Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Virtual Transmission Evaluation Using an Engine-in-the-Loop Test Facility

2018-04-03
2018-01-1361
This paper describes an approach to reduce development costs and time by frontloading of engineering tasks and even starting calibration tasks already in the early component conception phases of a vehicle development program. To realize this, the application of a consistent and parallel virtual development and calibration methodology is required. The interaction between vehicle subcomponents physically available and those only virtually available at that time, is achieved with the introduction of highly accurate real-time models on closed-loop co-simulation platforms (HiL-simulators) which provide the appropriate response of the hardware components. This paper presents results of a heterogeneous testing scenario containing a real internal combustion engine on a test facility and a purely virtual vehicle using two different automatic transmission calibration and hardware setups.
Journal Article

Tomographic Particle-Image Velocimetry Analysis of In-Cylinder Flows

2015-06-01
2015-01-9042
New combustion processes require an understanding of the highly three-dimensional flow field to effectively decrease fuel consumption and pollutant emission. Due to the complex spatial character of the flow the knowledge of the development of the flow in an extended volume is necessary. Previous investigations were able to visualize the discrete three-dimensional flow field through multi-plane stereoscopic PIV. In this study, cycle resolved tomographic particle-image velocimetry measurement have been performed to obtain a fully resolved representation of the three-dimensional flow structures at each instant. The analysis is based on the measurements at 80°, 160°, and 240° after top dead center(atdc) such that the velocity distributions at the intake, the end of the intake, and the compression stroke at an engine speed of 1,500 rpm are discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels: The Potential of Oxygen Content in Fuels for Advanced Diesel Combustion Systems

2009-11-02
2009-01-2765
Fuels derived from biomass will most likely contain oxygen due to the high amount of hydrogen needed to remove oxygen in the production process. Today, alcohol fuels (e. g. ethanol) are well understood for spark ignition engines. The Institute for Combustion Engines at RWTH Aachen University carried out a fuel investigation program to explore the potential of alcohol fuels as candidates for future compression ignition engines to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. The soot formation and oxidation process when using alcohol fuels in diesel engines is not yet sufficiently understood. Depending on the chain length, alcohol fuels vary in cetane number and boiling temperature. Decanol possesses a diesel-like cetane number and a boiling point in the range of the diesel boiling curve. Thus, decanol was selected as an alcohol representative to investigate the influence of the oxygen content of an alcohol on the combustion performance.
Technical Paper

Spray Analysis of C8H18O Fuel Blends Using High-Speed Schlieren Imaging and Mie Scattering

2015-09-06
2015-24-2478
Targeted fuel blending is a known method to improve the performance of an automotive engine. Two candidates for a biofuel blend are the linear C8H18O isomers 1-octanol and di-n-butyl ether (DNBE). Both fuels feature an increased amount of oxygen that reduces soot emissions. However, physical properties of both fuels differ significantly and thus, a different type of spray mixing and combustion is expected: The low reactivity of 1-octanol causes a long ignition delay enabling a better mixture homogenization, but also causes HC and CO emissions. DNBE in contrary is highly volatile, has a short ignition time and thus can act as an ignition booster for 1-octanol without losing positive effects concerning emissions. In this work a spray study is performed for blends of 1-octanol and DNBE. Measurements are conducted under diesel-like engine conditions with an 8-hole piezo injector. High-speed Schlieren and Mie scattering techniques are used for spray visualizations.
Technical Paper

Scalable Mean Value Modeling for Real-Time Engine Simulations with Improved Consistency and Adaptability

2019-04-02
2019-01-0195
This article discusses highly flexible and accurate physics-based mean value modeling (MVM) for internal combustion engines and its wide applicability towards virtual vehicle calibration. The requirement to fulfill the challenging Real Driving Emissions (RDE) standards has significantly increased the demand for precise engine models, especially models regarding pollutant emissions and fuel economy. This has led to a large increase in effort required for precise engine modeling and robust model calibration. Two best-practice engine modeling approaches will be introduced here to satisfy these requirements. These are the exclusive MVM approach, and a combination of MVM and a Design of Experiments (DOE) model for heterogeneous multi-domain engine systems.
Technical Paper

