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Journal Article

Transient, Three Dimensional CFD Model of the Complete Engine Lubrication System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1091
This paper reports on a comprehensive, crank-angle transient, three dimensional, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the complete lubrication system of a multi-cylinder engine using the CFD software Simerics-Sys / PumpLinx. This work represents an advance in system-level modeling of the engine lubrication system over the current state of the art of one-dimensional models. The model was applied to a 16 cylinder, reciprocating internal combustion engine lubrication system. The computational domain includes the positive displacement gear pump, the pressure regulation valve, bearings, piston pins, piston cooling jets, the oil cooler, the oil filter etc… The motion of the regulation valve was predicted by strongly coupling a rigorous force balance on the valve to the flow.
Technical Paper

Sound Transmission Through Primary Bulb Rubber Sealing Systems

1997-05-20
971903
Structural sound transmission through primary bulb (PB) sealing systems was investigated. A two-degrees-of-freedom analytical model was developed to predict the sound transmission characteristics of a PB seal assembly. Detailed sound transmission measurements were made for two different random excitations: acoustic and aerodynamic. A reverberation room method was first used, whereby a seal sample installed within a test fixture was excited by a diffuse sound field. A quiet flow facility was then used to create aerodynamic pressure fluctuations which acted as the excitation. The space-averaged input pressure within the pseudo door gap cavity and the sound pressure transmitted on the quiescent side of the seal were obtained in each case for different cavity dimensions, seal compression, and seal designs. The sound transmission predictions obtained from the lumped element model were found to be in reasonable agreement with measured values.
Technical Paper

Recent Advancements in I.C. Engine Robust Speed Controllers

1997-04-01
971568
Presented in this paper is a nonlinear modeling and a controller design methodology for engine control. For illustrative purposes, the methodology is applied to the idle speed of a Ford 4.6L-2 valve V-8 fuel injected engine. The nonlinear model of the engine is based on a Hammerstein type model which is identified through input-output data without a priori knowledge of the engine dynamics. The nonlinear model is subsequently used in a frequency domain controller design methodology to achieve the performance goal of maintaining the engine idle speed within a prespecified asymmetric output tolerance despite external torque disturbances. An experimental verification of the proposed control law is included.
Technical Paper

Pressure Fluctuations in a Flow-Excited Door Gap Cavity Model

1997-05-20
971923
The flow-induced pressure fluctuations in a door gap cavity model were investigated experimentally using a quiet wind tunnel facility. The cavity cross-section dimensions were typical of road vehicle door cavities, but the span was only 25 cm. One cavity wall included a primary bulb rubber seal. A microphone array was used to measure the cavity pressure field over a range of flow velocities and cavity configurations. It was found that the primary excitation mechanism was an “edge tone” phenomenon. Cavity resonance caused amplification around discrete frequencies, but did not cause the flow disturbances to lock-on. Possible fluid-elastic coupling related to the presence of a compliant wall was not significant. A linear spectral decomposition method was then used to characterize the cavity pressure in the frequency domain, as the product of a source spectral distribution function and an acoustic frequency response function.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Hydraulic Valve Design Using CFD Analysis

2005-11-01
2005-01-3633
The design of a pressure compensated hydraulic valve is optimized using CFD analysis. The valve is used in a hydraulic system to control implement movement. High flow rates through the valve resulted in unacceptably high pressure drops, leading to an effort to optimize the valve design. Redesign of the valve had to be achieved under the constraint of minimal manufacturing cost. The flow path of hydraulic oil through the valve, the spool design, and various components of the valve that caused the high pressure drops were targeted in this analysis. A commercially available CFD package was used for the 3D analysis. The hydraulic oil flow was assumed to be turbulent, isothermal and incompressible. The steady-state results were validated by comparison with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Nozzle Effect on High Pressure Diesel Injection

1995-02-01
950083
Studies of transient diesel spray characteristics at high injection pressures were conducted in a constant volume chamber by utilizing a high speed photography and light extinction optical diagnostic technique. Two different types of nozzle hole entrances were investigated: a sharp-edged and a round-edged nozzle. The experimental results show that for the same injection delivery, the sharp-edged inlet injector needed a higher injection pressure to overcome the higher friction loss, but it produced longer spray tip penetration length, larger spray angle, smaller droplet sizes, and also lower particulate emission from a parallel engine test. For the round-edged and smooth edged tips at the same injection pressure, the sharp-edged inlet tip took a longer injection duration to deliver a fixed mass of fuel and produced larger overall average Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) droplets.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Modeling and Control of I.C. Engine Idle Speed

