Water Load Determination Approach in Two Wheeler Exhaust System
Future emission norms in India (BS6) necessitates the 2 wheeler industry to work towards emission optimization measures. Engine operation at stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) would result in a good performance, durability and least emissions. To keep the AFR close to stoichiometric condition, an Oxygen sensor is placed in the exhaust system, which detects if air-fuel mixture is rich (λ<1) or lean (λ>1) and provides feedback to fuel injection system for suitable fuel control. O2 sensor has a ceramic element, which needs to be heated to a working temperature for its functioning. The ceramic element would break (thermal shock) if water in liquid form comes in contact with it when the element is hot.