Reduced Chemical Mechanism for the Calculation of Ethanol / Air Flame Speeds

2015-09-06
2015-24-2492
Ethanol currently remains the leading biofuel in the transportation sector, with special focus on spark ignition engines, as a pure as well as a blend component. In order to provide reliable numerical simulations of gasoline combustion processes under the influence of ethanol for modern engine research, it is mandatory to develop well validated detailed kinetic combustion models. One key parameter for the numerical simulation is the laminar burning velocity. Under the aspect of minimizing the general simulation effort for burning velocities, well-validated models have to be reduced. As a base kinetic mechanism for the reduction and optimisation process with respect to burning velocity calculations, a detailed model presented by Zhao et al. (Int. J. Chem. Kin. 40 (1) (2007) 1-18) is chosen. The model has been extensively validated against shock tube, rapid compression machine and burning velocity data. The detailed model consists of 55 species and 290 reactions.
Technical Paper

Partially Premixed Combustion of Gasoline Type Fuels Using Larger Size Nozzle and Higher Compression Ratio in a Diesel Engine

2013-10-14
2013-01-2539
If fuels that are more resistant to auto-ignition are injected near TDC in compression ignition engines, they ignite much later than diesel fuel and combustion occurs when the fuel and air have had more chance to mix. This helps to reduce NOX and smoke emissions at much lower injection pressures compared to a diesel fuel. However, PPCI (Partially Premixed Compression Ignition) operation also leads to higher CO and HC at low loads and higher heat release rates at high loads. These problems can be significantly alleviated by managing the mixing through injector design (e.g. nozzle size and centreline spray angle) and changing CR (Compression Ratio). This work describes results of running a single-cylinder diesel engine on fuel blends by using three different nozzle design (nozzle size: 0.13 mm and 0.17 mm, centreline spray angle: 153° and 120°) and two different CRs (15.9:1 and 18:1).
Journal Article

Optimization of Diesel Combustion and Emissions with Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass

2013-09-08
2013-24-0059
In order to thoroughly investigate and improve the path from biofuel production to combustion, the Cluster of Excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” was installed at RWTH Aachen University in 2007. Since then, a variety of fuel candidates have been investigated. In particular, 2-methyl tetrahydrofurane (2-MTHF) has shown excellent performance w.r.t. the particulate (PM) / NOx trade-off [1]. Unfortunately, the long ignition delay results in increased HC-, CO- and noise emissions. To overcome this problem, the addition of di-n-butylether (DNBE, CN ∼ 100) to 2-MTHF was analyzed. By blending these two in different volumetric shares, the effects of the different mixture formation and combustion characteristics, especially on the HC-, CO- and noise emissions, have been carefully analyzed. In addition, the overall emission performance has been compared to EN590 diesel.
Technical Paper

Optimised Neat Ethanol Engine with Stratified Combustion at Part-load; Particle Emissions, Efficiency and Performance

2013-04-08
2013-01-0254
A regular flex-fuel engine can operate on any blend of fuel between pure gasoline and E85. Flex-fuel engines have relatively low efficiency on E85 because the hardware is optimized for gasoline. If instead the engine is optimized for neat ethanol, the efficiency may be much higher, as demonstrated in this paper. The studied two-liter engine was modified with a much higher compression ratio than suitable for gasoline, two-stage turbocharging and direct injection with piezo-actuated outwards-opening injectors, a stratified combustion system and custom in-house control system. The research engine exhibited a wide-open throttle performance similar to that of a naturally aspirated v8, while offering a part-load efficiency comparable to a state-of-the-art two-liter naturally aspirated engine. NOx will be handled by a lean NOx trap. Combustion characteristics were compared between gasoline and neat ethanol.
Journal Article

Optical Investigation of Combusting Split-Injection Diesel Sprays Under Quiescent Conditions

2013-09-08
2013-24-0034
Multiple-injection strategies are widely used in DI diesel engines. However, the interaction of the injection pulses is not yet fully understood. In this work, a split injection into a combustion vessel is studied by multiple optical imaging diagnostics. The vessel provides quiescent high-temperature, high-pressure ambient conditions. A common-rail injector which is equipped with a three-hole nozzle is used. The spray is visualized by Mie scattering. First and second stage of ignition are probed by formaldehyde laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and OH* chemiluminescence imaging, respectively. In addition formation of soot is characterized by both laser-induced incandescence (LII) and natural luminosity imaging, showing that low-sooting conditions are established. These qualitative diagnostics yield ensemble-averaged, two-dimensional, time-resolved distributions of the corresponding quantities.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of Biofuel Effects on NO and PAH Formation in Diesel-Like Jets

