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Technical Paper

Variable Orifice Geometry Verified on the Two-Phase Nozzle (VRD)

1995-02-01
950081
Innovative solutions for reducing particulate emissions will be necessary in order to comply with the even more stringent exhaust-gas standards of the future. The potential of a diesel nozzle with variable orifice geometry has long been common knowledge in the area of engine construction. But up to now, a fully functional solution of such a nozzle has not appeared which operates with a reduced orifice at low engine speeds and/or low loads. Here with regard to target costing, the requirements implicit in function and manufacture must also be taken into account. Using calculations on nozzle interior flow and injection-spray investigations, it will be shown which nozzle geometries best fulfill the various requirements. In order to achieve low levels of particulate emission in an engine with a combustion chamber designed for optimum use of a hole-type nozzle, the injection-spray direction and its geometry must to a large extent correspond to those of a hole-type nozzle.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Analysis and Benchmark of Various Gasoline Combustion Concepts

2006-04-03
2006-01-0231
Novel Combustion technologies and strategies show high potential in reducing the fuel consumption of gasoline spark ignition (SI) engines. In this paper, a comparison between various gasoline combustion concepts at two representative engine operating points is shown. Advantages of the combustion concepts are analyzed using thermodynamic split of losses method. In this paper, a tool for thermodynamic assessment (Split of Losses) of conventional and new operating strategies of SI engine and its derivatives is used. Technologies, like variable valve actuation and/or gasoline direct injection, allow new strategies to run the SI engine unthrottled with early inlet valve closing (SI-VVA) combined with high EGR, charge stratification (SI-STRAT) and controlled auto ignition (CAI), also known as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). These diverse combustion concepts show thermodynamic gains that stem from several, often different sources.
Technical Paper

The Robert Bosch In-Line Pump for Diesel Engines, Type MW, Design, Application and Further Development

1979-02-01
790901
The range of Robert Bosch in-line pumps is designed for engines with cylinder outputs of up to 200 kW. Within this family of pumps the MW pump is used in small IDI engines and medium-sized DI engines with cylinder outputs in the region of 30 kW. More stringent exhaust emission legislation and the need to ensure optimum fuel economy call for efficient fuel-injection systems for diesel engines. In both of its designs the new MW pump meets these more exacting requirements and forms the contribution of Robert Bosch GmbH toward developing advanced diesel engines.
Technical Paper

The Impact of a Combustion Chamber Optimization on the Mixture Formation and Combustion in a CNG-DI Engine in Stratified Operation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0779
A previous study by the authors has shown an efficiency benefit of up to Δηi = 10 % for stratified operation of a high pressure natural gas direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine compared to the homogeneous stoichiometric operation with port fuel injection (PFI). While best efficiencies appeared at extremely lean operation at λ = 3.2, minimum HC emissions were found at λ = 2. The increasing HC emissions and narrow ignition time frames in the extremely lean stratified operation have given the need for a detailed analysis. To further investigate the mixture formation and flame propagation und these conditions, an optically accessible single-cylinder engine was used. The mixture formation and the flame luminosity have been investigated in two perpendicular planes inside the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

The Challenge of Precise Characterizing the Specific Large-Span Flows in Urea Dosing Systems for NOx Reduction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1028
The reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines using a urea water solution is gaining more and more importance. While maintaining the future exhaust gas emission regulations, like the Euro 6 for passenger cars and the Euro 5 for commercial vehicles, urea dosing allows the engine management to be modified to improve fuel economy as well. The system manufacturer Robert Bosch has started early to develop the necessary dosing systems for the urea water solution. More than 300.000 Units have been delivered in 2007 for heavy duty applications. Typical dosing quantities for those systems are in the range of 0.01 l/h for passenger car systems and up to 10 l/h for commercial vehicles. During the first years of development and application of urea dosing systems, instantaneous flow measuring devices were used, which were not operating fully satisfactory.
Technical Paper

