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Technical Paper

Truck Ride — A Mathematical and Empirical Study

“Truck Ride” in this study refers to some vehicle ride parameters involved in tractor-trailer combinations. For the study, a mathematical model of a tractor-trailer vehicle as a vibrating system was developed. Principles of vibration theory were applied to the model while a digital computer was employed to investigate the complex system. To parallel the analytical investigation of the tractor-trailer vehicle, vehicle studies were conducted using a magnetic tape recorder and associated instrumentation installed in the tractor. Parameters studied included coupler position on the tractor, laden weight of trailer, spring rates of the different axles of the combination, damping capacity associated with each spring rate, vehicle speed, and “tar strip” spacing of the highway and cab mountings. The mathematical results were used as a basis for empirical study. A comparison of calculated and empirical data are reported.
Technical Paper

Training Materials for Agricultural Safety and Health

AN INTERDISCIPLINARY TEAM from Purdue University is developing a comprehensive set of educational materials for agricultural safety and health for OSHA, of the U. S. Department of Labor. The team from the Purdue school of Agriculture, school of Veterinary Medicine, and the school of Humanities, Social Science and Education are working for a year and a half to gather and catalog all existing safety materials, and to produce new ones to meet nationwide needs. The project was begun on July 1, 1974 and is scheduled to be completed by December 31, 1975. The project team includes John B. Liljedahl, professor of agricultural engineering, project leader; Avery H. Gray, assistant department head, 4-H and Youth; William H. Hamilton, agricultural education; David H. Loewer, Extension agricultural engineer; David L. Matthew, Extension Entomologist; Vernon B. Mayrose, Extension animal scientist; Ken Weinland, Extension veterinarian; Bruce A. McKenzie, Extension agricultural engineer; James L.
Journal Article

The Utility of Wide-Bandwidth Emulation to Evaluate Aircraft Power System Performance

The cost and complexity of aircraft power systems limit the number of integrated system evaluations that can be performed in hardware. As a result, evaluations are often performed using emulators to mimic components or subsystems. As an example, aircraft generation systems are often tested using an emulator that consists of a bank of resistors that are switched to represent the power draw of one or more actuators. In this research, consideration is given to modern wide bandwidth emulators (WBEs) that use power electronics and digital controls to obtain wide bandwidth control of power, current, or voltage. Specifically, this paper first looks at how well a WBE can emulate the impedance of a load when coupled to a real-time model. Capturing the impedance of loads and sources is important for accurately assessing the small-signal stability of a system.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Cage Flexibility on Ball-to-Cage Pocket Contact Forces and Cage Instability in Deep Groove Ball Bearings

Rolling element bearings provide near frictionless relative motion between two rotating parts. Automotive transmissions use various ball and rolling element bearings to accommodate the relative motion between rotating elements. In order to understand changes in bearing performance due to the loads imposed through the transmission, advanced modeling of the bearing is required. This paper focuses on the effects of cage flexibility on bearing performance. A flexible cage model was developed and incorporated into a six degree-of-freedom dynamic, deep groove ball bearing model. A lumped mass approach was used to represent the cage flexibility and was validated through an ANSYS forced response analyses of the cage. Results from the newly developed Flexible Cage Model (FCM) and an identical numerical model employing a rigid bearing cage were compared to determine the effects of varying ball-to-cage pocket clearance and cage stiffness on cage motion and ball-to-cage pocket contact forces.
Journal Article

The Development of Terrain Pre-filtering Technique Based on Constraint Mode Tire Model

The vertical force generated from terrain-tire interaction has long been of interest for vehicle dynamic simulations and chassis development. To improve simulation efficiency while still providing reliable load prediction, a terrain pre-filtering technique using a constraint mode tire model is developed. The wheel is assumed to convey one quarter of the vehicle load constantly. At each location along the tire's path, the wheel center height is adjusted until the spindle load reaches the pre-designated load. The resultant vertical trajectory of the wheel center can be used as an equivalent terrain profile input to a simplified tire model. During iterative simulations, the filtered terrain profile, coupled with a simple point follower tire model is used to predict the spindle force. The same vehicle dynamic simulation system coupled with constraint mode tire model is built to generate reference forces.
Technical Paper

Strawberry Cultivar Analysis: Temperature and Pollination Studies

Strawberry is a life-support-system candidate crop species that is long-lived, asexually propagated, and can bear large quantities of fruit high in sugar and antioxidant content. Strawberries of four day-neutral cultivars (‘Tribute’, ‘Tristar’, ‘Seascape’, and ‘Fern’) and one ever-bearing cultivar (‘Cavendish’) were grown under greenhouse conditions or varying temperature regimes in three growth chambers. Flowers in growth chambers were hand pollinated three-times weekly with stored pollen, and ripe berries were harvested, counted, weighed, and tested organolepticly. In the greenhouse, two different pollination treatments were compared, while another group of plants was left unpollinated, receiving only occasional mechanical stimulation from normal greenhouse airflow, berry harvest, and plant maintenance. A second group was pollinated with a vibrating wand, and a third group was hand pollinated with stored pollen.
Technical Paper

