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Technical Paper

Well-to-Wheels Analysis of Future Automotive Fuels and Powertrains in the European Context

A consortium of CONCAWE, EUCAR and the EU Commission's JRC carried out a Well-to-Wheels analysis of a wide range of automotive fuels and powertrains. The study gives an assessment of the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for each pathway. It also considers macroeconomic costs and the market potential of alternative fuels.
Journal Article

Validation and Application of a New 0D Flame/Wall Interaction Sub Model for SI Engines

To improve the prediction of the combustion processes in spark ignition engines, a 0D flame/wall interaction submodel has been developed. A two-zones combustion model is implemented and the designed submodel for the flame/wall interaction is included. The flame/wall interaction phenomenon is conceived as a dimensionless function multiplying the burning rate equation. The submodel considers the cylinder shape and the flame surface that spreads inside the combustion chamber. The designed function represents the influence of the cylinder walls while the flame surface propagates across the cylinder. To determine the validity of the combustion model and the flame/wall interaction submodel, the system was tested using the available measurements on a 2 liter SI engine. The model was validated by comparing simulated cylinder pressure and energy release rate with measurements. A good agreement between the implemented model and the measurements was obtained.
Journal Article

Towards an Innovative Combination of Natural Gas and Liquid Fuel Injection in Spark Ignition Engines

In order to address the CO₂ emissions issue and to diversify the energy for transportation, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) is considered as one of the most promising alternative fuels given its high octane number. However, gaseous injection decreases volumetric efficiency, impacting directly the maximal torque through a reduction of the cylinder fill-up. To overcome this drawback, both independent natural gas and gasoline indirect injection systems with dedicated engine control were fitted on a RENAULT 2.0L turbocharged SI (Spark Ignition) engine and were adapted for simultaneous operation. The main objective of this innovative combination of gas and liquid fuel injections is to increase the volumetric efficiency without losing the high knocking resistance of methane.
Technical Paper

The Potential of Highly Premixed Combustion for Pollutant Control in an Automotive Two-Stroke HSDI Diesel Engine

An innovative alternative to overcome the load limits of the early injection highly premixed combustion concept consists of taking advantage of the intrinsic characteristics of two-stroke engines, since they can attain the full load torque of a four-stroke engine as the addition of two medium load cycles, where the implementation of this combustion concept could be promising. In this frame, the main objective of this investigation focuses on evaluating the potential of the early injection HPC concept using a conventional diesel fuel combined with a two-stroke poppet valves engine architecture for pollutant control, while keeping a competitive engine efficiency. On a first stage, the HPC concept was implemented at low engine load, where the concept is expected to provide the best results, by advancing the start of injection towards the compression stroke and it was confirmed how it is possible to reduce NOX and soot emissions, but increasing HC and CO emissions.
Technical Paper

System Optimization for a 2-Stroke Diesel Engine with a Turbo Super Configuration Supporting Fuel Economy Improvement of Next Generation Engines

The objective of this paper is to present the results of the GT Power calibration with engine test results of the air loop system technology down selection described in the SAE Paper No. 2012-01-0831. Two specific boosting systems were identified as the preferred path forward: (1) Super-turbo with two speed Roots type supercharger, (2) Super-turbo with centrifugal mechanical compressor and CVT transmission both downstream a Fixed Geometry Turbine. The initial performance validation of the boosting hardware in the gas stand and the calibration of the GT Power model developed is described. The calibration leverages data coming from the tests on a 2 cylinder 2-stroke 0.73L diesel engine. The initial flow bench results suggested the need for a revision of the turbo matching due to the big gap in performance between predicted maps and real data. This activity was performed using Honeywell turbocharger solutions spacing from fixed geometry waste gate to variable nozzle turbo (VNT).
Technical Paper

System Approach for NOx Reduction: Double LNT Diesel After-Treatment Architecture

