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Technical Paper

Wind Noise and Drag Optimization Test Method for Sail-Mounted Exterior Mirrors

2003-05-05
2003-01-1702
An L18 Taguchi-style Design of Experiments (DOE) with eight factors was used to optimize exterior mirrors for wind noise and drag. Eighteen mirror properties were constructed and tested on a full size greenhouse buck at the Lockheed low-speed wind tunnel in Marietta, GA. Buck interior sound data and drag measurements were taken at 80 MPH wind speed (0° yaw angle). Key wind noise parameters were the fore/aft length of mirror housing and the plan view angle of the mirror housing's inboard surface. Key drag parameters were the fore/aft length of the mirror housing, the cross-section shape of the mirror pedestal, and the angle of the pedestal (relative to the wind).
Technical Paper

Wheel Dust Measurement and Root Cause Assessment

2003-10-19
2003-01-3341
North American drivers particularly dislike wheel dust (brake dust on their wheels). For some vehicle lines, customer surveys indicate that wheel dust is a significant concern. For this reason, Ford and its suppliers are investigating the root causes of brake dust and developing test procedures to detect wheel dust issues up-front. Intuitively, it would appear that more brake wear would lead to more wheel dust. To test this hypothesis, a gage was needed to quantitatively measure the wheel dust. Gages such as colorimeters were evaluated to measure the brightness (L*) of the wheel, which ranged from roughly 70-80% (clean) to 10-20% (very dirty). Gage R&R's and subjective ratings by a panel of 30 people were used to validate the wheel dust gages. A city traffic vehicle test and an urban dynamometer procedure were run to compare the level of wheel dust for 10 different lining types on the same vehicle.
Technical Paper

Weld Line Factors for Thermoplastics

2017-03-28
2017-01-0481
Weld lines occur when melt flow fronts meet during the injection molding of plastic parts. It is important to investigate the weld line because the weld line area can induce potential failure of structural application. In this paper, a weld line factor (W-L factor) was adopted to describe the strength reduction to the ultimate strength due to the appearance of weld line. There were two engineering thermoplastics involved in this study, including one neat PP and one of talc filled PP plastics. The experimental design was used to investigate four main injection molding parameters (melt temperature, mold temperature, injection speed and packing pressure). Both the tensile bar samples with/without weld lines were molded at each process settings. The sample strength was obtained by the tensile tests under two levels of testing speed (5mm/min and 200mm/min) and testing temperatures (room temperature and -30°C). The results showed that different materials had various values of W-L factor.
Technical Paper

Verification of Accelerated PM Loading for DPF Qualification Studies

2009-04-20
2009-01-1089
High gas prices combined with demand for improved fuel economy have prompted increased interest in diesel engine applications for both light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. The development of aftertreatment systems for these vehicles requires significant investments of capital and time. A reliable and robust qualification testing procedure will allow for more rapid development with lower associated costs. Qualification testing for DPFs has its basis in methods similar to DOCs but also incorporates a PM loading method and regeneration testing of loaded samples. This paper examines the effects of accelerated loading using a PM generator and compares PM generator loaded DPFs to engine dynamometer loaded samples. DPFs were evaluated based on pressure drop and regeneration performance for samples loaded slowly and for samples loaded under accelerated conditions. A regeneration reactor was designed and built to help evaluate the DPFs loaded using the PM generator and an engine dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication using AppLink

2015-09-22
2015-36-0271
With the increasing number of cars on the street, the exchange of information between those cars becomes essential to improve the driving skills of each driver, resulting in a safer, intelligent and more dynamic traffic. The task now is to make it accessible for everyone. One possible and cheap way to solve this issue is to seek possibilities on free technologies within market trends. Using the smartphone platforms, which holds a high level of embedded technologies, becoming a global communication device even to interpersonal and to social networks, and AppLink Development Kit for smartphones and vehicles integration, this paper will cover aspects about the integration of the kit to an database application based on the cloud, enabling real-time interaction between two cars. Making possible to a driver have access to information and current status of other cars to aid ones life on heavy traffic.
Journal Article

Vehicle System Control Software Validation for the Dual Drive Hybrid Powertrain

2009-04-20
2009-01-0736
Through the use of hybrid technology, Ford Motor Company continues to realize enhanced vehicle fuel economy while meeting customer performance and drivability targets. As is characteristic of all Ford Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), the basis for resolving these competing requirements resides with its Vehicle System Control (VSC) strategy. This strategy implements complex high-level executive controls to coordinate and optimize the desired operational state of the major HEV powertrain subsystems. To ensure that the VSC software meets its intended functionality, a software validation process developed at Research and Advanced Engineering has been integrated as part of the vehicle controls development process. In this paper, this VSC software validation process implemented for a next generation hybrid powertrain is presented. First, an overview of the hybrid powertrain application and the VSC software architecture is introduced.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: System Design & Objective Testing Results

