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Journal Article

Ultra-Lean Pre-Chamber Gasoline Engine for Future Hybrid Powertrains

Lean burn gasoline spark-ignition engines can support the reduction of CO2 emissions for future hybrid passenger cars. Very high efficiencies and very low NOx raw emissions can be achieved, if relative air/fuel ratios λ of 2 and above can be reached. The biggest challenge here is to assure a reliable ignition process and to enhance the fuel oxidation in order to achieve a short burn duration and a good combustion stability. This article aims at introducing an innovative combustion system fully optimized for ultra-lean operation and very high efficiency. Thereto, a new cylinder head concept has been realized with high peak firing pressure capability and with a low surface-to-volume ratio at high compression ratios. 1D and 3D simulations have been performed to optimize the compression ratio, charge motion and intake valve lift. Numerical calculations also supported the development of the ignition system.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels: The Potential of Oxygen Content in Fuels for Advanced Diesel Combustion Systems

Fuels derived from biomass will most likely contain oxygen due to the high amount of hydrogen needed to remove oxygen in the production process. Today, alcohol fuels (e. g. ethanol) are well understood for spark ignition engines. The Institute for Combustion Engines at RWTH Aachen University carried out a fuel investigation program to explore the potential of alcohol fuels as candidates for future compression ignition engines to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. The soot formation and oxidation process when using alcohol fuels in diesel engines is not yet sufficiently understood. Depending on the chain length, alcohol fuels vary in cetane number and boiling temperature. Decanol possesses a diesel-like cetane number and a boiling point in the range of the diesel boiling curve. Thus, decanol was selected as an alcohol representative to investigate the influence of the oxygen content of an alcohol on the combustion performance.
Technical Paper

Potential Analysis and Virtual Development of SI Engines Operated with Synthetic Fuel DMC+

On the way to emission-free mobility, future fuels must be CO2 neutral. To achieve this, synthetic fuels are being developed. In order to better assess the effects of the new fuels on the engine process, simulation models are being developed that reproduce the chemical and physical properties of these fuels. In this paper, the fuel DMC+ is examined. DMC+ (a mixture of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and methyl formate (MeFo) mainly, characterized by the lack of C-C Bonds and high oxygen content) offers advantages with regard to evaporation heat, demand of oxygen and knock resistance. Furthermore, its combustion is almost particle free. With the aid of modern 0D/1D simulation methods, an assessment of the potential of DMC+ can be made. It is shown that the simulative conversion of a state-of-the-art gasoline engine to DMC+ fuel offers advantages in terms of efficiency in many operating points even if the engine design is not altered.
Technical Paper

Partially Premixed Combustion of Gasoline Type Fuels Using Larger Size Nozzle and Higher Compression Ratio in a Diesel Engine

If fuels that are more resistant to auto-ignition are injected near TDC in compression ignition engines, they ignite much later than diesel fuel and combustion occurs when the fuel and air have had more chance to mix. This helps to reduce NOX and smoke emissions at much lower injection pressures compared to a diesel fuel. However, PPCI (Partially Premixed Compression Ignition) operation also leads to higher CO and HC at low loads and higher heat release rates at high loads. These problems can be significantly alleviated by managing the mixing through injector design (e.g. nozzle size and centreline spray angle) and changing CR (Compression Ratio). This work describes results of running a single-cylinder diesel engine on fuel blends by using three different nozzle design (nozzle size: 0.13 mm and 0.17 mm, centreline spray angle: 153° and 120°) and two different CRs (15.9:1 and 18:1).
Journal Article

Optical Investigation of Combusting Split-Injection Diesel Sprays Under Quiescent Conditions

Multiple-injection strategies are widely used in DI diesel engines. However, the interaction of the injection pulses is not yet fully understood. In this work, a split injection into a combustion vessel is studied by multiple optical imaging diagnostics. The vessel provides quiescent high-temperature, high-pressure ambient conditions. A common-rail injector which is equipped with a three-hole nozzle is used. The spray is visualized by Mie scattering. First and second stage of ignition are probed by formaldehyde laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and OH* chemiluminescence imaging, respectively. In addition formation of soot is characterized by both laser-induced incandescence (LII) and natural luminosity imaging, showing that low-sooting conditions are established. These qualitative diagnostics yield ensemble-averaged, two-dimensional, time-resolved distributions of the corresponding quantities.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Transport and Mixing Phenomena in Turbulent Flows in Closed Domains

