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Technical Paper

Variable Orifice Geometry Verified on the Two-Phase Nozzle (VRD)

1995-02-01
950081
Innovative solutions for reducing particulate emissions will be necessary in order to comply with the even more stringent exhaust-gas standards of the future. The potential of a diesel nozzle with variable orifice geometry has long been common knowledge in the area of engine construction. But up to now, a fully functional solution of such a nozzle has not appeared which operates with a reduced orifice at low engine speeds and/or low loads. Here with regard to target costing, the requirements implicit in function and manufacture must also be taken into account. Using calculations on nozzle interior flow and injection-spray investigations, it will be shown which nozzle geometries best fulfill the various requirements. In order to achieve low levels of particulate emission in an engine with a combustion chamber designed for optimum use of a hole-type nozzle, the injection-spray direction and its geometry must to a large extent correspond to those of a hole-type nozzle.
Technical Paper

The Robert Bosch In-Line Pump for Diesel Engines, Type MW, Design, Application and Further Development

1979-02-01
790901
The range of Robert Bosch in-line pumps is designed for engines with cylinder outputs of up to 200 kW. Within this family of pumps the MW pump is used in small IDI engines and medium-sized DI engines with cylinder outputs in the region of 30 kW. More stringent exhaust emission legislation and the need to ensure optimum fuel economy call for efficient fuel-injection systems for diesel engines. In both of its designs the new MW pump meets these more exacting requirements and forms the contribution of Robert Bosch GmbH toward developing advanced diesel engines.
Technical Paper

The New Common Rail Fuel System for the Duramax 6600 V8 Diesel Engine

2001-11-12
2001-01-2704
The Bosch Common Rail Fuel Injection System with the new technologies developed for the Duramax 6600 engine offer numerous performance advantages including exhaust emissions control and noise. The layout of the fuel system components and electrical parts is specifically designed to control fuel injection characteristics. The new injector and nozzle technology was integrated to achieve the required system performance. The new 1600bar fuel pump is also a prerequisite for required system performance.
Technical Paper

The Development and Performance of the Compact SCR-Trap System: A 4-Way Diesel Emission Control System

2003-03-03
2003-01-0778
The tightening of Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) emissions legislation throughout the world is leading to the development of emission control devices to enable HDD engines to meet the new standards. NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) are the key pollutants which these emission control systems need to address. Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are already in use in significant numbers to control PM emissions from HDD vehicles, and Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a very promising technology to control NOx emissions. This paper describes the development and performance of the Compact SCR-Trap system - a pollution control device comprising a DPF-based system (the Continuously Regenerating Trap system) upstream of an SCR system. The system has been designed to be as easy to package as possible, by minimising the total volume of the system and by incorporating the SCR catalysts on annular substrates placed around the outside of the DPF-based system.
Technical Paper

The Challenge of Precise Characterizing the Specific Large-Span Flows in Urea Dosing Systems for NOx Reduction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1028
The reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines using a urea water solution is gaining more and more importance. While maintaining the future exhaust gas emission regulations, like the Euro 6 for passenger cars and the Euro 5 for commercial vehicles, urea dosing allows the engine management to be modified to improve fuel economy as well. The system manufacturer Robert Bosch has started early to develop the necessary dosing systems for the urea water solution. More than 300.000 Units have been delivered in 2007 for heavy duty applications. Typical dosing quantities for those systems are in the range of 0.01 l/h for passenger car systems and up to 10 l/h for commercial vehicles. During the first years of development and application of urea dosing systems, instantaneous flow measuring devices were used, which were not operating fully satisfactory.
Technical Paper

Secondary Air Injection with a New Developed Electrical Blower for Reduced Exhaust Emissions

1994-03-01
940472
Secondary air injection after cold start gives two effects for reduced exhaust emissions: An exothermic reaction at the hot exhaust valves occurs, which increases the temperature of the exhaust gas. It gives sufficient air to the catalyst during the cold start fuel enrichment that is necessary to prevent driveability problems. Handicaps for the wide use of air injection include space constraints, weight and price. An electrical air blower was choosen to best satisfy all these requirements. The development steps are described. The result is a three stage radialblower with extremly high revolutions of about 18000 rpm. The system configuration and the outcome are demonstrated on the new C-Class of Mercedes-Benz. The results show emission reductions higher than 50 %, while also satisfying the development goals of noise, volume, weight and cost requirements.
Journal Article