2011-04-12
2011-01-0575
The USDOT and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, GM, Honda, Mercedes, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested communications-based vehicle safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Journal Article

Vehicle Safety Communications - Applications: Multiple On-Board Equipment Testing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0586
The United States Department of Transportation (USDOT) and the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partnership-Vehicle Safety Communications 2 (CAMP-VSC2) Consortium (Ford, General Motors, Honda, Mercedes-Benz, and Toyota) initiated, in December 2006, a three-year collaborative effort in the area of wireless-based safety applications under the Vehicle Safety Communications-Applications (VSC-A) Project. The VSC-A Project developed and tested Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) communications-based safety systems to determine if Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) at 5.9 GHz, in combination with vehicle positioning, would improve upon autonomous vehicle-based safety systems and/or enable new communications-based safety applications.
Technical Paper

Vehicle NVH Evaluations and NVH Target Cascading Considerations for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2015-06-15
2015-01-2362
The increasing trend toward electric and hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) has created unique challenges for NVH development and refinement. Traditionally, characterization of in-vehicle powertrain noise and vibration has been assessed through standard operating conditions such as fixed gear engine speed sweeps at varied loads. Given the multiple modes of operation which typically exist for HEVs, characterization and source-path analysis of these vehicles can be more complicated than conventional vehicles. In-vehicle NVH assessment of an HEV powertrain requires testing under multiple operating conditions for identification and characterization of the various issues which may be experienced by the driver. Generally, it is necessary to assess issues related to IC engine operation and electric motor operation (running simultaneously with and independent of the IC engine), under both motoring and regeneration conditions.
Technical Paper

Vane Pump Whining Noise Reduction by Vane Spacing Optimization

2019-04-02
2019-01-0841
A traditional vane type oil pump used inside the engines and the transmissions has equal angles or spacing between the vanes. The equal spacing intensifies pressure fluctuations generated within the pump leading to narrowband pressure spikes at the pump main order and its harmonics. Unequal spacing, however, can relax the severity of the spikes by breaking down the narrowband peaks and distributing them over a larger frequency range. Optimization of the angles within the pump design constraint can maximize the benefit of unequal spacing in reducing the pressure pulsations for a lower risk of engine or transmission whine. The scope of this paper is around the optimization process for vane spacing and different objective functions which can be used to obtain optimized solutions. The simulation results for optimized spacing based on two different objective functions for 7, 8 and 9 vanes are presented. The design constraints for the optimization are discussed as well.
Technical Paper

Validation of SEA Wind Noise Model for a Design Change

2003-05-05
2003-01-1552
A wind noise model of a vehicle has been developed using Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) with measured turbulent pressure data as the source input. Empirical formulas are used to scale the input data for changes in flow and design parameters. Wind tunnel tests have been conducted on a standard and modified vehicle to validate the SEA model and the input scaling. The results show good correlation with both the exterior turbulent pressure levels and the interior sound pressure levels across the audio frequency range.
Technical Paper

Validating Powertrain Controller Systems With the VPACS-HIL Powertrain Simulator

2005-04-11
2005-01-1663
To manage the function of a vehicle's engine, transmission, and related subsystems, almost all modern vehicles make use of one or more electronic controllers running embedded software, henceforth referred to as a Powertrain Controller System or PCS. Fully validating this PCS is a necessary step of vehicle development, and the validation process requires extensive amounts of testing. Traditionally, this validation testing is done with open-loop signal generators, powertrain dynamometers, and real vehicles. Such testing methods either cannot simulate complex control system interactions, or are expensive and subject to variability. To address these concerns while decreasing development time and improving vehicle quality, Ford Motor Company is placing increasing focus on validating a PCS through simulation. One such testing method is a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulation, which mates the physical elements of a PCS to a real-time computer simulation of a powertrain.
Technical Paper

Using Dimensional Analysis to Build a Better Transfer Function

2004-03-08
2004-01-1129
A key ingredient in designing products that are more robust is a thorough knowledge of the physics of the ideal function of those products and the physics of the failure modes of those products. We refer to the mathematical functions describing this physics as the transfer functions for that product. Dimensional analysis (DA) is a well known, but often overlooked, tool for reducing the number of experiments needed to characterize a physical system. In this paper, we demonstrate how the application of DA can be used to reduce the size of a DOE needed to estimate transfer functions experimentally. Furthermore, the transfer function generated using DOEs with DA tend to be more general than those generated using larger DOEs directly on the design parameters. With ever-increasing competitive pressure and reduced product development time, a tool such as DA, which can dramatically reduce experimental cost, is an incredibly valuable addition to an engineers toolbox.
Technical Paper

