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Technical Paper

Water and Energy Transport for Crops under Different Lighting Conditions

2006-07-17
2006-01-2028
When high-intensity discharge (HID) electric lamps are used for plant growth, system inefficiencies occur due to an inability to effectively target light to all photosynthetic tissues of a growing crop stand, especially when it is closed with respect to light penetration. To maintain acceptable crop productivity, light levels typically are increased thus increasing heat loads on the plants. Evapotranspiration (ET) or transparent thermal barrier systems are subsequently required to maintain thermal balance, and power-intensive condensers are used to recover the evaporated water for reuse in closed systems. By accurately targeting light to plant tissues, electric lamps can be operated at lower power settings and produce less heat. With lower power and heat loads, less energy is used for plant growth, and possibly less water is evapotranspired. By combining these effects, a considerable energy savings is possible.
Technical Paper

Thermal Interface Materials Based on Anchored Carbon Nanotubes

2007-07-09
2007-01-3127
The new devices and missions to achieve the aims of NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD) are creating increasingly demanding thermal environments and applications. In particular, the low conductance of metal-to-metal interfaces used in the thermal switches lengthen the cool-down phase and resource usage for spacecraft instruments. During this work, we developed and tested a vacuum-compatible, durable, heat-conduction interface that employs carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays directly anchored on the mating metal surfaces via microwave plasma-enhanced, chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). We demonstrated that CNT-based thermal interface materials have the potential to exceed the performance of currently available options for thermal switches and other applications.
Technical Paper

The Design and Evaluation of Microphone Arrays for the Visualization of Noise Sources on Moving Vehicles

1999-05-17
1999-01-1742
The present work was directed towards the design of a sideline microphone array specifically adapted to the visualization of automotive noise sources in the 500 Hz to 2000 Hz range. The particular design philosophy followed here involved the minimization of the array redundancy: i.e., the minimization of the number of pairs of microphones that are separated by the same distance in the same directions. The performance of sixty-four element microphone arrays designed according to this principle will be illustrated through the use of simulated motor vehicle passbys. In addition, their performance will be compared with more conventional array designs: e.g., elliptical, and spiral arrays.
Journal Article

The Application of Singular Value Decomposition to Determine the Sources of Far Field Diesel Engine Noise

2013-05-13
2013-01-1974
The identification of the dominant noise sources in diesel engines and the assessment of their contribution to far-field noise is a process that can involve both fired and motored testing. In the present work, the cross-spectral densities of signals from cylinder pressure transducers, accelerometers mounted on the engine surface, and microphones (in the near and far fields), were used to identify dominant noise sources and estimate the transfer paths from the various “inputs” (i.e., the cylinder pressures, the accelerometers and the near field microphones) to the far field microphones. The method is based on singular value decomposition of the input cross-spectral matrix to relate the input measurements to independent virtual sources. The frequencies at which a particular input is strongly affected by an independent source are highlighted, and with knowledge of transducer locations, inferences can be drawn as to possible noise source mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Swirl-Spray Interactions in a Diesel Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0996
Swirl in Diesel engines is known to be an important parameter that affects the mixing of the fuel jets, heat release, emissions, and overall engine performance. The changes may be brought about through interactions of the swirling flow field with the spray and through modifications of the flow field. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interaction of the swirl with sprays in a Diesel engine through a computational study. A multi-dimensional model for flows, sprays, and combustion in engines is employed. Results from computations are reported with varying levels of swirl and initial turbulence in two typical Diesel engine geometries. It is shown that there is an optimal level of swirl for each geometry that results from a balance between increased jet surface area and, hence, mixing rates and utilization of air in the chamber.
Technical Paper

Surfactant Biodegradation for Application to Advanced Life Support Water Recycling Systems

2004-07-19
2004-01-2513
Complete reuse of graywater will be essential during long duration human space missions. The highest loaded and most important component to remove from graywater is surfactant, the active ingredient in soaps and detergents. When considering a biological treatment system for processing of graywater, surfactant biodegradability becomes a very important consideration. Surfactants should be chosen that are degraded at a fast rate and yield inconsequential degradation byproducts. Experiments conducted for this research examined the biodegradation of the surfactants in Pert Plus for Kids, disodium cocoamphodiacetate (DSCADA) and sodium laureth-3 sulfate (SLES), using respirometry. Rates of CO2 production, or ultimate degradation, are reported. DSCADA was found to be toxic to bacteria when present at 270 ppm whereas no toxicity was observed during experiments with SLES.
Technical Paper

Real-Time On-Board Indirect Light-Off Temperature Estimation as a Detection Technique of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Effectiveness Level

2013-04-08
2013-01-1517
The latest US emission regulations require dramatic reductions in Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from vehicular diesel engines. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is the current technology that achieves NOx reductions of up to 90%. It is typically mounted downstream of the existing after-treatment system, i.e., after the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Accurate prediction of input NO₂:NO ratio is useful for control of SCR urea injection to reduce NOx output and NH₃ slippage downstream of the SCR catalyst. Most oxidation of NO to NO₂ occurs in the DOC since its main function is to oxidize emission constituents. The DOC thus determines the NO₂:NO ratio as feedgas to the SCR catalyst. The prediction of NO₂:NO ratio varies as the catalyst in the DOC ages or deteriorates due to poisoning. Thus, the DOC prediction model has to take into account the correlation of DOC conversion effectiveness and the aging of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