Procedure for Determining the Allowable Particle Contamination for Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment (FIE)

2009-04-20
2009-01-0870
Increasing injection pressures together with Diesel fuel lubricated Common Rail pumps replacing oil lubricated systems demand a more sophisticated investigation of robustness and durability against particle contamination of fuel. The established way of requiring filtration efficiency levels per lab standard is not significant enough if we look at variable factors like vibration of the fuel filter and viscosity of the fuel. Because these and other factors tremendously influence filtration efficiency, future Diesel FIE cleanliness requirements will need to define an allowable contamination limit downstream of the filter. More precisely, this is not a scalar limit but a contamination collective that considers the varying vehicle filtration and operating environment. This paper describes a procedure for defining allowable contamination limits of the FIE components. The procedure includes sensitivity, robustness and “key life” tests.
Journal Article

Particulate Matter Sensor for On Board Diagnostics (OBD) of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF)

2010-04-12
2010-01-0307
The emissions legislation in the US and Europe introduces the need for the application of diesel particulate filters (DPF) in most diesel vehicles. In order to fulfill future OBD legislations, which include more stringent requirements on monitoring the functionality of those particulate filters, new sensors besides the differential pressure sensor are necessary. The new sensors need to directly detect the soot emission after DPF and withstand the harsh exhaust gas environment. Based on multi layer ceramic sensor technology, an exhaust gas sensor for particulate matter (EGS-PM) has been developed. The soot-particle-sensing element consists of two inter-digitated comb-like electrodes with an initially infinite electrical resistance. During the sensor operation, soot particles from the exhaust gas are collected onto the inter-digital electrodes and form conductive paths between the two electrode fingers leading to a drop of the electrical resistance.
Journal Article

Optical Investigations of the Ignition-Relevant Spray Characteristics from a Piezo-Injector for Spray-Guided Spark-Ignited Engines

2015-01-01
2014-01-9053
The spray-guided combustion process offers a high potential for fuel savings in gasoline engines in the part load range. In this connection, the injector and spark plug are arranged in close proximity to one another, as a result of which mixture formation is primarily shaped by the dynamics of the fuel spray. The mixture formation time is very short, so that at the time of ignition the velocity of flow is high and the fuel is still largely present in liquid form. The quality of mixture formation thus constitutes a key aspect of reliable ignition. In this article, the spray characteristics of an outward-opening piezo injector are examined using optical testing methods under pressure chamber conditions and the results obtained are correlated with ignition behaviour in-engine. The global spray formation is examined using high-speed visualisation methods, particularly with regard to cyclical fluctuations.
Technical Paper

On the Evaluation Methods for Systematic Further Development of Direct-Injection Nozzles

2016-10-17
2016-01-2200
To satisfy future emission classes, e.g. EU6c, the particulate number (PN) of Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) engines must be reduced. For these engines, different components influence the combustion process and thus also the formation of soot particles and deposits. Along with other engine components, the injector nozzle influences the particulate number and deposits in both fuel spray behavior and nozzle “tip wetting”. In case of non-optimized nozzle layouts, fuel may impinge on the piston and the liner in an unfavorable way, which implies low-oxygen diffusive combustion by retarded vaporizing wall films. For the tip wetting, wall films are present on the actual surface of the nozzle tip, which is also caused by unadapted nozzles. For non-optimized nozzles, the latter effect can become quite dominant. This paper deals with systematic nozzle development activities towards low-deposit nozzle tips and thus decreasing PN values.
Journal Article

Model Guided Application for Investigating Particle Number (PN) Emissions in GDI Spark Ignition Engines

