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Technical Paper

Using a Statistical Machine Learning Tool for Diesel Engine Air Path Calibration

A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
Technical Paper

The Design and Operation of a Turbocharger Test Facility Designed for Transient Simulation

The turbocharger, consisting of a radial or axial flow turbine and an radial flow compressor presents perhaps one of the most challenging tasks to the turbomachinery designer. Due to the necessity of speed changes in the diesel engine, the turbocharger transits a wide variety of operating points in its normal operation. During an engine speed acceleration or deceleration there will be a lag in the required air delivery to the engine, resulting in increased smoke emission and limiting the power delivered by the engine. In order to investigate the dynamic performance of a turbocharged engine, an essential first step must be the development of an adequate model for transient characteristics of the turbocharger. One of the significant problems that must be overcome for the modeling effort to be successful is a detailed experimental description of the transient performance of the device.
Technical Paper

Potentials of Electrical Assist and Variable Geometry Turbocharging System for Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Downsizing

Diesel engine downsizing aimed at reducing fuel consumption while meeting stringent exhaust emissions regulations is currently in high demand. The boost system architecture plays an essential role in providing adequate air flow rate for diesel fuel combustion while avoiding impaired transient response of the downsized engine. Electric Turbocharger Assist (ETA) technology integrates an electric motor/generator with the turbocharger to provide electrical power to assist compressor work or to electrically recover excess turbine power. Additionally, a variable geometry turbine (VGT) is able to bring an extra degree of freedom for the boost system optimization. The electrically-assisted turbocharger, coupled with VGT, provides an illuminating opportunity to increase the diesel engine power density and enhance the downsized engine transient response. This paper assesses the potential benefits of the electrically-assisted turbocharger with VGT to enable heavy-duty diesel engine downsizing.
Technical Paper

Particle Image Velocimetry Characterization of a Turbocharger Turbine Inlet Flow

Modern diesel engines typically utilize pulse-turbocharging where an increase in exhaust gas transport efficiency is achieved at the expense of creating a highly unsteady flow through the turbine which may have a detrimental effect on turbine performance. As the turbocharger plays a major role in the performance and emissions of the engine system, the characterization of on-engine turbocharger aerodynamics is critical. Thus, this paper is directed at the investigation of the turbocharger turbine volute inlet flowfield on an in-line, six cylinder, diesel engine. Specifically, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV), a quantitative non-intrusive whole flowfield measurement technique, is used to perform a detailed study of the on-engine pulsating flowfield at the volute inlet of the twin-entry turbocharger turbine.
Technical Paper

On-Engine Turbocharger Turbine Inlet Flow Characterization

Increased power and fuel efficiency requirements ofmodern vehicle diesel engines have lead to wide pread use of turbocharging to increase engine power-to-weight ratio. Typically, these systems employ pulse-turbocharging where an increase in exhaust gas transport efficiency is achieved at the expense of creating a highly unsteady flow through the turbine. This imposed unsteadiness is known to have a significant effect on turbine performance. To date, research performed to quantify the effects of exhaust pulsations on the performance of radial turbocharger turbines has been performed in off-engine facilities which simulate the engine manifold conditions. However, to better gauge the applicability of these data, a detailed investigation into the actual on-engine turbocharger operating environment is required. Research at Purdue University is focused on the characterization of the nature of the on-engine turbine operating environment and how it relates to turbocharger performance.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Electric Turbo Compound Technology

A cooperative program between the DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology and Caterpillar is aimed at demonstrating electric turbo compound technology on a Class 8 truck engine. The goal is to demonstrate the level of fuel efficiency improvement attainable with an electric turbocompound system. The system consists of a turbocharger with an electric motor/generator integrated into the turbo shaft. The generator extracts surplus power at the turbine, and the electricity it produces is used to run a motor mounted on the engine crankshaft, recovering otherwise wasted energy in the exhaust gases. The electric turbocompound system also provides more control flexibility in that the amount of power extracted can be varied. This allows for control of engine boost and thus air/fuel ratio. The paper presents the status of development of an electric turbocompound system for a Caterpillar heavy-duty on-highway truck engine.
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Dynamics Analysis for Electrified Turbocharged Diesel Engines

Engine electrification is a critical technology in the promotion of engine fuel efficiency, among which the electrified turbocharger is regarded as the promising solution in engine downsizing. By installing electrical devices on the turbocharger, the excess energy can be captured, stored, and re-used. The electrified turbocharger consists of a variable geometry turbocharger (VGT) and an electric motor (EM) within the turbocharger bearing housing, where the EM is capable in bi-directional power transfer. The VGT, EM, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve all impact the dynamics of air path. In this paper, the dynamics in an electrified turbocharged diesel engine (ETDE), especially the couplings between different loops in the air path is analyzed. Furthermore, an explicit principle in selecting control variables is proposed. Based on the analysis, a model-based multi-input multi-output (MIMO) decoupling controller is designed to regulate the air path dynamics.
Technical Paper

Characterization and Modeling of Turbocharger Dynamic Performance

The range of applications of heavy duty diesel engines is quite diverse. The development of diesel engines has been characterized by a steady increase in power to weight ratios, with the turbocharger being the key component in achieving this increased performance. The turbocharger, consisting of a radial or axial flow turbine and a radial flow compressor, presents perhaps one of the most challenging tasks facing the turbomachinery designer. This is, to a p a t extent, due to the highly unsteady environment in which the turbocharger operates. The time scales of this unsteadiness range fiom those on the order of exhaust valve frequency to those associated with transient operation during acceleration and deceleration. In order to predict the time-accurate performance of the turbocharger in this environment, a range of dynamic models can be envisioned spanning the range from quasi-steady assumptions to full viscous flow solvers.
Technical Paper

Applying Ball Bearings to the Series Turbochargers for the Caterpillar® Heavy-Duty On-Highway Truck Engines

Fuel is a significant portion of the operating cost for an on-highway diesel engine and fuel economy is important to the economics of shipping most goods in North America. Cat® ACERT™ engine technology is no exception. Ball bearings have been applied to the series turbochargers for the Caterpillar heavy-duty, on-highway diesel truck engines in order to reduce mechanical loss for improved efficiency and lower fuel consumption. Over many years of turbocharger development, much effort has been put into improving the aerodynamic efficiency of the compressor and turbine stages. Over the same span of time, the mechanical bearing losses of a turbocharger have not experienced a significant reduction in power consumption. Most turbochargers continue to use conventional hydrodynamic radial and thrust bearings to support the rotor. While these conventional bearings provide a low cost solution, they do create significant mechanical loss.