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Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Momentum and Heat Transfer in Exhaust Gas Sensors

Modern zirconia oxygen sensors are heated internally to achieve an optimal detection of the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas and fast light off time. The temperature of the gas in the exhaust pipe varies in a wide range. The zirconia sensor is cooled by radiation and forced convection caused by cold exhaust gas. If the zirconia temperature falls, the oxygen detection capability of the sensor decreases. To minimize the cooling effects, protection tubes cover the zirconia sensor. However, this is in conflict with the aim to accelerate the dynamics of the lambda sensor. In this paper, the heat transfer at the surface of a heated planar zirconia sensor with two different double protection tubes of a Bosch oxygen sensor is examined in detail. The geometric configuration of the tubes forces different flow patterns in the inner protection tube around the zirconia sensor. The zirconia sensor is internally electrically heated by a platinum heater layer.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Mass Transfer in Exhaust Gas Sensors

Within the scope of this work, the convective mass transfer to the zirconia sensor element of an exhaust oxygen sensor was analyzed experimentally and numerically. For the experimental setup, a heightened model of an oxygen sensor was built from Lucite® considering the similarity theory. Mass transfer is measured based on the absorption of ammonia and subsequent immediate color reaction. For the numerical investigation, a three-dimensional model of the test rig was built. To predict the flow pattern and the species transport inside the protection tubes, the commercial CFD-Code FLUENT® is used. The model for the mass transfer to the surface is implemented through user-defined functions.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the 3D Flow-Pattern in Exhaust Gas Sensors

In new exhaust system specifications such as single cylinder balancing, closed coupled catalyst systems, sensor locations close to the engine, turbo applications, fast light off situations and diesel engine applications the dynamic behavior of the lambda sensor becomes more important. This demands a detailed knowledge and modeling of the relevant parameters. In former analysis of exhaust gas sensors the main focus has been the electrochemical processes in the sensor. The influence of flow structure and protection tubes had lower priority. In this paper we present the numerical and experimental analysis of cold air flowing in a pipe including mounted exhaust sensors. Two double-protection tubes from the Robert Bosch GmbH have been examined named (a) and (b). The predicted results have been compared with values measured with Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). The flow pattern in the protection tube type (a) depends on the geometric configuration of the sensor element and the tubes.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of the Dynamic Transport of Multi-Component Exhaust Gases in Oxygen Sensors

Today's wide range oxygen sensors are based on the limiting current principle, where an applied voltage induces electrochemical reactions in a ceramic cell. Since the diffusive transport of exhaust gas to the electrodes is limited by a transport barrier, the resulting electric current can be related to the exhaust gas composition. A model is presented which describes the transient transport of gas mixtures from the bulk exhaust gas to the electrodes of an oxygen sensor at variable pressure and composition. The internal structure of the transport barrier was accounted for by geometrical parameters. A variety of numerical results are compared with experimental data.