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Technical Paper

Software Controlled Homogeneity Analysis of Headlamp Light Distribution

This paper will describe the procedures that will enhance the possibilities of qualitative evaluation of headlamp light distributions. A basis will be the description of a light distribution coming only from reflector geometries, i.e. headlamps with clear outer lens design. Further steps of evaluation, as visualization and homogeneity analysis become more and more important for a headlamp evaluation. The recently developed tools can support both the headlamp manufacturer and the car manufacturer in finding a common understanding in headlamp performance of a projected car at a very early stage of development.
Journal Article

Side View Assist - The World’s First Rider Assistance System for Two-Wheelers

Abstract The Side View Assist is the World’s first rider assistance system for two-wheelers. This is a Blind Spot Warning system, which uses four ultrasonic sensors to monitor the surrounding of the rider. Whenever there is a vehicle (i.e. a car, truck, or another motorbike) in the rider’s blind spot, the technology warns the rider with an optical signal close to the mirror. This will allow the rider to avoid a collision when changing lanes. In the current vehicle application, Side View Assist is active at speeds ranging from 25 to 80 kilometers per hour and supports riders whenever the difference in relative speed to other road users is small. The system helps to improve safety especially in cities, where heavy traffic makes it necessary to change lanes more often. Originally such systems have been developed for cars and different system solutions for cars have been in serial production for several years.
Technical Paper

Serial WireRing - High-Speed Interchip Interface

A new high-performance interchip interface, called Serial WireRing, is introduced. It combines technically mature and established methods, whereby Serial WireRing provides a simple, robust and very inexpensive solution to replace the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). Serial WireRing uses a daisy chain ring topology, realized by unidirectional point-to-point connections from device to device. Serial WireRing is realized by a simple “wire ring” with CMOS, LVDS, optical or any other suitable signaling, even mixed. Therefore it has a very low pin count. In order to minimize the latency each slave transmits the data that it receives with 1 bit delay only. In order to avoid clock/data skew, the serial data and clock are merged into one bitstream. A corresponding clock is extracted at each receiver by a clock and data recovery circuit, driven by a simple internal oscillator.
Technical Paper

Motor Vehicle Sensors Based on Film-Technology: An Interesting Alternative to Semiconductor Sensors

The manufacture of semiconductor sensors requires high investment and does not become economically viable until very high production numbers come into consideration. In the case of low production numbers, of the kind that come into consideration for production startups, and in the case of variations e.g. in the measuring range and similar, as may be the case due to the adaptation of models, it may be more viable to employ other techniques which likewise have a high rationalization potential which comes into effect already at low production numbers and which exhibits greater flexibility. The film techniques offer alternative sensor concepts for many measured quantities, whose production is reasonable in price even at smaller production numbers and possesses the necessary alteration flexibility. Besides these, are the advantages of the laser adjustment and the seamless connection of the evaluation electronics. Even possibilities laying within micro-machining technology can be used.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation in a CNG-DI Engine in Stratified Operation

In a study using a single-cylinder engine a significant potential in fuel efficiency and emission reduction was found for stratified operation of a high pressure natural gas direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine. The control of the mixture formation process appeared to be critical to ensure stable inflammation of the mixture. Therefore, optical investigations of the mixture formation were performed on a geometric equivalent, optically accessible single-cylinder engine to investigate the correlation of mixture formation and inflammability. The two optical measurement techniques infrared (IR) absorption and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) were employed. Mid-wavelength IR absorption appeared to be qualified for a global visualization of natural gas injection; LIF allows to quantify the equivalence ratio inside a detection level. While LIF measurements require complex equipment, the IR setup consists merely of a black body heater and a mid-wavelength sensitive IR camera.
Technical Paper

Mapping SAE J1850 Messages into CAN Version 2.0

A recent extension of the Controller Area Network (CAN) protocol allows an efficient mapping of the SAE J1850 data link messages defined by SAE J2178 into the CAN message format. Compatibility between J1850 and CAN at the message header level allows designers to use the same messages and overall communications strategy for both today's medium speed SAE Class B links and tomorrow's high speed Class C bus applications. This paper presents a proposed mapping of SAE J2178 messages into extended format CAN messages and explains the benefits of this approach for vehicle systems developers.
Technical Paper

Luminance Measurement, Contrast Sensitivity, Homogeneity: New Approaches of Defining the Quality of Headlamps

The conventional measurements to describe the photometric quality of headlamps usually only comprise the luminous flux and the illuminance (resp. the luminous intensity) in several measuring points given by Type Approval Legislation. Practically, these photometric measurements do not describe the visual impression of a headlamp light distribution sufficiently, neither in lab nor in real street geometry. With the clear outer lens headlamps introduced recently, filament images are projected directly onto the screens or streets, thus giving new impulses to research. Starting from the established photometric practice, other types of measurements and physiological fundamentals will be discussed. The basic tools to make physical measurement and physiological impression comparable, e.g. in terms of homogeneity, are shown.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Fluid Mechanics of the Regenerative Pump Used in Gasoline Injection Systems

In order to optimize the inner flow of the regenerative pump used in gasoline injection systems, we carry out experimental and numerical flow investigations. A qualitative analysis of spatial flow phenomena in selected regions of the pump is presented by employing the laser light sheet technique. Therefore, a tenfold enlarged water model is built up, where dynamic similarity with the original flow is achieved. The results of the flow analysis have led to improved geometries which are compared with the original design by measured pump characteristic curves. Furthermore, three-dimensional simulations of the fully developed turbulent flow using a finite-element method are presented. The flow with respect to the rotating impeller is calculated by solving the Reynolds equations in connection with the k-ε-turbulence model.
Technical Paper