2015-09-06
2015-24-2485
In order to reduce engine out CO2 emissions it is a main subject to find new alternative fuels out of renewable sources. For this reason in this paper a blend out of 1-octanol and di-n-butylether and pure di-n-butylether are investigated in comparison to n-heptane as diesel-like fuel. The alternative fuels have a different combustion behavior particularly concerning important combustion parameters like ignition delay and mixture formation. Especially the formation of pollutants like nitrogen oxides in the combustion of alternative fuels is of global interest. The knowledge of the combustion behavior is important to design new engine geometries or implement a new calibration of the engine. In previous measurements in a single cylinder engine it was found out that both alternative fuels form nearly no soot emissions. For this reason now NOx is investigated optically to avoid the traditional soot NOx trade-off in diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Laminar Burning Velocities of iso-Octane, Ethanol and n-Butanol

2009-11-02
2009-01-2784
Fuels containing oxygenates have become more and more important for spark ignition engines in recent years. Oxygenates are either used as an octane booster or as a biofuel component for fulfilling legislative regulations. Ethanol has been well established for blend rates up to 10%volliq. On the other hand butanol has been introduced as an alternative biofuel component. The effect of the laminar burning velocity of different fuel components on modern engine development is investigated by conducting experiments under high initial pressure and temperature. Initial conditions in this work are a pressure of p = 10 bar and a temperature of T = 373 K. Experiments were done at different fuel - air ratios between 0.8 and 1.3. Test fuels were the pure fuel components iso-octane, ethanol and n-butanol. Different chemical kinetic mechanisms for iso-octane, ethanol and n-butanol from literature are used to calculate laminar burning velocities.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Laminar Burning Velocities of High Octane Fuel Blends Containing Ethanol

2009-04-20
2009-01-0935
Recently, fuels containing ethanol have become more and more important for spark ignition engines. Fuels with up to 10 vol.-% ethanol can be used in most spark ignition engines without technical modification. These fuels have been introduced in many countries already. Alternatively, for fuels with higher amounts of ethanol so called flex fuel vehicles (FFV) exist. One of the most important quantities characterizing a fuel is the laminar burning velocity. To account for the new fuels with respect to engine design, reliable data need to be existent. Especially for engine simulations, various combustion models have been introduced which rely on the laminar burning velocity as the physical quantity describing the progress of chemical reactions, diffusion, and heat conduction. However, there is very few data available in the literature for fuels containing ethanol, especially at high pressures.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of Direct Gas Injection in an Optical Internal Combustion Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0171
Direct injection (DI) of compressed natural gas (CNG) is a promising technology to increase the indicated thermal efficiency of internal combustion engines (ICE) while reducing exhaust emissions and using a relatively low-cost fuel. However, design and analysis of DI-CNG engines are challenging because supersonic gas jet emerging from the DI injector results in a very complex in-cylinder flow field containing shocks and discontinuities affecting the fuel-air mixing. In this article, numerical simulations are used supported by validation to investigate the direct gas injection and its influence on the flow field and mixing in an optically accessible ICE. The simulation approach involves computation of the in-nozzle flow with highly accurate Large-Eddy Simulations, which are then used to obtain a mapped boundary condition. The boundary condition is applied in Unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of the engine to investigate the in-cylinder velocity and mixing fields.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Transport and Mixing Phenomena in Turbulent Flows in Closed Domains

2015-04-14
2015-01-0399
In this work, a transport and mixing model that calculates mixing in thermodynamic phase space was derived and validated. The mixing in thermodynamic multizone space is consistent to the one in the spatially resolved physical space. The model is developed using a turbulent channel flow as simplified domain. This physical domain of a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is divided into zones based on the quantitative value of transported scalars. Fluxes between the zones are introduced to describe mixing from the transport equation of the probability density function based on the mixing process in physical space. The mixing process of further scalars can then be carried out with these fluxes instead of solving additional transport equations. The relationship between the exchange flux in phase space and the concept of scalar dissipation are shown and validated by comparison to DNS results.
Technical Paper

Method for Analytical Calculation of Harmonic Content of Auto-Transformer Rectifier Units