RANS and LES Study of Lift-Off Physics in Reacting Diesel Jets

2014-04-01
2014-01-1118
Accurate modeling of the transient structure of reacting diesel jets is important as transient features like autoignition, flame propagation, and flame stabilization have been shown to correlate with combustion efficiency and pollutant formation. In this work, results from Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations of flame lift-off in diesel jets are examined to provide insight into the lift-off physics. The large eddy simulation (LES) technique is also used to computationally model a lifted jet flame at conditions representative of those encountered in diesel engines. An unsteady flamelet progress variable (UFPV) model is used as the turbulent combustion model in both RANS simulations and LES. In the model, a look-up table of reaction source terms is generated as a function of mixture fraction Z, stoichiometric scalar dissipation rate Xst, and progress variable Cst by solving the unsteady flamelet equations.
Technical Paper

Predictions of On-Engine Efficiency for the Radial Turbine of a Pulse Turbocharged Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1238
Modern pulse-turbocharged systems produce a turbine operating environment that is dominated by unsteady flow. Effective utilization of the unsteady exhaust gas energy content at the turbine inlet is critical to achieving optimum system efficiency. This work presents predictions for turbocharger unsteady performance from a model based on the Euler equations with source terms (EEST). This approach allows the time-accurate performance of the turbine to be determined, allowing comparisons of actual energy utilization and that estimated from steady flow performance maps.
Journal Article

Prechamber Hot Jet Ignition of Ultra-Lean H2/Air Mixtures: Effect of Supersonic Jets and Combustion Instability

2016-04-05
2016-01-0795
An experiment has been developed to investigate the ignition characteristics of ultra-lean premixed H2/air mixtures by a supersonic hot jet. The hot jet is generated by combustion of a stoichiometric mixture in a small prechamber. The apparatus adopted a dual-chamber design in which a small-volume (1% of the main chamber by volume) prechamber was installed within a large-volume main chamber. A small orifice (nozzle) connects the two chambers. Spark initiated combustion inside the prechamber causes a pressure rise and pushes the gases though the nozzle, resulting in a hot jet that would ignite the lean mixture in the main chamber. Simultaneous high-speed Schlieren photography and OH* Chemiluminescence were applied to visualize the jet penetration and the ignition processes inside the main chamber. Hot Wire Pyrometry (HWP) was used to measure temperature distribution of the transient hot jet.
Journal Article

Perception of Diesel Engine Gear Rattle Noise

2015-06-15
2015-01-2333
Component sound quality is an important factor in the design of competitive diesel engines. One component noise that causes complaints is the gear rattle that originates in the front-of-engine gear train which drives the fuel pump and other accessories. The rattle is caused by repeated tooth impacts resulting from fluctuations in differential torsional acceleration of the driving gears. These impacts generate a broadband, impulsive noise that is often perceived as annoying. In most previous work, the overall sound quality of diesel engines has been considered without specifically focusing on predicting the perception of gear rattle. Gear rattle level has been quantified based on angular acceleration measurements, but those measurements can be difficult to perform. Here, the emphasis was on developing a metric based on subjective testing of the perception of gear rattle.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Damping Effect of Fibrous Acoustical Treatments

2001-04-30
2001-01-1462
The damping effect that is observed when a fibrous acoustical treatment is applied to a thin metal panel typical of automotive structures has been modeled by using three independent techniques. In the first two methods the fibrous treatment was modeled by using the limp frame formulation proposed by Bolton et al., while the third method makes use of a general poro-elastic model based on the Biot theory. All three methods have been found to provide consistent predictions that are in excellent agreement with one another. An examination of the numerical results shows that the structural damping effect results primarily from the suppression of the nearfield acoustical motion within the fibrous treatment, that motion being closely coupled with the vibration of the base panel. The observed damping effect is similar in magnitude to that provided by constrained layer dampers having the same mass per unit area as the fibrous layer.
Technical Paper

NASA's On-line Project Information System (OPIS) Attributes and Implementation

2006-07-17
2006-01-2190
The On-line Project Information System (OPIS) is a LAMP-based (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) system being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to improve Agency information transfer and data availability, largely for improvement of system analysis and engineering. The tool will enable users to investigate NASA technology development efforts, connect with experts, and access technology development data. OPIS is currently being developed for NASA's Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project. Within OPIS, NASA ELS Managers assign projects to Principal Investigators (PI), track responsible individuals and institutions, and designate reporting assignments. Each PI populates a “Project Page” with a project overview, team member information, files, citations, and images. PI's may also delegate on-line report viewing and editing privileges to specific team members. Users can browse or search for project and member information.
Journal Article