This paper presents an after-treatment architecture combining a close coupled NOx trap and an under floor NOx trap. Instead of simply increasing the volume of the catalyst, we propose to broaden the active temperature window by splitting the LNT along the exhaust line. In order to design this architecture, a complete 1D model of NOx trap has been developed. Validated with respect to experimental data, this model has been useful to define the two volumes of LNT, making significant savings on the test bench exploitation. However, one of the main difficulties to operate the proposed architecture is the NOx purge and sulfur poisoning management. In order to optimize the NOx and sulfur purge launches, we have developed a control strategy based on an embedded reduced LNT model. These strategies have been validated on different driving cycles, by the means of simulation and of vehicle tests using rapid prototyping tools.
Technical Paper

Simulation Strategy for Structure Borne Noise Sources: Use of Super Elements and Blocked Forces Tensors between Suppliers and OEMs to Validate Components at Early Design Stage

This paper is a case study from the TESSA project (French funded research program “Transfert des Efforts des Sources Solidiennes Actives”). The general frame of the work was to assess a collaborative design process between a car manufacturer and a major supplier using FE modelling and condensation of structure borne noise sources as an alternative to classic specification method for structure borne sources. Super elements from different FE commercial softwares have been used to assess the reliability of the method, the compatibility of the softwares and, most important, the relevance of applying a blocked force tensor to the component super element to predict the interior contribution of a component which is the originality of this work. The case study is an internal combustion engine cooling module (fan + shroud + exchangers) from VALEO including all assembly details (clips, decoupling elements) modelled under ABAQUS and its integration in a RENAULT Espace under NASTRAN.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Benefits of Dual Cam Phasers, Lean Mixture and EGR on the Operating Range and Fuel Economy of a PFI NVO CAI Engine

Among the existing concepts that help to improve the efficiency of spark-ignition engines at part load, Controlled Auto-Ignition™ (CAI™) is an effective way to lower both fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. This combustion concept is based on the auto-ignition of an air-fuel-mixture highly diluted with hot burnt gases to achieve high indicated efficiency and low pollutant emissions through low temperature combustion. To minimize the costs of conversion of a standard spark-ignition engine into a CAI engine, the present study is restricted to a Port Fuel Injection engine with a cam-profile switching system and a cam phaser on both intake and exhaust sides. In a 4-stroke engine, a large amount of burnt gases can be trapped in the cylinder via early closure of the exhaust valves. This so-called Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) strategy has a key parameter to control the amount of trapped burnt gases and consequently the combustion: the exhaust valve-lift profile.
Technical Paper

Progress in Diesel HCCI Combustion Within the European SPACE LIGHT Project

The purpose of the European « SPACE LIGHT » (Whole SPACE combustion for LIGHT duty diesel vehicles) 3-year project launched in 2001 is to research and develop an innovative Homogeneous internal mixture Charged Compression Ignition (HCCI) for passenger cars diesel engine where the combustion process can take place simultaneously in the whole SPACE of the combustion chamber while providing almost no NOx and particulates emissions. This paper presents the whole project with the main R&D tasks necessary to comply with the industrial and technical objectives of the project. The research approach adopted is briefly described. It is then followed by a detailed description of the most recent progress achieved during the tasks recently undertaken. The methodology adopted starts from the research study of the in-cylinder combustion specifications necessary to achieve HCCI combustion from experimental single cylinder engines testing in premixed charged conditions.
Journal Article

Preliminary Design of a Two-Stroke Uniflow Diesel Engine for Passenger Car

The target of substantial CO₂ reductions in the spirit of the Kyoto Protocol as well as higher engine efficiency requirements has increased research efforts into hybridization of passenger cars. In the frame of this hybridization, there is a real need to develop small Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) with high power density. The two-stroke cycle can be a solution to reach these goals, allowing reductions of engine displacement, size and weight while maintaining good NVH, power and consumption levels. Reducing the number of cylinders, could also help reduce engine cost. Taking advantage of a strong interaction between the design office, 0D system simulations and 3D CFD computations, a specific methodology was set up in order to define a first optimized version of a two-stroke uniflow diesel engine. The main geometrical specifications (displacement, architecture) were chosen at the beginning of the study based on a bibliographic pre-study and the power target in terms.
Technical Paper