In this work, a transport and mixing model that calculates mixing in thermodynamic phase space was derived and validated. The mixing in thermodynamic multizone space is consistent to the one in the spatially resolved physical space. The model is developed using a turbulent channel flow as simplified domain. This physical domain of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is divided into zones based on the quantitative value of transported scalars. Fluxes between the zones are introduced to describe mixing from the transport equation of the probability density function based on the mixing process in physical space. The mixing process of further scalars can then be carried out with these fluxes instead of solving additional transport equations. The relationship between the exchange flux in phase space and the concept of scalar dissipation are shown and validated by comparison to DNS results.
Technical Paper

Method for Analytical Calculation of Harmonic Content of Auto-Transformer Rectifier Units

Auto transformer rectifier units (ATRUs) are commonly used in aircraft applications such as electric actuation for harmonic mitigation due to their high reliability and relative low cost. However, those components and the magnetic filter components associated to it are the major contributors to the overall size and weight of the system. Optimization of the magnetic components is essential in order to minimize weight and size, which are major market drivers in aerospace industry today. This requires knowledge of the harmonic content of the current. This can be obtained by simulation, but the process is slow. In order to enable fast and efficient design space exploration of optimal solutions, an algebraic calculation process is proposed in this paper for multi-pulse ATRUs (e.g. 12-pulse and 18-pulse rectifiers), starting from existing solution proposed for 6 pulse rectifier in the literature.
Technical Paper

Lower Emissions in Commercial Diesel Engines through Waste Heat Recovery

In order to comply with demanding Greenhous Gas (GHG) standards, future automotive engines employ advanced engine technologies including waste heat recovery (WHR) systems. A waste heat recovery system converts part of engine wasted exergies to useful work which can be fed back to the engine. Utilizing this additional output power leads to lower specific fuel consumption and CO2 emission when the total output power equals the original engine output power. Engine calibration strategies for reductions in specific fuel consumption typically results in a natural increase of NOx emissions. The utilization of waste heat recovery systems provides a pathway which gives both reduction in emissions and reduction in specific fuel consumption. According to DOE (Department of Energy), US heavy-duty truck engines’ technology need to be upgraded towards higher brake thermal efficiencies (BTE). DOE target is BTE>55% for Class-8 heavy-duty vehicles in the United States.
Journal Article

Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Tailor-Made Fuels in an Optical Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

The influence of two oxygenated tailor-made fuels on soot formation and oxidation in an optical single cylinder research diesel engine has been studied. For the investigation a planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) measurement technique was applied to the engine in order to detect and evaluate the planar soot distribution for the two bio fuels within a laser light sheet. Furthermore the OH* chemiluminescence and broad band soot luminosity was visualized by high speed imaging to compare the ignition and combustion behavior of tested fuels: Two C8 oxygenates, di-n-butylether (DNBE) and 1-octanol. Both fuels have the same molecular formula but differ in their molecular structure. DNBE ignites fast and burns mostly diffusive while 1-octanol has a low cetane number and therefore it has a longer ignition delay but a more homogeneous mixture at time of ignition. The two bio fuels were finally compared to conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Injection Rate Shaping Investigations on a Small – Bore DI Diesel Engine

So far, the effect of injection rate shaping on the diesel combustion in small-bore DI diesel engines has not been extensively investigated, especially at high part load conditions with high EGR rates. The benefit of injection rate shaping is already verified for heavy duty engines at high load conditions with and without EGR. For this investigation, single cylinder engine investigations were conducted at the VKA / RWTH Aachen University. In order to meet the future NOx legislation limits like US-Tier2Bin5 it is crucial to reduce NOx especially at the high load points of the certification cycles, as FTP75 or US06. For the single cylinder investigations two part load points were chosen, which have relevance for the mentioned certification cycles. The experimental work focuses on different rate shapes as rectangular (Common-Rail type), ramp and boot shape at high EGR rates.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Nozzle Spray Angle on Pollutant Formation and Combustion Efficiency for a PCCI Diesel Engine