2019-01-09
2019-26-0062
Model guided application (MGA) combining physico-chemical internal combustion engine simulation with advanced analytics offers a robust framework to develop and test particle number (PN) emissions reduction strategies. The digital engineering workflow presented in this paper integrates the kinetics & SRM Engine Suite with parameter estimation techniques applicable to the simulation of particle formation and dynamics in gasoline direct injection (GDI) spark ignition (SI) engines. The evolution of the particle population characteristics at engine-out and through the sampling system is investigated. The particle population balance model is extended beyond soot to include sulphates and soluble organic fractions (SOF). This particle model is coupled with the gas phase chemistry precursors and is solved using a sectional method. The combustion chamber is divided into a wall zone and a bulk zone and the fuel impingement on the cylinder wall is simulated.
Technical Paper

Methods and Analysis of Fuel Injection, Mixture Preparation and Charge Stratification in Different Direct Injected SI Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-0970
Direct gasoline injection is one major approach in reducing fuel consumption to fulfill the stages of CO2 reduction commitments in Europe from today until 2008. One effort is to unthrottle the gasoline engine during idle and partial load utilizing charge stratification. This may be realized by using different combustion concepts. This paper shows the analysis of mixture preparation for three different types of direct injected gasoline engines. Each engine was driven with two injectors which have two different atomization concepts. The engine types draw a clear dividing line between their combustion concepts. The injectors were analyzed in a pressure chamber, in an optical engine, and in an actual 1-cylinder engine. The formation of wall-film in wall-guided combustion systems will be discussed. Several important injector and engine parameters for fuel direct injection are pointed out.
Technical Paper

Low Cost Battery Sensor Algorithm

2011-10-06
2011-28-0021
With the development of start stop technology to improve fuel economy and to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, the information of State of Charge (SOC) of the battery is highly desirable. Recent days the battery sensors are used in mid-segment and luxury automobiles that monitors the current, voltage and temperature of the battery and calculates the charge model and sends the information via CAN or LIN. These dedicated sensors are intended to perform various functions other than basic start stop. Hence these sensors are proven to be expensive for emerging market, which is intended to perform only basic start stop as the market is looking for a low cost solution. Bosch- India has developed and implemented a novel idea of bringing a low cost and reliable battery charge detection algorithm that can be realized within the Electronic Control Unit (ECU) without a dedicated sensor.
Technical Paper

Laser-Based Measurements of Surface Cooling Following Fuel Spray Impingement

2018-04-03
2018-01-0273
A major source for soot particle formation in Gasoline-Direct-Injection (GDI) engines are fuel-rich zones near walls as a result of wall wetting during injection. To address this problem, a thorough understanding of the wall film formation and evaporation processes is necessary. The wall temperature before, during and after fuel impingement is an important parameter in this respect, but is not easily measured using conventional methods. In this work, a recently developed laser-based phosphor thermography technique is implemented for investigations of spray-induced surface cooling. This spatially and temporally resolved method can provide surface temperature measurements on the wetted side of the surface without being affected by the fuel-film. Zinc oxide (ZnO) particles, dispersed in a chemical binder, were deposited onto a thin steel plate obtaining a coating thickness of 17 μm after annealing.
Journal Article

Investigation on the Effect of Very High Fuel Injection Pressure on Soot-NOx Emissions at High Load in a Passenger Car Diesel Engine

2009-06-15
2009-01-1930
Previous research has shown that elevating fuel injection pressure results in better air-fuel mixture formation, allowing for a further increase in maximum exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate while consequently reducing NOx emissions. The aim of this paper is to find out whether there is an optimum injection pressure for lowest soot-NOx emissions at a given boost pressure in high-speed diesel engines. Experiments are carried out on a single-cylinder research engine with a prototype common-rail system, capable of more than 200 MPa injection pressure. The effect of injection pressure on soot-NOx formation is investigated for a variety of boost conditions, representing the conditions of single to multi-stage turbocharger systems. Analysis of the data is performed at the application relevant soot to NOx ratio of approximately 1:10. It is observed that above a critical injection pressure, soot-NOx emissions are not reduced any further.
Journal Article

Investigation of the Parameters Influencing the Spray-Wall Interaction in a GDI Engine - Prerequisite for the Prediction of Particulate Emissions by Numerical Simulation

