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Technical Paper

“Rubber Coupling” at a 4×4 Transmition System

2003-11-18
2003-01-3684
There are many different vibration sources in a car. Engine, gears, road roughness, impacts against the wheels cause vibration and sound that can decrease the parts and the car durability as well as affect drivability, safety and passengers and community comfort. In 4×4 cars, some extra vibration sources are the parts responsible for transmitting the torque and power to the rear wheels. Each of them has their own vibration modes, excited mostly by its imbalance or by the second order engine vibration. The engine vibration is a very well known phenomena and the rear driveshaft is designed not to have any vibration mode in the range of frequencies that the engine works or its second order. The imbalance of a driveshaft is also a design requirement. That means, the acceptable imbalance of the driveshaft is limited to a maximum value.
Technical Paper

Yaw Rate Based Trailer Hitch Angle Estimation for Trailer Backup Assist

2017-03-28
2017-01-0027
In the current Ford Pro-Trailer Backup Assist (TBA) system, trailer hitch angle is determined utilizing the reverse camera of the vehicle. In addition to being sensitive to environmental factors such as lighting conditions and occlusion, the vision-based approach is difficult to be applied to gooseneck or fifth wheel trailers. In this paper, a yaw rate based hitch angle observer is proposed as an alternative sensing solution for TBA. Based on the kinematic model of the vehicle-trailer, an instantaneous hitch angle is first derived by utilizing vehicle yaw rate, trailer yaw rate, vehicle velocity and vehicle/trailer parameters provided by the TBA system. Due to signal errors and parameter uncertainties, this instantaneous hitch angle may be noisy, especially at lower vehicle speed.
Technical Paper

World Radio Revisited: Still a Myth?

1990-02-01
900040
As in most industries, car radio designers have long envisioned a product which could be sold without modification throughout the world. However, local requirements, performance differences, and customer preferences have presented major obstacles to achieving this goal. Since publishing a previous paper on this subject in 1983, many changes have taken place in electronics and in car radio design. Some of these changes have reduced the barriers to producing a “World Radio” while others have presented new obstacles to be overcome. This paper addresses some of those changes and the current possibilities.
Technical Paper

Wind Noise and Drag Optimization Test Method for Sail-Mounted Exterior Mirrors

2003-05-05
2003-01-1702
An L18 Taguchi-style Design of Experiments (DOE) with eight factors was used to optimize exterior mirrors for wind noise and drag. Eighteen mirror properties were constructed and tested on a full size greenhouse buck at the Lockheed low-speed wind tunnel in Marietta, GA. Buck interior sound data and drag measurements were taken at 80 MPH wind speed (0° yaw angle). Key wind noise parameters were the fore/aft length of mirror housing and the plan view angle of the mirror housing's inboard surface. Key drag parameters were the fore/aft length of the mirror housing, the cross-section shape of the mirror pedestal, and the angle of the pedestal (relative to the wind).
Technical Paper

Wheel Dust Measurement and Root Cause Assessment

2003-10-19
2003-01-3341
North American drivers particularly dislike wheel dust (brake dust on their wheels). For some vehicle lines, customer surveys indicate that wheel dust is a significant concern. For this reason, Ford and its suppliers are investigating the root causes of brake dust and developing test procedures to detect wheel dust issues up-front. Intuitively, it would appear that more brake wear would lead to more wheel dust. To test this hypothesis, a gage was needed to quantitatively measure the wheel dust. Gages such as colorimeters were evaluated to measure the brightness (L*) of the wheel, which ranged from roughly 70-80% (clean) to 10-20% (very dirty). Gage R&R's and subjective ratings by a panel of 30 people were used to validate the wheel dust gages. A city traffic vehicle test and an urban dynamometer procedure were run to compare the level of wheel dust for 10 different lining types on the same vehicle.
Technical Paper

Virtual Temperature Controlled Seat Performance Test

2018-04-03
2018-01-1317
The demand for seating comfort is growing - in cars as well as trucks and other commercial vehicles. This is expected as the seat is the largest surface area of the vehicle that is in contact with the occupant. While it is predominantly luxury cars that have been equipped with climate controlled seats, there is now a clear trend toward this feature becoming available in mid-range and compact cars. The main purpose of climate controlled seats is to create an agreeable microclimate that keeps the driver comfortable. It also reduces the “stickiness” feeling which is reported by perspiring occupants on leather-covered seats. As part of the seat design process, a physical test is performed to record and evaluate the life cycle and the performance at ambient and extreme temperatures for the climate controlled seats as well as their components. The test calls for occupied and unoccupied seats at several ambient temperatures.
Technical Paper

