicle has been created.