Integration of a Structuring Concept for Vehicle Control Systems into the Software Development Process using UML Modelling Methods

The demand for more security, economy, and comfort as well as for a reduced environmental impact increases the importance of electronic components for vehicles. The development of such systems is determined by the requirement of an improved functionality and co-requisite the demand for limited costs. In order to fulfil these demands and taking into consideration the increase of complexity and the melting together to a car wide web, Bosch is developing a structuring concept called CARTRONIC®. This concept is supposed to be open and neutral regarding automotive manufactures and suppliers. The analysis of vehicle control systems via this method is based on formal rules for structuring and modelling. The function-related aspect of CARTRONIC® was represented already at the SAE'98 World Congress. Furthermore the safety-related feature was introduced in more detail at the SAE'99 World Congress. The result of the analysis is an object structure of logical components with defined interfaces.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Shadowgraph Imaging, Laser-Doppler Anemometry and X-Ray Imaging for the Analysis of Near Nozzle Velocities of GDI Fuel Injectors

Abstract The fuel spray behavior in the near nozzle region of a gasoline injector is challenging to predict due to existing pressure gradients and turbulences of the internal flow and in-nozzle cavitation. Therefore, statistical parameters for spray characterization through experiments must be considered. The characterization of spray velocity fields in the near-nozzle region is of particular importance as the velocity information is crucial in understanding the hydrodynamic processes which take place further downstream during fuel atomization and mixture formation. This knowledge is needed in order to optimize injector nozzles for future requirements. In this study, the results of three experimental approaches for determination of spray velocity in the near-nozzle region are presented. Two different injector nozzle types were measured through high-speed shadowgraph imaging, Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and X-ray imaging.
Technical Paper

CARTRONIC - An Open Architecture for Networking the Control Systems of an Automobile

The car industry has reached a point where electronic systems, which were so far essentially autonomous, begin to grow together to a Car-Wide Web. The main driving force is the demand for more safety, security, and comfort implemented economically. Already various parties are working on control networks. In the long run, vehicle motion and dynamic systems, safety, security, comfort as well as mobile multimedia systems will integrate and reach out for the vision of accident-free, comfortable, and well-informed driving. As a foundation for a Car-Wide Web, Bosch is developing an open architecture called CARTRONIC. The essence of CARTRONIC is to define structuring rules, modeling rules and patterns for total, integrated control of vehicles. The rules and patterns allow the mapping of high-level functions onto several physical implementations, for instance one logical description of functional connections could be created for cars with different equipment packages.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the In-Cylinder Flow Field / Spray Injection Interaction within a DISI IC Engine Using High-Speed PIV

This study presents measurements of transient flow field and spray structures inside an optically accessible DISI (direct-injection spark-ignition) internal combustion engine. The flow field has a direct effect upon mixture and combustion processes. Given the need to increase the efficiency and performance of modern IC engines and thus reduce emissions a detailed understanding of the flow field is necessary. The method of choice was high-speed two-component particle image velocimetry (PIV) imaging a large field of view (43 x 44 mm₂). To capture the temporal evolution of the main flow features the repetition rate was set to 6 kHz which resolves one image per 1° crank angle (CA) at 1000 rpm. The crank angle range recorded was the latter half of the compression stroke at various engine speeds as well as various charge motions (neutral, tumble and swirl). Moreover, consecutive cycles were recorded allowing a detailed investigation of cycle-to-cycle variations.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Flow Patterns inside an Autothermal Gasoline Reformer

The present paper concentrates on the option of catalytic autothermal reforming of gasoline for fuel cell applications. Major parameters of this process are the “Steam to Carbon Ratio” S/C and the air to fuel ratio λ. Computations assuming thermodynamic equilibrium in the autothermal reactor outlet (ATR) were carried out to attain information about their proper choice, as failure in adjusting the parameters within narrow limits has severe consequences on the reforming process. In order to quantify velocity distribution just ahead the catalyst and to evaluate mixing uniformity we designed an ATR featuring an optical access: Thus flow visualization using PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) and LIF (Laser Induced Fluorescence) technique is possible. Preliminary PIV-results are presented and compared with CFD computations (Computational Fluid D ynamics).
Technical Paper

A Non Contact Strain Gage Torque Sensor for Automotive Servo Driven Steering Systems

Tapping of one or more torques (ranges 10 Nm and 60 Nm) on the steering column for the purpose of servo control must satisfy high accuracy requirements on the one hand and high safety requirements on the other hand. A suggestion for developing a low-cost solution to this problem is described below: Strain gages optimally satisfy both these requirements: However, for cost reasons, these are not applied directly to the steering column but to a prefabricated, flat steel rod which is laser welded to the torque rod of the steering column. The measuring direction of the strain gages is under 45° to the steering column axis. The strain gages are either vacuum metallized onto the support rod as a thin film or laminated in a particularly low-cost way by means of a foil-type intermediate carrier.
Technical Paper

2D Residual Gas Visualization in an Optical Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine with IR Laser Absorption

Abstract The spatial distribution of internal exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is evaluated in an optically accessible direct injection spark ignition engine using near infrared laser absorption to visualize the distribution of the H2O molecule. The obtained overall internal exhaust gas recirculation compares well to gas-exchange cycle calculations and the spatial distributions are consistent with those measured with inverse LIF. The experimental procedures described in this report are designed to be simple and rapidly implemented without the need to resort to unusual optical components. The necessary spectral data of the selected absorption line is obtained from the HITEMP database and is validated with prior experiments carried out in a reference cell. Laser speckle in the images is effectively reduced using a ballistic diffuser.