2016-09-20
2016-01-2059
Auto transformer rectifier units (ATRUs) are commonly used in aircraft applications such as electric actuation for harmonic mitigation due to their high reliability and relative low cost. However, those components and the magnetic filter components associated to it are the major contributors to the overall size and weight of the system. Optimization of the magnetic components is essential in order to minimize weight and size, which are major market drivers in aerospace industry today. This requires knowledge of the harmonic content of the current. This can be obtained by simulation, but the process is slow. In order to enable fast and efficient design space exploration of optimal solutions, an algebraic calculation process is proposed in this paper for multi-pulse ATRUs (e.g. 12-pulse and 18-pulse rectifiers), starting from existing solution proposed for 6 pulse rectifier in the literature.
Technical Paper

Lower Emissions in Commercial Diesel Engines through Waste Heat Recovery

2016-09-27
2016-01-8084
In order to comply with demanding Greenhous Gas (GHG) standards, future automotive engines employ advanced engine technologies including waste heat recovery (WHR) systems. A waste heat recovery system converts part of engine wasted exergies to useful work which can be fed back to the engine. Utilizing this additional output power leads to lower specific fuel consumption and CO2 emission when the total output power equals the original engine output power. Engine calibration strategies for reductions in specific fuel consumption typically results in a natural increase of NOx emissions. The utilization of waste heat recovery systems provides a pathway which gives both reduction in emissions and reduction in specific fuel consumption. According to DOE (Department of Energy), US heavy-duty truck engines’ technology need to be upgraded towards higher brake thermal efficiencies (BTE). DOE target is BTE>55% for Class-8 heavy-duty vehicles in the United States.
Journal Article

Laser-Induced Incandescence Measurements of Tailor-Made Fuels in an Optical Single-Cylinder Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0711
The influence of two oxygenated tailor-made fuels on soot formation and oxidation in an optical single cylinder research diesel engine has been studied. For the investigation a planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) measurement technique was applied to the engine in order to detect and evaluate the planar soot distribution for the two bio fuels within a laser light sheet. Furthermore the OH* chemiluminescence and broad band soot luminosity was visualized by high speed imaging to compare the ignition and combustion behavior of tested fuels: Two C8 oxygenates, di-n-butylether (DNBE) and 1-octanol. Both fuels have the same molecular formula but differ in their molecular structure. DNBE ignites fast and burns mostly diffusive while 1-octanol has a low cetane number and therefore it has a longer ignition delay but a more homogeneous mixture at time of ignition. The two bio fuels were finally compared to conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Laminar Burning Velocity of Market Type Gasoline Surrogates as a Performance Indicator in Internal Combustion Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1667
The laminar burning velocity is an important parameter in various combustion models for engine simulations. With respect to computational time for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and full system engine simulations, the calculation of laminar burning velocities using a detailed chemical mechanism can be replaced by incorporation of approximation formulas, based on rate-ratio asymptotics. In the present study, a work flow is developed to analyze the engine efficiency performance of spark ignition engines with respect to the laminar burning velocity as a fundamental fuel property. Firstly, methane is used as a fuel to assess practicability of the approach. The procedure is subsequently adopted for market type gasoline surrogates, RON95 and RON100. Detailed chemistry calculations are carried out for the three target fuels using existing state of the art mechanisms, the Aramco [Zhou et al., Proc. Combust. Inst., pp. 403-411, 2017] and the ITV RWTH mechanism [Cai et al., Combust.
Technical Paper

Laminar Burning Velocities of Dimethyl Ether, n-Heptane and iso-Octane at High Pressure

2009-11-02
2009-01-2656
Oxygenates, such as methanol or ethanol, are frequently used as blending components in standard gasoline. One oxygenate, dimethyl ether (DME), is also used as a fuel component in some regions of the world, for example in Asia. In addition, patent reviews show the potential of DME as a blending component in liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or mixed with propane. The laminar burning velocity is one key parameter for the numerical simulation of gasoline engine combustion processes. Therefore, it is of great interest for modern engine development to understand the effect of oxygenates on the laminar burning velocity. The experimental results have been conducted under engine-like conditions with elevated initial pressures of up to 20 bar and initial temperatures of 373 K. Experiments were done at equivalence ratios between 0.8 and 1.3. The experimental setup consists of a spherical closed pressurized combustion vessel with optical access.
X