1997-02-24
970512
Presented in this paper is the nonlinear modeling and control of the idle speed of a Ford 4.6L-2 valve V-8 fuel injected engine. The nonlinear model of the engine is based on a Hammerstein type model which is identified through input-output data without a priori knowledge of the engine dynamics. The nonlinear model is used in a frequency domain controller design methodology to achieve the performance goal of maintaining the engine idle speed within a prespecified asymmetric output tolerance despite external torque disturbances. An experimental verification of the nonlinear controller is included.
Technical Paper

Machinability of As-Compacted P/M Parts: Effect of Material Chemistry

1998-02-23
980635
Since the advent of P/M technology as a near net shape production process, millions of mechanical components of various shapes and sizes have been produced. Although P/M continues to be one of the fast growing shaping processes, it suffers from the inability to produce intricate geometry's such as internal tapers, threads or recesses perpendicular to pressing direction. In such cases application of machining as a secondary forming operation becomes the preferred alternative. However, machining of P/M parts due to their inherent porosity is known to decrease tool life and increase tool chatter and vibration. Consequently, several attempts have been made to improve the machinability of P/M materials by either addition of machinability enhancing elements such as sulfur, calcium, tellurium, selenium, etc., or by resin impregnation of P/M parts.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Method for Evaluating the Sound Transmission Characteristics of Primary Bulb Body Seals

1996-02-01
960193
A laboratory method was developed to evaluate the sound transmission characteristics of road vehicle body seals. Primary bulb seal samples were mounted in a fixture which approximated the geometry of a typical door-gap cavity. The seal fixture was integrated with a rigid panel into the floor of a quiet, low-speed, closed test-section wind tunnel. Flow-excited pressure fluctuations in the door-gap cavity were induced by the air stream instead of by sound waves in a quiescent environment as in standard transmission loss measurements. A soundproof anechoic enclosure located underneath the test-section floor isolated the sound receiver. The sound level reduction between the cavity pressure and the sound pressure into the enclosure, a quantity directly related to the sound transmission loss (TL) in this case, was measured accurately between the 1250 and 5000 Hz one-third octave bands.
Technical Paper

Interaction Mechanisms between Closely Spaced Sprays

2008-04-14
2008-01-0946
Past experiments have shown that numerous micro-hole sprays in close proximity produce drop sizes that are sensitive to the nozzle arrangement. Numerical studies have been performed to identify the interaction mechanisms between closely spaced sprays. It is shown that nozzle configurations can lower the drop-gas relative velocity and droplet Weber number, leading to reduced atomization intensity. However, the collisions involving droplets from neighboring sprays have a much greater effect on droplet size. Thus, neighboring sprays primarily interfere with each other through droplet collision.
Technical Paper

High Performance Biodegradable Fluid Requirements for Mobile Hydraulic Systems

1998-04-08
981518
Technical groups worldwide have been actively developing specifications and requirements for biodegradable hydraulic fluids for mobile applications. These groups have recognized that an industry-wide specification is necessary due to the increase in environmental awareness in the agriculture, construction, forestry, and mining industries, and to the increasing number of local regulations primarily throughout Europe. Caterpillar has responded to this need by publishing a requirement, Caterpillar BF-1, that may be used by Caterpillar dealers, customers, and industry to help select high-performance biodegradable hydraulic fluids. This requirement was written with the input of several organizations that are known to be involved with the development of similar types of specifications and requirements.
Technical Paper

Electronic Control Module Network and Data Link Development and Validation using Hardware in the Loop Systems

2009-10-06
2009-01-2840
Increasingly, the exchanges of data in complex ECM (Electronic Control Module) systems rely on multiple communication networks across various physical and network layers. This has greatly increased system flexibility and provided an excellent medium to create well-defined exchangeable interfaces between components; however this added flexibility comes with increased network complexity. A system-level approach allows for the optimization of data exchange and network configuration as well as the development of a comprehensive network failure strategy. Many current ECM systems utilize complex multi-network communication strategies to exchange and control data to components. Recently, Caterpillar implemented an HIL (Hardware-In-the-Loop) test system that provides an approach for developing and testing a comprehensive ECM network strategy.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Nozzle Geometry on Spray SMD and D.I. Emissions

1995-10-01
952360
A study was performed to correlate the Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD), NOx and particulate emissions of a direct injection diesel engine with various injection pressures and different nozzle geometry. The spray experiments and engine emission tests were conducted in parallel using the same fuel injection system and same operating conditions. With high speed photography and digital image analysis, a light extinction technique was used to obtain the spray characteristics which included spray tip penetration length, spray angle, and overall average SMD for the entire spray. The NOx and particulate emissions were acquired by running the tests on a fully instrumented Caterpillar 3406 heavy duty engine. Experimental results showed that for higher injection pressures, a smaller SMD was observed, i.e. a finer spray was obtained. For this case, a higher NOx and lower particulate resulted.
Journal Article