Vibration Mode Study of Steering Columns for Commercial Vehicles

2008-10-07
2008-36-0193
On the development process of truck vehicles, the dynamic behavior must be considered together with the costs involved in this development. Objective measurements, subjective evaluations and CAE simulations are used in order to support this development process. Ride comfort, acceleration and braking performance, handling and NVH are examples of attributes considered in the dynamic behavior evaluation of a tuck. Some characteristics of steering column vibration, noise and harshness are relevant to guarantee driver comfort level and vehicle safety. In this work, CAE models validated by experimental measurements were used to identify cab and vehicle modes of vibration which have significant influence on steering column response. Using this procedure, an alternative was proposed in order to decrease the amplitudes of cab and steering column vibration.
Technical Paper

Verification of Accelerated PM Loading for DPF Qualification Studies

2009-04-20
2009-01-1089
High gas prices combined with demand for improved fuel economy have prompted increased interest in diesel engine applications for both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. The development of aftertreatment systems for these vehicles requires significant investments of capital and time. A reliable and robust qualification testing procedure will allow for more rapid development with lower associated costs. Qualification testing for DPFs has its basis in methods similar to DOCs but also incorporates a PM loading method and regeneration testing of loaded samples. This paper examines the effects of accelerated loading using a PM generator and compares PM generator loaded DPFs to engine dynamometer loaded samples. DPFs were evaluated based on pressure drop and regeneration performance for samples loaded slowly and for samples loaded under accelerated conditions. A regeneration reactor was designed and built to help evaluate the DPFs loaded using the PM generator and an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication using AppLink

2015-09-22
2015-36-0271
With the increasing number of cars on the street, the exchange of information between those cars becomes essential to improve the driving skills of each driver, resulting in a safer, intelligent and more dynamic traffic. The task now is to make it accessible for everyone. One possible and cheap way to solve this issue is to seek possibilities on free technologies within market trends. Using the smartphone platforms, which holds a high level of embedded technologies, becoming a global communication device even to interpersonal and to social networks, and AppLink Development Kit for smartphones and vehicles integration, this paper will cover aspects about the integration of the kit to an database application based on the cloud, enabling real-time interaction between two cars. Making possible to a driver have access to information and current status of other cars to aid ones life on heavy traffic.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Touchscreen Shelf Study

2017-03-28
2017-01-1378
Researchers report an estimated 35.7 million of vehicles with touchscreens will be sold in 2019 worldwide [1]. As the use of touchscreens grows in the automotive industry, there is a need to study how driver’s arm and hand moves to access the touchscreen as well as how the driver utilizes the hardware around the touchscreen. In order to aid drivers while using the touchscreen and to minimize distractions, the drivers’ hand must be able to freely move to perform a task on the touchscreen without the trim interfering with the task. At the same time some trim may be used to support the hand and fingers while accessing the touchscreen particularly during tasks that take a longer period of time to complete. A study was performed to understand the effect of the size and the angle of a shelf placed under a touchscreen. Motion capture (Mocap) data of the hand of subjects performing two different tasks on the touchscreen was collected in the Human Occupant Package Simulator (HOPS).
Journal Article

Vehicle System Control Software Validation for the Dual Drive Hybrid Powertrain

2009-04-20
2009-01-0736
Through the use of hybrid technology, Ford Motor Company continues to realize enhanced vehicle fuel economy while meeting customer performance and drivability targets. As is characteristic of all Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), the basis for resolving these competing requirements resides with its Vehicle System Control (VSC) strategy. This strategy implements complex high-level executive controls to coordinate and optimize the desired operational state of the major HEV powertrain subsystems. To ensure that the VSC software meets its intended functionality, a software validation process developed at Research and Advanced Engineering has been integrated as part of the vehicle controls development process. In this paper, this VSC software validation process implemented for a next generation hybrid powertrain is presented. First, an overview of the hybrid powertrain application and the VSC software architecture is introduced.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: System Design & Objective Testing Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0575
The USDOT and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, GM, Honda, Mercedes, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested communications-based vehicle safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: Multiple On-Board Equipment Testing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0586
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Technical Paper

Vehicle NVH Evaluations and NVH Target Cascading Considerations for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2015-06-15
2015-01-2362
The increasing trend toward electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has created unique challenges for NVH development and refinement. Traditionally, characterization of in-vehicle powertrain noise and vibration has been assessed through standard operating conditions such as fixed gear engine speed sweeps at varied loads. Given the multiple modes of operation which typically exist for HEVs, characterization and source-path analysis of these vehicles can be more complicated than conventional vehicles. In-vehicle NVH assessment of an HEV powertrain requires testing under multiple operating conditions for identification and characterization of the various issues which may be experienced by the driver. Generally, it is necessary to assess issues related to IC engine operation and electric motor operation (running simultaneously with and independent of the IC engine), under both motoring and regeneration conditions.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Integrated Non-Intrusive Monitoring of Driver Biological Signals