Study on Boosted Direct Injection SI Combustion with Ethanol Blends and the Influence on the Ignition System

2011-10-04
2011-36-0196
The stricter worldwide emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption and CO2-emission require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Ethanol fuel combined with boosting on direct injection gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, a challenging approach. Brazil is one of the main Ethanol fuel markets with its E24 and E100 fuel availability, which covers a large volume of the national needs. Additionally, worldwide Ethanol availability is becoming more and more important, e.g., in North America and Europe. Considering the future flex-fuel engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized spark ignition engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of Ethanol boosted operation. Main topic of the present work focuses on the operation of Ethanol blends up to E100 at high loads up to 30 bar imep.
Technical Paper

Strategies to Reduce HC-Emissions During the Cold Starting of a Port Fuel Injected Gasoline Engine

2003-03-03
2003-01-0627
In view of tight emission standards, injection strategies to reduce raw HC-emissions during the cold starting of port fuel injected engines are evaluated in this study. The relevance of spray targeting and atomization is outlined in the first part of this paper. The foundation and performance of different injector concepts with respect to spray characteristics are discussed. Laboratory experiments demonstrate that concepts relying on auxiliary energy, such as air-assistance, fuel heating and injection at elevated system pressures, are capable of producing spray droplet sizes in the SMD-range of 25μm. For future injection strategies aimed at the compliance of SULEV emission levels, this target value is considered to be essential. In the second part of this paper, emission tests of selected injector concepts are carried out using a V6-3.2I ULEV engine operated both in a vehicle and on a test bench.
Journal Article

Start/Stop Strategies for Two-Wheelers in the Emerging Markets

2013-10-15
2013-32-9125
Fuel economy of two-wheelers is an important factor influencing the purchasing psychology of the consumer within the emerging markets. Additionally, air pollution being a major environmental topic, there is a rising concern about vehicle emissions, especially in the big cities and their metropolitan areas. Potentially, the relatively expensive engine management systems are providing more features and value in comparison to the carburettor counterpart. The combustion system analysis is carried out on a 125 cm3 motorcycle engine and the subsequent numerical simulation comparing the carburettor and the Electronic (Port) Fuel Injection which provides a basis to establish the fuel consumption benefit for the electronic injection systems [1].
Technical Paper

Spray Formation of High Pressure Swirl Gasoline Injectors Investigated by Two-Dimensional Mie and LIEF Techniques

1999-03-01
1999-01-0498
Two-dimensional Mie and LIEF techniques were applied to investigate the spray formation of a high pressure gasoline swirl injector in a constant volume chamber. The results obtained provide information on the propagation of liquid fuel and fuel vapor for different fuel pressures and ambient conditions. Spray parameters like tip penetration, cone angles and two new defined parameters describing the radial fuel distribution were used to quantify the fuel distributions measured. Simultaneous detection of liquid and vapor fuel was applied to study the influence of ambient temperature, injector temperature and ambient pressure on the evaporating spray.
Technical Paper

Speech-Controlled Wearable Computers for Automotive Shop Workers

2001-03-05
2001-01-0606
Vehicle inspection in repair shops is often still based on paper forms. Information Technology (IT) does not yet support the entire inspection process. In this paper, we introduce a small wearable IT device that is controlled by speech and enables service technicians to wirelessly access relevant data and to perform on-site communication. Users can carry this device in a pocket and use a small headset to enter speech and receive audio feedback. This system provides a completely speech-enabled functionality and thus offers a hands-free operation. After showing the applicability of wearable computers in this environment, we developed a proprietary hardware system consisting of a thin-client connected via a Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) link to a standard Personal Computer (PC) that runs a speech engine and hosts a database. Several field tests in garages helped us during the evolution of our prototypes where service technicians critiqued the prototypes.
Journal Article

Procedure for Determining the Allowable Particle Contamination for Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment (FIE)