Sound Transmission Through Elastomeric Sealing Systems

The sound barrier performance of elastomeric vehicle weather seals was investigated. Experiments were performed for one bulb seal specimen following a reverberation room method. The seal wall vibration was measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The acoustic pressure near the seal surface was measured simultaneously, allowing the sound intensities on both side of the seal, and the sound transmission loss to be evaluated. The vibration response of the bulb seal and its sound transmission loss were then computed using the finite element method. Model predictions for the same seal geometry were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental data within the frequency range of interest, comprised between 500 Hz and 4000 Hz.
Technical Paper

Simulation of MADMEL Power Systems Components

Detailed computer models of system components for More Electric Aircraft have been developed using the Advanced Control System Language (ACSL) and its graphical front-end, Graphic Modeller. Among the devices modeled are a wound-rotor synchronous generator with parallel bridge-rectifier outputs, a switched-reluctance generator, and various loads including a DC-DC converter, an inverter-driven induction motor, and an electro-hydrostatic actuator. Results from the simulations are presented together with corroborating experimental test results.
Technical Paper

Regenerative Hydraulic Topographies using High Speed Valves

This paper presents hydraulic topographies using a network of valves to achieve better energy efficiency, reliability, and performance. The Topography with Integrated Energy Recovery (TIER) system allows the valves and actuators to reconfigure so that flow from assistive loads on actuators can be used to move actuators with resistive loads. Many variations are possible, including using multiple valves with either a single pump/motor or with multiple pump/motors. When multiple pump/motors are used, units of different displacements can be chosen such that units are controlled to minimize time operating at low displacement, thus increasing overall system efficiency. Other variations include configurations allowing open loop or closed loop pump/motors to be used, the use of fixed displacement pump/motors, or the ability to store energy in an accumulator. This paper gives a system level overview and summarizes the hydraulic systems using the TIER approach.
Technical Paper

Real-Time On-Board Indirect Light-Off Temperature Estimation as a Detection Technique of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst Effectiveness Level

The latest US emission regulations require dramatic reductions in Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from vehicular diesel engines. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is the current technology that achieves NOx reductions of up to 90%. It is typically mounted downstream of the existing after-treatment system, i.e., after the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Accurate prediction of input NO₂:NO ratio is useful for control of SCR urea injection to reduce NOx output and NH₃ slippage downstream of the SCR catalyst. Most oxidation of NO to NO₂ occurs in the DOC since its main function is to oxidize emission constituents. The DOC thus determines the NO₂:NO ratio as feedgas to the SCR catalyst. The prediction of NO₂:NO ratio varies as the catalyst in the DOC ages or deteriorates due to poisoning. Thus, the DOC prediction model has to take into account the correlation of DOC conversion effectiveness and the aging of the catalyst.
Technical Paper

Pump Controlled Steer-by-Wire System

Modern on-road vehicles have been making steady strides when it comes to employing technological advances featuring active safety systems. However, off-highway machines are lagging in this area and are in dire need for modernization. One chassis system that has been receiving much attention in the automotive field is the steering system, where several electric and electrohydraulic steering architectures have been implemented and steer-by-wire technologies are under current research and development activities. On the other hand, off-highway articulated steering vehicles have not adequately evolved to meet the needs of Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) as well as their end customers. Present-day hydrostatic steering systems are plagued with poor energy efficiency due to valve throttling losses and are considered passive systems relative to safety, adjustability, and comfort.
Journal Article

Prechamber Hot Jet Ignition of Ultra-Lean H2/Air Mixtures: Effect of Supersonic Jets and Combustion Instability

An experiment has been developed to investigate the ignition characteristics of ultra-lean premixed H2/air mixtures by a supersonic hot jet. The hot jet is generated by combustion of a stoichiometric mixture in a small prechamber. The apparatus adopted a dual-chamber design in which a small-volume (1% of the main chamber by volume) prechamber was installed within a large-volume main chamber. A small orifice (nozzle) connects the two chambers. Spark initiated combustion inside the prechamber causes a pressure rise and pushes the gases though the nozzle, resulting in a hot jet that would ignite the lean mixture in the main chamber. Simultaneous high-speed Schlieren photography and OH* Chemiluminescence were applied to visualize the jet penetration and the ignition processes inside the main chamber. Hot Wire Pyrometry (HWP) was used to measure temperature distribution of the transient hot jet.
Journal Article

Perception of Diesel Engine Gear Rattle Noise

Component sound quality is an important factor in the design of competitive diesel engines. One component noise that causes complaints is the gear rattle that originates in the front-of-engine gear train which drives the fuel pump and other accessories. The rattle is caused by repeated tooth impacts resulting from fluctuations in differential torsional acceleration of the driving gears. These impacts generate a broadband, impulsive noise that is often perceived as annoying. In most previous work, the overall sound quality of diesel engines has been considered without specifically focusing on predicting the perception of gear rattle. Gear rattle level has been quantified based on angular acceleration measurements, but those measurements can be difficult to perform. Here, the emphasis was on developing a metric based on subjective testing of the perception of gear rattle.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Metalcasting Design