Tire pressure impact on structural durability tests results

2008-10-07
2008-36-0041
During the Product Development Process, the experimental engineers try to acquire the most reliable data from Proving Grounds early on the development process, aiming to support CAE model correlation and in this way ensuring that the vehicle is capable of withstanding customer loads. Those data, from Proving Grounds, are correlated to the most severe customer's usage and public road conditions. The proposal of this paper is to analyze how tire pressure affects structural durability, since safety, performance and fuel economy were already discussed on other opportunities. Tire pressure is important because it's one variable where the customer can monitor and act and because TPMS (Tire Pressure Measurement System) is not available on most vehicles sold in the Brazilian Market,
Technical Paper

Tire Cornering/Traction Test Methods

1973-02-01
730147
The paper describes a new tire cornering/traction trailer designed to measure the traction and steering performance of passenger car tires, outlines related test methods, and provides supporting test data. A general set of specifications is given for the entire test system. The major subsystems described are the trailer with its versatile suspension; the tow vehicle and its performance capabilities; the transducer system which measures the normal load, lateral force, fore-and-aft force, aligning torque, steer angle and speed; and the instrumentation. The calibration method is described. The test methods described include those for straight-line braking, maximum lateral traction, steady state and transient steering response, and combined braking and cornering traction. Supporting data and discussion are presented for each test method.
Technical Paper

Throttle Flow Characterization

2000-03-06
2000-01-0571
A time-efficient throttle flow data collection method is described. It uses a sonic nozzle flow bench to measure air flow as a function of throttle angle and pressure in a manner analogous to on-engine dynamometer throttle flow characterization. Opening each sonic nozzle combination, then recording throttle downstream pressure and computed nozzle flow allows data to be taken in a fraction of the time normally needed. Throttle flow modeling considerations are then discussed.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Simulations of Automotive Catalytic Converter Internal Flow

1991-02-01
910200
The three-dimensional non-reacting flow field inside a typical dual-monolith automotive catalytic converter was simulated using finite difference analysis. The monolithic brick resistance was formulated from the pressure gradient of fully developed laminar duct-flow and corrected for the entrance effect. This correlation was found to agree with experimental pressure drop data, and was introduced as an additional source term into the non-dimensional momentum governing equation within the brick. Flow distribution within the monolith was found to depend strongly on the diffuser performance, which is a complex function of flow Reynolds number, brick resistance, and inlet pipe length and bending angles. A distribution index was formulated to quantify the degree of non-uniformity at selected test cases covering ranges of flow conditions, brick types, and inlet conditions.
Journal Article

Thermal Response of Aluminum Engine Block During Thermal Spraying of Bores: Comparison of FEA and Thermocouple Results

2017-03-28
2017-01-0451
Thermally sprayed coatings have used in place of iron bore liners in recent aluminum engine blocks. The coatings are steel-based, and are sprayed on the bore wall in the liquid phase. The thermal response of the block structure determines how rapidly coatings can be applied and thus the investment and floor space required for the operation. It is critical not to overheat the block to prevent dimensional errors, metallurgical damage, and thermal stress cracks. This paper describes an innovative finite element procedure for estimating both the substrate temperature and residual stresses in the coating for the thermal spray process. Thin layers of metal at a specified temperature, corresponding to the layers deposited in successive thermal spray torch passes, are applied to the substrate model, generating a heat flux into the block. The thickness, temperature, and application speed of the layers can be varied to simulate different coating cycles.
Technical Paper

The USAMP Magnesium Powertrain Cast Components Project

2006-04-03
2006-01-0522
Over the past five years, the US Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) has brought together representatives from DaimlerChrysler, General Motors, Ford Motor Company and over 40 other participant companies from the Mg casting industry to create and test a low-cost, Mg-alloy engine that would achieve a 15 - 20 % Mg component weight savings with no compromise in performance or durability. The block, oil pan, and front cover were redesigned to take advantage of the properties of both high-pressure die cast (HPDC) and sand cast Mg creep- resistant alloys. This paper describes the alloy selection process and the casting and testing of these new Mg-variant components. This paper will also examine the lessons learned and implications of this pre-competitive technology for future applications.
Journal Article

The True Definition and Measurement of Oversteer and Understeer

2015-04-14
2015-01-1592
The concept of vehicle understeer and oversteer has been well studied and equations, test methods, and test results have been published for many decades. This concept has a specific definition in the steady-state driving range as opposed to quantification in highly transient limit handling events. There have been specific test procedures developed and employed by automotive engineers for decades on how to quantify understeer. These include the constant radius method, the constant steering wheel angle/variable speed method, the constant speed/ variable radius method, and the constant speed/variable steer method. These methods are very good for calculating the understeer gradient but care must be taken in interpreting the result at the limits of tire traction since lateral tire forces can be reduced on a drive axle when significant throttle is applied.
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