2009-04-20
2009-01-0870
Increasing injection pressures together with Diesel fuel lubricated Common Rail pumps replacing oil lubricated systems demand a more sophisticated investigation of robustness and durability against particle contamination of fuel. The established way of requiring filtration efficiency levels per lab standard is not significant enough if we look at variable factors like vibration of the fuel filter and viscosity of the fuel. Because these and other factors tremendously influence filtration efficiency, future Diesel FIE cleanliness requirements will need to define an allowable contamination limit downstream of the filter. More precisely, this is not a scalar limit but a contamination collective that considers the varying vehicle filtration and operating environment. This paper describes a procedure for defining allowable contamination limits of the FIE components. The procedure includes sensitivity, robustness and “key life” tests.
Technical Paper

Preparing for CARTRONIC - Interface and New Strategies for Torque Coordination and Conversion in a Spark Ignition Engine-Management System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0268
A major trend in modern vehicle control is the increase of complexity and interaction of formerly autonomous systems. In order to manage the resulting network of more and more integrated (sub)systems Bosch has developed an open architecture called CARTRONIC for structuring the entire vehicle control system. Structuring the system in functionally independent components improves modular software development and allows the integration of new elements such as integrated starter/generator and the implementation of advanced control concepts as drive train management. This approach leads to an open structure on a high level for the design of advanced vehicle control systems. The paper describes the integration of the spark-ignition (SI) engine management system (EMS) into a CARTRONIC conform vehicle coordination requiring a new standard interface between the vehicle coordination and the EMS level.
Journal Article

Predictive Multi-Objective Operation Strategy Considering Battery Cycle Aging for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1011
Due to the new CO2 targets for vehicles, electrification of powertrains and operation strategies for electrified powertrains have drawn more attention. This article presents a predictive multi-objective operation strategy for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which simultaneously minimizes the fuel consumption and the cycle aging of traction batteries. This proposed strategy shows better performance by using predictive information and high robustness to inaccuracy of predictive information. In this work, the benefits of the developed operation strategies are demonstrated in a strong hybrid electric vehicle (sHEV) with P2-configuration. For the cycle aging of a lithium-ion battery, an empirical model is built up with Gaussian processes based on experimental data.
Journal Article

Optical Investigations of the Ignition-Relevant Spray Characteristics from a Piezo-Injector for Spray-Guided Spark-Ignited Engines

2015-01-01
2014-01-9053
The spray-guided combustion process offers a high potential for fuel savings in gasoline engines in the part load range. In this connection, the injector and spark plug are arranged in close proximity to one another, as a result of which mixture formation is primarily shaped by the dynamics of the fuel spray. The mixture formation time is very short, so that at the time of ignition the velocity of flow is high and the fuel is still largely present in liquid form. The quality of mixture formation thus constitutes a key aspect of reliable ignition. In this article, the spray characteristics of an outward-opening piezo injector are examined using optical testing methods under pressure chamber conditions and the results obtained are correlated with ignition behaviour in-engine. The global spray formation is examined using high-speed visualisation methods, particularly with regard to cyclical fluctuations.
Journal Article

Online Engine Speed based Adaptation of Combustion Phasing and Air-Fuel Ratio

2014-11-11
2014-32-0076
Equipping low cost two-wheelers with engine management systems (EMS) enables not only a reduction of emissions but also an improvement in fuel consumption and system robustness. These benefits are accompanied by initially higher system costs compared to carburetor systems. Therefore, intelligent software solutions are developed by Bosch, which enable a reduction of the necessary sensors for a port fuel injection system (PFI) and furthermore provide new possibilities for combustion control. One example for these intelligent software solutions is a model based evaluation of the engine speed. By use of the information contained in the engine speed signal, characteristic features like air charge, indicated mean effective pressure (imep) and combustion phasing are derivable. The present paper illustrates how these features could be used to reduce the system costs and to improve fuel consumption and system robustness.
Technical Paper

Online Engine Speed Based Adaptation of Combustion Phasing and Air-Fuel Ratio: Evaluation of Feature Quality