In Common-Rail DI Diesel Engines, a low combustion temperature process is considered as one of the most important possibilities to achieve very small emissions and optimum performance. To reduce NOx and Soot strongly, it is necessary to achieve a homogenization of the mixture in order to avoid the higher local temperatures which are responsible for the NOx formation [1]. Through the homogenization it is also possible to obtain a stoichiometric air-fuel ratio in order to significantly reduce the Soot emissions. One way to achieve this homogeneous condition is to start injection very early together with the use of higher EGR rates. The direct effect of these conditions cause a longer ignition delay (this is the time between start of the injection and auto-ignition during physical and chemical sub processes such as fuel atomization, evaporation, fuel air mixing and chemical pre-reactions take place) so that the mixture formation has more time to achieve a homogeneous state.
Journal Article

Influence of In-Cylinder Air Flow on Spray Propagation

The influence of in-cylinder flow on the propagation of 2-Butanone and Ethanol sprays is studied. To solely evaluate the interaction of air flow and fuel, high-speed Mie-Scattering Imaging of hollow cone sprays is conducted both in a single-cylinder optical engine with tumble movement and in a pressure vessel with negligible air flow. The direct comparison reveals an improved spray propagation of 2-Butanone due to the engine’s air flow. The lower viscosity of 2-Butanone causes an enhanced jet breakup compared to Ethanol such that the spray consists of more and smaller droplets. Small droplets possess a lower momentum, which allows the droplets to be more efficiently transported by the air flow. Consequently, the fuel distribution across the cylinder is enhanced. As the liquid fuel is distributed to a larger volume, improved convection accelerates evaporation.
Technical Paper

Increasing Efficiency in Gasoline Powertrains with a Two-Stage Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System

Downsizing in combination with turbocharging currently represents the main technology trend for meeting CO2 emissions with gasoline engines. Besides the well-known advantages of downsizing the compression ratio has to be reduced in order to mitigate knock at higher engine loads along with increased turbocharging demand to compensate for the reduction in power. Another disadvantage occurs at part load with increasing boost pressure levels causing the part load efficiencies to deteriorate. The application of a variable compression ratio (VCR) system can help to mitigate these disadvantages. The 2-stage VCR system with variable kinetic lengths entails variable powertrain components which can be used instead of the conventional components and thus only require minor modifications for existing engine architectures. The presented variable length connecting rod system has been continuously developed over the past years.
Technical Paper

Gas Bubble Development in Connecting Rod Supply Systems Caused by Oil Aeration

This paper focusses on the supply conditions of a connecting rod bearing. Thereto, a novel simulation approach is presented, which is based on a transient 3D-CFD multiphase flow simulation including the ability of gas dissolution and diffusive mass transfer. The model determines the pressure behavior and the gas bubble development in the oil supply system of a connecting rod bearing. It allows to visualize the flow behavior and the existence of gas bubbles in order to get a detailed impression of the physical occurrences. The experimental results from Maaßen [5], where a big gas bubble is formed in the supply bore by gas cavitation, are confirmed and used for validation. Further the flow behavior of free air ratios is investigated. The paper concludes that the supply conditions of a connecting rod bearing are strongly influenced by the gas bubble in terms of the fluid composition and the volume flow rate at the connecting rod bearing inlet.

Gas Bubble Development in Connecting Rod Supply Systems Caused by Oil Aeration

This paper focuses on the supply conditions of a connecting rod bearing. Thereto, a novel simulation approach is presented, which is based on a transient 3D-CFD multiphase flow simulation including the ability of gas dissolution and diffusive mass transfer. The model determines the pressure behavior and the gas bubble development in the oil supply system of a connecting rod bearing. It allows to visualize the flow behavior and the existence of gas bubbles in order to get a detailed impression of the physical occurrences. The experimental results from Maa?en [5], where a big gas bubble is formed in the supply bore by gas cavitation, are confirmed and used for validation. Further the flow behavior of free air ratios is investigated. The paper concludes that the supply conditions of a connecting rod bearing are strongly influenced by the gas bubble in terms of the fluid composition and the volume flow rate at the connecting rod bearing inlet.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Spray Characteristics of Di-n-Butyl Ether (DNBE) as an Oxygenated Compound in Diesel Fuel