Early Direct-Injection, Low-Temperature Combustion of Diesel Fuel in an Optical Engine Utilizing a 15-Hole, Dual-Row, Narrow-Included-Angle Nozzle

2008-10-06
2008-01-2400
Low-temperature combustion of diesel fuel was studied in a heavy-duty, single-cylinder, optical engine employing a 15-hole, dual-row, narrow-included-angle nozzle (10 holes × 70° and 5 holes × 35°) with 103-μm-diameter orifices. This nozzle configuration provided the spray targeting necessary to contain the direct-injected diesel fuel within the piston bowl for injection timings as early as 70° before top dead center. Spray-visualization movies, acquired using a high-speed camera, show that impingement of liquid fuel on the piston surface can result when the in-cylinder temperature and density at the time of injection are sufficiently low. Seven single- and two-parameter sweeps around a 4.82-bar gross indicated mean effective pressure load point were performed to map the sensitivity of the combustion and emissions to variations in injection timing, injection pressure, equivalence ratio, simulated exhaust-gas recirculation, intake temperature, intake boost pressure, and load.
Technical Paper

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis to Predict and Control the Cavitation Erosion in a Hydraulic Control Valve

2002-03-04
2002-01-0572
This paper summarizes the successful application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to predict and control the cavitation erosion in a hydraulic control valve. The accurate control of different vehicle operations demands very fine spool modulations in a hydraulic valve. The precise spool modulations create very high flow rates and high-pressure drops in the valve. The low local fluid pressure regions create cavitation inside the valve. Due to the explosion of bubbles there is a high erosion damage to the valve body as well as the spool surface. The CFD analysis has been used to predict the location of cavitation origination and also used to control the cavitation by redistributing the flow inside the valve.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Single Gear Tooth and Cantilever Beam Bending Fatigue Testing of Carburized Steel

1995-02-01
950212
The bending fatigue performance of gears, cantilever beam specimens, and notched-axial specimens were evaluated and compared. Specimens were machined from a modified SAE-4118 steel, gas-carburized, direct-quenched and tempered. Bending fatigue specimens were characterized by light metallography to determine microstructure and prior austenite grain size, x-ray analysis for residual stress and retained austenite measurements, and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate fatigue crack initiation, propagation and overload. The case and core microstructures, prior austenite grain sizes and case hardness profiles from the various types of specimens were similar. Endurance limits were determined to be about 950 MPa for both the cantilever beam and notched-axial fatigue specimens, and 1310 MPa for the single gear tooth specimens.
Technical Paper

Applying Ball Bearings to the Series Turbochargers for the Caterpillar® Heavy-Duty On-Highway Truck Engines

2007-10-30
2007-01-4235
Fuel is a significant portion of the operating cost for an on-highway diesel engine and fuel economy is important to the economics of shipping most goods in North America. Cat® ACERT™ engine technology is no exception. Ball bearings have been applied to the series turbochargers for the Caterpillar heavy-duty, on-highway diesel truck engines in order to reduce mechanical loss for improved efficiency and lower fuel consumption. Over many years of turbocharger development, much effort has been put into improving the aerodynamic efficiency of the compressor and turbine stages. Over the same span of time, the mechanical bearing losses of a turbocharger have not experienced a significant reduction in power consumption. Most turbochargers continue to use conventional hydrodynamic radial and thrust bearings to support the rotor. While these conventional bearings provide a low cost solution, they do create significant mechanical loss.
Technical Paper

Application of Computational Fluid Dynamics for Flow Force Optimization of a High Pressure Fuel Injector Spill Valve

1999-05-03
1999-01-1537
Development of Caterpillar Fuel Systems' MEUI-B injector has involved application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) in order to improve performance of the high pressure spill valve. Initial performance bench testing with concept stage experimental injectors indicated that the chamber pressure was decaying at an unacceptably slow rate, and the valve demonstrated erratic behavior at some operating conditions. The slow pressure decay and inconsistent spill valve motion were believed to be caused by flow forces generated during the low lift portion of the spill valve opening event. This theory was pursued by utilizing CFD to design two valves for testing in the next phase of the injector development cycle: A baseline geometry, similar to the original concept injector valve, and a new design incorporating localized seat geometry changes for inducing flow force assisted valve opening.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

1997-02-24
970639
A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
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