Design optimization for functionality, and manufacturability was virtually impossible in the past. However, recent standardization of file storing formats resulted in seamless data transfer from one software package to another; thus, allowing integration of all facets of product design optimization. This paper describes a metalcasting design optimization process. It focuses on the design of cast parts according to functional requirements while optimizing shape with respect to structural integrity, while ascertaining that the part can be manufactured (cast) without defects.
Technical Paper

Novel Force-Based High-Speed Three-Dimensional NASCAR Vehicle Model

Typical vehicle dynamics simulations demand a trade-off between short computation times and accuracy. Many of the more simple models are based on the kinematic roll center and the more accurate models tend to be multi-body dynamics simulation programs. There is a need for a model that improves the accuracy of the kinematic roll center models while still maintaining short computation times. Such a model could be used track-side during races to guide race teams toward improved handling. The model presented in this paper removes many of the assumptions and limitations of the kinematic roll center model. The model accounts for three-dimensional forces present at the contact patch and predicts deflections of suspension components. The modeling approach is applied to a NASCAR Craftsman Truck to predict the effects of suspension design and tuning on steady-state understeer characteristics of the vehicle. Braking and acceleration forces can also be applied to the vehicle.
Technical Paper

NASA Specialized Center of Research and Training in Advance Life Support (ALS/NSCORT) Education and Outreach Program

The ALS/NSCORT Education and Outreach provides an avenue to engage and educate higher education students and K-12 educators/students in the center's investigations of the synergistic concepts and principles required for regenerative life-support in extended-duration space exploration. The following K-12 Education programs will be addressed: 1) Key Learning Community Project provides exposure, mentoring and research opportunities for 9-12th grade students at Key Learning Community This program was expanded in 2004 to include an “Explore Mars” 3-day camp experience for 150 Key students. The overall goal of the collaborative project is to motivate students to pursue careers in science, technology, and engineering; 2) Mission to Mars Program introduces 5th-8th grade students to the complex issues involved with living on Mars, stressing the interdisciplinary fundamentals of science, technology and engineering that underlie Advanced Life Support research.
Journal Article

Multi-objective Optimization Tool for Noise Reduction in Axial Piston Machines

Noise generation in axial piston machines can be attributed to two main sources; fluid borne and structure borne. Any attempt towards noise reduction in axial piston machines should focus on simultaneous reduction of these two sources. A multi-parameter multi-objective optimization approach to design valve plates to reduce both sources of noise for pumps which operate in a wide range of operating conditions has been detailed in a previous work (Seeniraj and Ivantysynova, 2008). The focus of this paper is to explain the background and to demonstrate the functionality and usefulness of the methodology for pump design.
Technical Paper

Multi-Objective Optimization of Gerotor Port Design by Genetic Algorithm with Considerations on Kinematic vs. Actual Flow Ripple

The kinematic flow ripple for gerotor pumps is often used as a metric for comparison among different gearsets. However, compressibility, internal leakages, and throttling effects have an impact on the performance of the pump and cause the real flow ripple to deviate from the kinematic flow ripple. To counter this phenomenon, the ports can be designed to account for fluid effects to reduce the outlet flow ripple, internal pressure peaks, and localized cavitation due to throttling while simultaneously improving the volumetric efficiency. The design of the ports is typically heuristic, but a more advanced approach can be to use a numerical fluid model for virtual prototyping. In this work, a multi-objective optimization by genetic algorithm using an experimentally validated, lumped parameter, fluid-dynamic model is used to design the port geometry.
Journal Article

Modeling and Simulation of a Hydraulic Steering System

Conventional hydraulic steering systems keep improving performance and driving comfort by introducing advanced features via mechanical design. The ever increasing mechanical complexity requires the advanced modeling and simulation technology to mitigate the risks in the early stage of the development process. In this paper, we focus on advanced modeling tools environment with an example of a load sensing hydraulic steering system. The complete system architecture is presented. Analytical equations are developed for a priority valve and a steering control unit as the foundation of modeling. The full version of hydraulic steering system model is developed in Dymola platform. In order to capture interaction between steering and vehicle, the co-simulation platform between the hydraulic steering system and vehicle dynamics is established by integrating Dymola, Carsim and Simulink.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of the Control Strategy for the Hydraulic System of an Articulated Boom Lift

This paper describes the numerical modeling of the hydraulic circuit of a self-moving boom lift. Boom lifts consist of several hydraulic actuators, each of them performs a specific movement. Hydraulic systems for lifting applications must ensure consistent performance no matter what the load and how many users are in operation at the same time. Common solutions comprise a fixed or a variable displacement pump with load-sensing control strategy. Instead, the hydraulic circuit studied in this paper includes a fixed displacement pump and an innovative (patented) proportional valve assembly. Each proportional valve (one for each user) permits a flow regulation for all typical load conditions and movement simultaneously. The study of the hydraulic system required a detailed modeling of some components such as: the overcenter valves, for the control of the assistive loads; the proportional valve, which keeps a constant flow independently of pressure drop across itself.