Increasing concern for the environment and the impending scarcity of fossil fuels requires continued development in hydrocarbon combustion science. For compression-ignition engines, adding oxygenated compounds to the fuel can reduce noise, soot formation, and unburned hydrocarbons while simultaneously increasing thermal efficiency. In order to reliably model and design compression-ignition engines to use new fuel blends, accurate spray characteristic data is required. In this study, the spray characteristics of various blends of the oxygenated compound di-n-butyl ether (DNBE) with standard EN590 Diesel fuel are presented, including spray cone angle and spray penetration length for both liquid and gas phases. The experiments were conducted in a spray chamber at ambient conditions of 50 bar and 800 K, simulating TDC conditions in a Diesel engine. Injection pressures were varied from 700-1600 bar.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Multiple Injections on Pollutant Formation in a Common-Rail DI Diesel Engine

In Common-Rail DI Diesel Engines, multiple injection strategies are considered as one of the methodologies to achieve optimum performance and emission reduction. However, multiple injections open a whole new horizon of parameters which affect the combustion process. These parameters include the number of injection events, the duration between the starts of each injection event, the splitting of the total fuel mass on the different injection events, etc. In the present work, the influence of the number of injection events and the influence of the duration between the starts of each injection event on emission levels are investigated. Combustion and pollutant formation were experimentally investigated in a Common-Rail DI Diesel engine. The engine was operated at conventional part-load conditions with 2000 rpm, no external EGR, and an injected fuel mass of 15 mg/cycle.
Journal Article

Experimental Analysis of the Impact of Injected Biofuels on In-Cylinder Flow Structures

The interaction of biofuel sprays from an outward opening hollow cone injector and the flow field inside an internal combustion engine is analyzed by Mie-Scattering Imaging (MSI) and high-speed stereoscopic particle-image velocimetry (stereo-PIV). Two fuels (ethanol and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK)), four injection pressures (50, 100, 150, and 200 bar), three starting points of injection (60°, 277°, and 297° atdc), and two engine speeds (1,500 rpm and 2,000 rpm) define the parameter space of the experiments. The MSI measurements determine the vertical penetration length and the spray cone angle of the ethanol and MEK spray. Stereo-PIV is used to investigate the interaction of the flow field and the ethanol spray after the injection process for a start of injection at 60° atdc. These measurements are compared to stereo-PIV measurements without fuel injection performed in the same engine [19].
Technical Paper

Effects of Biofuels on the Mixture Formation and Ignition Process in Diesel-Like Jets

In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this paper, several fuels were selected which can be produced out of biomass or with hydrogen which is generated directly via electrolysis with electricity from renewable sources. All fuels are compared to conventional diesel fuel and two diesel surrogates. It is well known that there can be a large effect of fuel properties on mixture formation and combustion, which may result in a completely different engine performance compared to the operation with conventional diesel fuels. Mixture formation and ignition behavior can also largely affect the pollutant formation. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is also important to design new engine geometries or implement new calibrations for an existing engine. The fuel properties of the investigated fuels comprise a large range, for example in case of the derived cetane number, from below 30 up to 100.
Technical Paper

Droplet Velocity Measurements in Direct-Injection Diesel Sprays Under High-Pressure and High-Temperature Conditions by Laser Flow Tagging

The droplet velocity is an important parameter for breakup, evaporation, and combustion of Diesel sprays, but it is very difficult to measure it by widely used laser diagnostic techniques like PDA, PIV and LCV under realistic high-pressure and high-temperature conditions. This is basically caused by laser beam steering and multiple scattering of light due to very high droplet densities, in particular close to the nozzle. It was demonstrated recently, that these problems can be greatly reduced by the laser flow tagging (LFT) technique. For this purpose, the model fuel is doped with a phosphorescent tracer. A number of droplet groups within the spray are tagged by illuminating them with focused beams of a pulsed laser, and their velocities are measured by recording the phosphorescence twice after each laser pulse using a double-frame ICCD.