2013-04-08
2013-01-1089
Due to the EU6 emission standard that will be mandatory starting in September 2014 the particulate emissions of GDI engines come into the focus of development. For this reason, soot and the mechanisms responsible for the soot formation are of particular importance. A very significant source of particulate emissions from engines with gasoline direct injection is the wall film formation. Therefore, the analysis of soot emission sources in the CFD calculation requires a detailed description of the entire underlying model chain, with special emphasis on the spray-wall interaction and the wall film dynamics. The validation of the mentioned spray-wall interaction and wall film models is performed using basic experimental investigations, like the infrared-thermography and fluorescence based measurements conducted at the University of Magdeburg.
Technical Paper

Impact of the Injection and Gas Exchange on the Particle Emission of a Spark Ignited Engine with Port Fuel Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0652
This study presents a methodology to predict particle number (PN) generation on a naturally aspirated 4-cylinder gasoline engine with port fuel injection (PFI) from wall wetting, employing numerical CFD simulation and fuel film analysis. Various engine parameters concerning spray pattern, injection timing, intake valve timing, as well as engine load/speed were varied and their impact on wall film and PN was evaluated. The engine, which was driven at wide open throttle (WOT), was equipped with soot particle sampling technology and optical access to the combustion chamber of cylinder 1 in order to visualise non-premixed combustion. High-speed imaging revealed a notable presence of diffusion flames, which were typically initiated between the valve seats and cylinder head. Their size was found to match qualitatively with particulate number measurements. A validated CFD model was employed to simulate spray propagation, film transport and droplet impingement.
Technical Paper

Holistic Approach for Improved Safety Including a Proposal of New Virtual Test Conditions of Small Electric Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0571
In the next 20 years the share of small electric vehicles (SEVs) will increase especially in urban areas. SEVs show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles. Thus the consequences of impacts of SEVs with vulnerable road users (VRUs) and other vehicles will be different from traditional collisions. No assessment concerning vehicle safety is defined for vehicles within European L7e category currently. Focus of the elaborated methodology is to define appropriate test scenarios for this vehicle category to be used within a virtual tool chain. A virtual tool chain has to be defined for the realization of a guideline of virtual certification. The derivation and development of new test conditions for SEVs are described and are the main focus of this work. As key methodology a prospective methodical analysis under consideration of future aspects like pre-crash safety systems is applied.
Journal Article

Gasoline Wall Films and Spray/Wall Interaction Analyzed by Infrared Thermography

2014-04-01
2014-01-1446
Due to the principle of direct injection, which is applied in modern homogeneously operated gasoline engines, there are various operation points with significant particulate emissions. The spray droplets contact the piston surface during the warm-up and early injections, in particular. The fuel wall films and the resulting delayed evaporation of the liquid fuel is one of the main sources of soot particles. It is therefore necessary to carry out investigations into the formation of wall film. The influence of the spray impact angle is of special interest, as this is a major difference between engines with side-mounted injectors and centrally positioned injectors. This paper describes an infrared thermography-based method, which we used to carry out a systematic study of fuel deposits on the walls of the combustion chamber. The boundary conditions of the test section were close to those of real GDI engines operated with homogeneous charge.
Journal Article

Fuel-Independent Particulate Emissions in an SIDI Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1081
The fuel-independent particulate emissions of a direct injection gasoline engine were investigated. This was done by running the engine with reference gasoline at four different loads and then switching to hydrogen or methane port fuel operation and comparing the resulting particulate emissions and their size distribution. Differences in the combustion characteristics of hydrogen and gasoline were accounted for by diluting the inlet air with nitrogen and matching the pressure or heat release traces to those of gasoline operation. Methane operation is expected to generate particulate emissions lower by several orders of magnitude compared to gasoline and hydrogen does not contribute to carbon soot formation because of the lack of carbon atoms in the molecule. Thus, any remaining particulate emissions at hydrogen gas operation must arise from non fuel related sources, e.g. from lubrication oil, metal abrasion or inlet air.
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