Multi-objective Optimization Tool for Noise Reduction in Axial Piston Machines

2008-10-07
2008-01-2723
Noise generation in axial piston machines can be attributed to two main sources; fluid borne and structure borne. Any attempt towards noise reduction in axial piston machines should focus on simultaneous reduction of these two sources. A multi-parameter multi-objective optimization approach to design valve plates to reduce both sources of noise for pumps which operate in a wide range of operating conditions has been detailed in a previous work (Seeniraj and Ivantysynova, 2008). The focus of this paper is to explain the background and to demonstrate the functionality and usefulness of the methodology for pump design.
Technical Paper

Lattice Boltzmann Simulations of Flows in a Duct with Multiple Inlets

2003-03-03
2003-01-0220
In this paper, computations of pulsating flows in a duct with multiple inlets using the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) are reported. As future emissions standards present a significant challenge for Diesel engine manufacturers, several options are being investigated to identify strategies to meet such regulations. Exhaust gas aftertreatment is one of the most important among them. As the performance of the various aftertreatment devices is sensitive to the flow conditions in the exhaust, a greater understanding of the flows under pulsating conditions in the presence of multiple cylinders is needed. The Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) is a relatively new and promising computational approach for applications to fluid dynamics problems. Two advantages of the method relative to traditional methods are ease of implementation and ease of parallelization and performance on parallel computers.
Technical Paper

Influence of Wall Impingement on the Structure of Reacting Jets

2003-03-03
2003-01-1042
In Diesel engines, the vapor phase of the fuel jet is known to impinge on the walls. This impingement is likely to have an effect on mixing characteristics, the structure of the diffusion flame and on pollutant formation and oxidation. These effects have not been studied in detail in the literature. In this work, the structure of a laminar wall jet that is generated from the impingement of a free laminar jet on a wall is discussed. We study the laminar jet with the belief that the local structure of the reaction zone in the turbulent reacting jet is that of a laminar flame. Results from non-reacting and reacting jets will be presented. In the case of the non-reacting jets, the focus of the inquiry is on assessing the accuracy of the computed results by comparing them with analytical results. Velocity profiles in the wall jet, growth rates of the half-width of the jet and penetration rates are presented.
Technical Paper

Free Gas Pulsation of a Helmholtz Resonator Attached to a Thin Muffler Element

1998-02-23
980281
Helmholtz resonator has been used in industry for a long time to reduce the noise from exhaust system in vehicle or machinery. Numerous investigations have been done in the past to study the effect of a Helmholtz resonator connected to a pipeline. A general procedure for the analysis of curved or flat, thin two dimensional gas cavities such as thin compressor or engine manifolds or so-called thin shell type muffler elements, which can efficiently utilize the limited space of hermetically sealed compressors or small engine compartments, has been developed by the authors, as long as the thickness of the cavities is substantially small compared to the shortest wavelength of interest. However, to the authors' knowledge, a Helmholtz resonator attached to a rectangular thin muffler element, which is similar to a refrigeration compressor muffler, has not been analyzed.
Technical Paper

Fracture Mechanics Based Approach for Quantifying Corrosion Damage

1999-04-20
1999-01-1589
The objective of this project is to quantify structural degradation due to corrosion through a fracture mechanics based approach. The metric parameters employed are Equivalent Initial Flaw Size and general material loss. Another objective is to correlate a measurable property to the amount of structural durability damage from corrosion, ideally through current NDE technology, with eddy-current as the primary choice. The approach is comprised by the following areas: corroding aluminum alloys, evaluation of the corrosion through techniques such as surface roughness and eddy current, cyclic testing, calculation of corrosion metric, and, correlation between corrosion metric and physically measurable properties.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Damage Modeling Approach Based on Evolutionary Power Spectrum Density

2019-04-02
2019-01-0524
Fatigue damage prediction approaches in both time and frequency domains have been developed to simulate the operational life of mechanical structures under random loads. Fatigue assessment of mechanical structures and components subjected to those random loads is increasingly being addressed by frequency domain approaches because of time and cost savings. Current frequency-based fatigue prediction methods focus on stationary random loadings (stationary Power Spectral Density), but many machine components, such as jet engines, rotating machines, and tracked vehicles are subjected to non-stationary PSD conditions under real service loadings. This paper describes a new fatigue damage modeling approach capable of predicting fatigue damage for structures exposed to non-stationary (evolutionary) PSD loading conditions where the PSD frequency content is time-varying.
Technical Paper

Experimental Modal Analysis of Automotive Exhaust Structures

2001-03-05
2001-01-0662
Experimental modal analysis (EMA) provides many parameters that are required in numerical modeling of dynamic and vibratory behavior of structures. This paper discusses EMA on an exhaust system of an off-road car. The exhaust structure is tested under three boundary conditions: free-free, supported with two elastomeric mounts, and mounted to the car. The free-free modal parameters are compared to finite element results. The two-mount tests are done with the mounts fixed to a rigid and heavy frame. The rigidity of the frame is verified experimentally. The on-car test is done with realistic boundary conditions, where the exhaust structure is fixed to the engine manifold as well as the two elastomeric mounts. The two-mount and the on-car tests result in highly complex mode shapes.
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