Optimum Diesel Fuel for Future Clean Diesel Engines

Over the next decades to come, fossil fuel powered Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) will still constitute the major powertrains for land transport. Therefore, their impact on the global and local pollution and on the use of natural resources should be minimized. To this end, an extensive fundamental and practical study was performed to evaluate the potential benefits of simultaneously co-optimizing the system fuel-and-engine using diesel as an example. It will be clearly shown that the still unused co-optimizing of the system fuel-and-engine (including advanced exhaust after-treatment) as a single entity is a must for enabling cleaner future road transport by cleaner fuels since there are large, still unexploited potentials for improvements in road fuels which will provide major reductions in pollutant emissions both in vehicles already in the field and even more so in future dedicated vehicles.
Technical Paper

Multi-Fuel Fuel Processor and PEM Fuel Cell System for Vehicles

An ongoing program has made further technology advances in onboard fuel processors for use with PEM fuel cells. These systems are being explored as an option for reducing vehicle CO2 emissions and for other benefits such as fuel-flexibility that would allow vehicles to operate on a range of bio-fuels, conventional fuels, and synthetic fuels to support diversification and/or “greening” of the fuel supply. As presented at the 2006 SAE World Congress1, Renault and Nuvera Fuel Cells previously developed fuel processor technology that achieved automotive size (80 liters) and power (1.4 g/s of hydrogen production) and reduced the startup time from more than 60 minutes to between 1.4 and 3.7 minutes to have CO <100 ppm. This paper presents an overview of the multi-fuel fuel cell power plant along with advances in the fuel processing system (FPS) technology and the testing results obtained since those reported in 2006.
Technical Paper

Maximum Electrical Energy Availability With Reasonable Components

The electric power required in automotive systems is quickly reaching a level that significantly impacts costs and fuel consumption. This drives the need to reconsider an electric energy management function. Fast evolving factors such as increasing power usage, and stricter engine management and reliability requirements necessitate a global vehicle approach to energy management. Innovations such as new powernet concepts (42 volt or dual voltage systems), new component technologies (high-performance energy storage, high efficiency and controllable generators), and global electronic and software architecture concepts will enable this new energy management concept. This paper describes key issues to maximize energy availability with reasonable components.
Technical Paper

Light Weight Engine Construction through Extended and Sustainable Use of Mg-Alloys

Eight partners from Europe and one from North America have joined efforts in a EU-supported project to find new ways for sustainable production of Mg-based engine blocks for cars. The ultimate aim of the work is to reduce vehicle weight, thereby reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions from operation of the vehicle. Four new magnesium alloys are considered in the project and an engine block has been series cast - 20 each in two alloys. An extensive mechanical testing program has been initiated to identify in particular the high temperature limits of the four alloys and a significant experimental study of proper bolt materials for joining is being done in parallel. Engine redesign and life cycle analysis has also been completed to secure the future sustainable exploitation of the project results. This paper presents an overview of the work and results obtained until now - 3 months before the ending date of the project.
Journal Article

Investigation on Multiple Injection Strategies for Gasoline PPC Operation in a Newly Designed 2-Stroke HSDI Compression Ignition Engine

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) of fuels in the gasoline octane range has proven its potential to achieve simultaneous reduction in soot and NOX emissions, combined with high indicated efficiencies; while still retaining proper control over combustion phasing with the injection event, contrary to fully premixed strategies. However, gasoline fuels with high octane number as the commonly available for the public provide a challenge to ensure reliable ignition especially in the low load range, while fuel blends with lower octane numbers present problems for extending the ignition delay in the high load range and avoid the onset of knocking-like combustion. Thus, choosing an appropriate fuel and injection strategy is critical to solve these issues, assuring successful PPC operation in the full engine map.
Technical Paper

Impact of Sulphur on the NOx Trap Catalyst Activity-Poisoning and Regeneration Behaviour

