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Technical Paper

Measurement of Chipping of Automotive Finishes

Various laboratory methods for measuring chip resistance were compared and found to rate different finishes in different orders. A field survey showed that a gravelometer using gravel rather than other media correlated well with actual service results. The necessity of preparing chip resistance test panels which very closely duplicate the actual finish obtained on cars was shown. The nature of chipping has been studied and improved rating systems developed. Detailed drawings, test procedures, and rating systems for the SAE gravelometer have been proposed for publication.
Technical Paper

Initial Oxidation Activity of Noble Metal Automotive Exhaust Catalysts

The use of relatively small catalytic converters containing alumina-supported platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) catalysts to control exhaust emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) was investigated in full-scale vehicle tests. Catalytic converters containing 70-80in3 of fresh catalyst were installed at two converter locations on the vehicle. Carburetion was richer than stoichiometric, with air-fuel ratios (A/F) comparable to those proposed for dual-catalyst systems containing an NOx reduction catalyst. The vehicle was equipped with exhaust manifold air injection. Homogeneous thermal reaction in the exhaust manifolds played a significant role in the overall control of HC and CO. Four Pt catalysts, three Pd catalysts, and one Pt-Pd catalyst were prepared and evaluated. Total metal loadings were varied 0.01-0.07 troy oz. Hydrocarbon conversion efficiencies varied 62-82%, measured over the 1975 cold-hot start weighted Federal Test Procedure.
Technical Paper

Hydrodynamic Sealing with Radial Lip Seals

Conventional radial lip oil seals can be made more effective by utilizing helical grooving beneath the contact lip surface. Miniature hydrodynamic pumps so formed aid the radial lip seal in containing the oil by generating fluid forces opposite in direction to the leakage flow forces. This seal-shaft combination has been termed the Hydroseal. Four factorial experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of helix angle, groove depth, groove width, and number of grooves on sealing performance. The criterion used as a basis for selecting the optimum design were leakage, wear, hardening of the sealing surface, and pumping capacity. These data indicated that the best hydroseal design was one with three grooves, 0.0003 in. deep, 0.014 in. wide, having a helix angle of 45 deg.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effect of Fluids on Automatic Transmission Piston Seal Materials

A brief review of the testing of automatic transmission fluid for compatibility with seals is presented. The total immersion test used in fluid qualification, while apparently effective in predicting the compatibility of fluids and seals in service, does not correlate well with transmission tests with respect to hardness change of piston seals. The Dip-Cycle Test, developed to overcome this limitation, is a procedure for alternately immersing seal specimens in the test fluid and suspending them in the hot air-fluid vapor atmosphere above the fluid. Correlation of the Dip-Cycle Test with transmission piston seal results is much improved over that with the total immersion test. It is the purpose of this paper to review these developments and to present an improved test procedure (dip cycle test) for evaluating the effect of fluids on transmission piston seal materials.
Technical Paper

Engine Oil MS Test Sequences IIA and IIIA

Engine oil test Sequences IIA and IIIA have been developed to replace Sequences I, II, and III. These new sequences are designed to evaluate lubricants for use in current passenger car engines under severe (MS) service conditions. Lubricant performance is evaluated with respect to scuffing wear, rust, corrosion, deposits, and rumble. The Sequence IIA and IIIA test procedure involves major changes which affect the evaluation of engine rusting and provides improved correlation between test results and short-trip service. Average engine rust ratings correlate with service data within ±0.5 numbers. The new test also provides better repeatability and reproducibility in a significantly shorter schedule. The rust repeatability and reproducibility is less than ±0.2 and ±0.6 numbers, respectively. Test time has been reduced 52%.
Technical Paper

Development of Polymeric Materials for Humanlike Neck Simulations

Several polymeric materials were developed and evaluated for possible inclusion in the neck structure of state-of-the-art anthropomorphic dummies. These included three types of foam-polyvinylchloride, polyethylene, and polyurethane, and two flexible polymers-polyurethane and a polyvinylchloride chlorinated polyethylene blend (PVC-CPE). Two materials, the polyurethane elastomer and the PVC-CPE blend, were found to be satisfactory in their dynamic response. Because of the ease of casting, the polyurethane material will be used in the GMR 1 state-of-the-art dummy.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Resistance of Trim Materials

As the design of automobiles changed over the past seventy years, manufacturers have increased the usage of decorative trim to further enhance the beauty of styling concepts. As new trim materials were introduced and parts became more complicated in design, producers have continued their efforts to produce decorative trim parts which remain attractive during the service life of the automobile. The service performance of trim materials in several geographic locations, the use of accelerated tests to predict service performance, recent developments in improving the durability of plated parts, and requirements for producing quality exterior decorative trim are reviewed in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Rotary Engine Test to Evaluate Lubricants for Control of Rotor Deposits

During development of the General Motors rotary engine, the lubricant was recognized as important to its success because certain lubricants produced deposits which tended to stick both side and apex seals. Consequently, it was decided to develop a rotary engine-dynamometer test, using a Mazda engine, which could be used for lubricant evaluation. In an investigation using an SE engine oil with which there was rotary engine experience, engine operating variables and engine modifications were studied until the greatest amount of deposits were obtained in 100 h of testing. The most significant engine modifications were: omission of inner side seals, plugging of half the rotor bearing holes, pinning of oil seals, grinding of end and intermediate housings, and using a separate oil reservoir for the metering pump. Using this 100 h test procedure, three engine oils and five automatic transmission fluids were evaluated.
Technical Paper

A Laboratory Method for Testing Moisture Sensitivity of Brake Lining Materials

A laboratory test method has been devised to measure the variation in coefficient of friction values of a brake lining as it passes through the various degrees of wetness. The results of tests on two linings are shown: the first one of the most sensitive lining material tested to date; the second an improved material.