2011-04-12
2011-01-1095
A vehicle integrated sensing and analysis system has been designed, implemented, and demonstrated to nonintrusively monitor several biological signals of the driver. The biological driver signals measured by the system are the heart electrical signals or pseudo Lead-I electrocardiography (pLI-ECG), the galvanic skin response (GSR) or electrical conductance measured from the driver's fingers to palm, the palm skin temperature, the face skin temperature, and the respiration rate. The pLI-ECG and GSR measurements are made through direct contact of the driver hands with stainless steel electrodes integrated in the steering wheel rim. The temperature measurements are made with non-contacting infrared temperature sensors, also located on the steering wheel. The respiration rate was measured using a flexible thin film piezoelectric sensor affixed to the seatbelt.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Objective Metrics

2003-11-18
2003-01-3631
Among the development phases of an automotive vehicle one can point out the definition of the main characteristics of its suspensions like for example the suspension kinematics and compliances properties. Suspension definition phase can be understood as the following scenario: given a suspension type, which hard points (geometric) and what values of stiffness for the whole system will result in a desired dynamic behavior for the vehicle as well as production feasibility. This present work intends to show the influence of some suspension properties on the global dynamic behavior of the vehicle, having as a target an efficient suspension design. In terms of global dynamic behavior this work point out some control parameters, which describe the vehicle transient and steady-state properties. Those parameters are: Yaw phase lag, understeer gradient, Steady state acceleration gain and yaw overshoot during a maneuver like brake in a turn and power-off in a curve.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamic Handling Computer Simulation - Model Development, Correlation, and Application Using ADAMS

1986-03-01
860574
A new capability to simulate transient, non-linear handling maneuvers analytically, and dynamically display the vehicle's response with 3-dimensional animated graphics has been developed and is being utilized by Ford Motor Company. The implementation of this capability, which includes complete affects of steering and suspension kinematics, individual bushing compliances, non-linear shock absorber and jounce bumper characteristics, and transient tire force and moment data, represents a new frontier in the development of light truck and passenger car vehicles. Development of this model lends itself to analytical evaluations of numerous types of handling related maneuvers such as classical or linear behavior, transient and limit stability analysis, and special situations such as cross wind stability, torque steer, and vehicle drift characteristics.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Cascade & Target Response Analysis (VeCTRA) is an Excel Based Tool Used for the Idle NVH Target Cascade Process

2003-05-05
2003-01-1434
Recent trends show a growing demand for improved powertrain noise and vibration quality. In particular, there is little customer acceptance of vibration and noise (“boom”) at engine idle speeds. CAE analysis is being used increasingly as an aid for reducing overall vehicle level responses. Traditionally, analytical idle response is evaluated for only one particular engine order at a time. An efficient Excel based tool called VeCTRA (Vehicle Cascade & Target Response Analysis) was developed to accurately assess the effects of multiple powertrain orders on the vehicle level idle response. VeCTRA is capable of predicting the overall vehicle level response (tactile and acoustic) as well as determining the contribution from each engine order and the specific component excitations within an order. VeCTRA is capable of using analytical or experimentally measured sensitivity and/or excitation data.
Journal Article

Validation of In-Vehicle Speech Recognition Using Synthetic Mixing

2017-03-28
2017-01-1693
This paper describes a method to validate in-vehicle speech recognition by combining synthetically mixed speech and noise samples with batch speech recognition. Vehicle cabin noises are prerecorded along with the impulse response from the driver's mouth location to the cabin microphone location. These signals are combined with a catalog of speech utterances to generate a noisy speech corpus. Several factors were examined to measure their relative importance on speech recognition robustness. These include road surface and vehicle speed, climate control blower noise, and driver's seat position. A summary of the main effects from these experiments are provided with the most significant factors coming from climate control noise. Additionally, a Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) experiment was conducted highlighting the inverse relationship with speech recognition performance.
Technical Paper

Validating Powertrain Controller Systems With the VPACS-HIL Powertrain Simulator

2005-04-11
2005-01-1663
To manage the function of a vehicle's engine, transmission, and related subsystems, almost all modern vehicles make use of one or more electronic controllers running embedded software, henceforth referred to as a Powertrain Controller System or PCS. Fully validating this PCS is a necessary step of vehicle development, and the validation process requires extensive amounts of testing. Traditionally, this validation testing is done with open-loop signal generators, powertrain dynamometers, and real vehicles. Such testing methods either cannot simulate complex control system interactions, or are expensive and subject to variability. To address these concerns while decreasing development time and improving vehicle quality, Ford Motor Company is placing increasing focus on validating a PCS through simulation. One such testing method is a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation, which mates the physical elements of a PCS to a real-time computer simulation of a powertrain.
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