This presented paper deals with NOx trap sulphur poisoning and its regeneration. Sulphur poisoning has been studied with different SO2 gas concentrations under laboratory and engine test bench conditions. The sulphur poisoning studies have shown that the different NOx-traps available in the market have different behaviours toward SO2 poisoning and are all very sensitive to it. The results outline a non linear relationship of the NOx trap sulphur poisoning as a function of SO2 concentration. For instance, engine bench tests show that with a 50 and a 110ppm sulphur containing gasoline, a decrease of 50% in the NOx-trap storage capacity is respectively observed after 20 and 15 hours. With a gasoline containing 20ppm of sulphur, the same deactivation level is observed after 90 hours.
Technical Paper

Impact of Gasoline RON and MON on a Turbocharged MPI SI Engine Performances

This paper presents a combustion study of gasoline anti-knock quality effects on turbocharged MPI SI engine performances. A comparative analysis between many fuels covering various Research Octane Number (RON), Motor Octane Number (MON) and sensitivity (RON-MON) is described. The study was conducted on steady state test bench, using a four cylinder 2 L engine. In turbocharged gasoline engines, knock resistance is more than ever a crucial issue to achieve high performance and good customer's consumption level. Octane level is therefore a fuel key parameter. Considering thermodynamic aspects of such combustion at full load, performances, fuel consumption and engine thermal strains are evaluated for each tested fuel. An important influence of RON at iso sensitivity was observed. Because of the extreme conditions met on turbocharged gasoline engine, the impact of RON is exacerbated on such engine and illustrates the great benefits of an increase RON fuel.
Technical Paper

Fuel Additive Performance Evaluation for Volume Production Application of a Diesel Particulate Filter

Diesel particulate filter (DPF) technology is becoming increasingly established as a practical method for control of particulate emissions from diesel engines. In the year 2000, production vehicles with DPF systems, using metallic fuel additive to assist regeneration, became available in Europe. These early examples of first generation DPF technology are forerunners of more advanced systems likely to be needed by many light-duty vehicles to meet Euro IV emissions legislation scheduled for 2005. Aspects requiring attention in second generation DPF systems are a compromise between regeneration kinetics and ash accumulation. The DPF regeneration event is activated by fuel injection, either late in the combustion cycle (late injection), or after normal combustion (post injection), leading to increased fuel consumption. Therefore for optimum fuel economy, the duration of regeneration and/or the soot ignition temperature must be minimised.
Technical Paper

French Program on the Impact of Engine Technology on Particulate Emissions, Size Distribution and Composition Heavy Duty Diesel Study

An extensive research program involving the French passenger car and heavy-duty (HD) vehicles manufacturers, sponsored by ADEME and realized by IFP, aimed to characterize in terms of size and composition the particulate emitted by the different engine technologies currently or soon available. The impact of engine settings and fuel composition was also studied. Numerous information was collected in this HD study revealing that fuel composition and particularly non-conventional fuels and engine settings strongly impact the particulate concentration and size distribution. Nucleation is likely to occur when there is less adsorption matter, for instance when post-injection is used or EGR is removed. Particulate composition, particularly PAH and sulfates content, is weakly bound to the size. Mineral elements distribution depends on their origin, lubrication oil or engine wear.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Analysis of Conrod Bearing

For many years, bearing suppliers have been using the specific pressure to evaluate the fatigue risk of conrod bearings. However, modern engines have made the bearing more sensitive to various phenomena such as the thermal expansion or the elasticity of the conrod housing. These effects modify the stresses in the bearing layers and consequently fatigue risk. In this paper, we propose a new way to determine the bearing fatigue resistance. To achieve that, we analyze the elastic and plastic behavior of the bearing along the engine life. We detail and provide the analytical relationships which determine stresses in the overlay and in the substrate of the bearing in order to analyze their fatigue resistance. Various physical loads are taken into account such as the thermal load, the hydrodynamic pressure field, the fitting load, the free spread load. A good knowledge of the relationships between those physical phenomena helps to understand the mechanical behavior of the bearing.