2015-11-17
2015-32-0749
In the Indian two-wheeler market, legislation and customers demand for a reduction of emissions and an increase of fuel efficiency. For two-wheelers with engine management systems, a cost-efficient approach for this trend exploits that the periodical fluctuation of the engine speed of single cylinder engines contains useful information about its operating conditions. The present article focuses on the quality of the estimation of combustion phasing and air-fuel ratio of a 125cc single cylinder motorcycle engine, obtained from the evaluation of these fluctuations. The robustness of an oxygen sensor-less port fuel injection system can be increased by using the estimated air-fuel ratio to adapt the parameters of the fuel injection algorithm.
Journal Article

Online Engine Speed Based Adaptation of Air Charge for Two- Wheelers

2013-10-15
2013-32-9037
Regarding the strongly growing two-wheeler market fuel economy, price and emission legislations are in focus of current development work. Fuel economy as well as emissions can be improved by introduction of engine management systems (EMS). In order to provide the benefits of an EMS for low cost motorcycles, efforts are being made at BOSCH to reduce the costs of a port fuel injection (PFI) system. The present paper describes a method of how to reduce the number of sensors of a PFI system by the use of sophisticated software functions based on high-resolution engine speed evaluation. In order to improve the performance of a system working without a MAP-sensor (manifold air pressure sensor) an air charge feature (ACFn) based on engine speed is introduced. It is shown by an experiment that ACFn allows to detect and adapt changes in manifold air pressure. Cross-influences on ACFn are analyzed by simulations and engine test bench measurements.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Studies on Mixture Formation with an Outward-Opening Nozzle in a SI Engine with CNG-DI

2016-04-05
2016-01-0801
CNG direct injection is a promising technology to promote the acceptance of natural gas engines. Among the beneficial properties of CNG, like reduced pollutants and CO2 emissions, the direct injection contributes to a higher volumetric efficiency and thus to a better driveability, one of the most limiting drawbacks of today’s CNG vehicles. But such a combustion concept increases the demands on the injection system and mixture formation. Among other things it requires a much higher flow rate at low injection pressure. This can be only provided by an outward-opening nozzle due to its large cross-section. Nevertheless its hollow cone jet with a specific propagation behavior leads to an adverse fuel-air distribution especially at higher loads under scavenging conditions. This paper covers numerical and experimental analysis of CNG direct injection to understand its mixture formation.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Mass Transfer in Exhaust Gas Sensors

2007-04-16
2007-01-1144
Within the scope of this work, the convective mass transfer to the zirconia sensor element of an exhaust oxygen sensor was analyzed experimentally and numerically. For the experimental setup, a heightened model of an oxygen sensor was built from Lucite® considering the similarity theory. Mass transfer is measured based on the absorption of ammonia and subsequent immediate color reaction. For the numerical investigation, a three-dimensional model of the test rig was built. To predict the flow pattern and the species transport inside the protection tubes, the commercial CFD-Code FLUENT® is used. The model for the mass transfer to the surface is implemented through user-defined functions.
Journal Article

Next Generation Engine Start/Stop Systems: “Free-Wheeling”

2011-04-12
2011-01-0712
Engine Start/Stop systems reduce CO₂ emissions by turning off the combustion engine at vehicle standstill. This avoids the injection of fuel that would otherwise be needed simply to overcome internal combustion engine losses. As a next development step, engine losses at higher vehicle speeds are to be addressed. During deceleration, state-of-the-art engine technology turns off fuel injection as soon as the driver releases the gas pedal, thus the combustion engine is motored by the vehicle. The engine's drag torque could be desired by the driver, e.g., as a brake assist during downhill driving. However, quite frequently the driver wishes to coast at almost constant speed. Similar to Start/Stop operation, in such situations fuel is injected to simply overcome the combustion engine's drag torque. An operation mode referred to as "Free-Wheeling" reduces CO₂ emissions under such coasting conditions by disconnecting the combustion engine from the powertrain and by turning it off.
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