Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Control for Commercial Vehicles

1997-11-17
973284
This paper presents the Vehicle Dynamics Control (VDC) for commercial vehicles developed by BOSCH. The underlying physical concept is discussed in the second section after a short introduction. The third section shows the computer simulation used in the development process. Section four describes the controller structure of the VDC system. In Section five the use and effectiveness of VDC for commercial vehicles is shown in different critical driving situations. This is done by using measured data collected during testing (lane change, circular track) and it demonstrates that the safety improvements achieved for passenger cars are also possible for commercial vehicles.
Technical Paper

VDC Systems Development and Perspective

1998-02-23
980235
Since its introduction in March 1995, the market demand for Vehicle Dynamic Control systems (VDC) has increased rapidly. Some car manufacturers have already announced their plans to introduce VDC on all their models. Particularly for compact and subcompact cars the system price needs to be reduced without sacrificing safety and performance. Originally designed for optimal performance with economically feasible components (sensors, hydraulics and microcontrollers) and using a unified control approach for all vehicle operating situations the system has been extended to include various drive concepts and has continuously been improved regarding performance, safety and cost. This paper describes the progress made in the development of the Bosch VDC system with regard to the design of the hydraulic system, the sensors, the electronic control unit, the control algorithm and safety.
Technical Paper

Upgrade Levels of the Bosch ABS

1986-02-01
860508
The Bosch ABS for passenger cars which has been in production since 1978 has been described in numerous publications. Following the gathering of extensive experience with the Bosch ABS and its installation in the different models of passenger car, the concept has been revised with various upgrade levels in order to further optimize braking performance on µ-split road surfaces with different right/left adhesion coefficients, in order further to improve the operation of the system when braking on very slippery road surfaces and also to adapt the control algorithm to four-wheel-drive vehicles with differential locks.
Technical Paper

Tool Support for Analyzing and Optimization Methods in Early Brake System Sizing Phases

2000-03-06
2000-01-0442
The manufacturers of passenger cars increasingly assign development and production of complete subsystems to the supplying industry. A brake system supplier has to give predictions about system quality and performance long time before the first prototypical system is built or even before the supplier gets the order for system development. Nowadays, the usage of computer-aided system design and simulation is essential for that task. This article presents a tool designed to support the development process. A special focus will be on how to define quality. A formal definition of quality is provided, illustrated and motivated by two examples.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Analysis and Benchmark of Various Gasoline Combustion Concepts

2006-04-03
2006-01-0231
Novel Combustion technologies and strategies show high potential in reducing the fuel consumption of gasoline spark ignition (SI) engines. In this paper, a comparison between various gasoline combustion concepts at two representative engine operating points is shown. Advantages of the combustion concepts are analyzed using thermodynamic split of losses method. In this paper, a tool for thermodynamic assessment (Split of Losses) of conventional and new operating strategies of SI engine and its derivatives is used. Technologies, like variable valve actuation and/or gasoline direct injection, allow new strategies to run the SI engine unthrottled with early inlet valve closing (SI-VVA) combined with high EGR, charge stratification (SI-STRAT) and controlled auto ignition (CAI), also known as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). These diverse combustion concepts show thermodynamic gains that stem from several, often different sources.
Technical Paper

Thermal Simulation within the Brake System Design Process

2002-10-06
2002-01-2587
During the acquisition phase brake system supplier have to make predictions on a system's thermal behavior based on very few reliable parameters. Increasing system knowledge requires the usage of different calculation models along with the progress of the project. Adaptive modeling is used in order to integrate test results from first prototypes or benchmark vehicles. Since changes in the brake force distribution have a great impact on the simulation results fading conditions of the linings have to be integrated as well. The principle of co-simulation is used in order to use the actual brake force distribution of the system.
Technical Paper

The Robert Bosch In-Line Pump for Diesel Engines, Type MW, Design, Application and Further Development

1979-02-01
790901
The range of Robert Bosch in-line pumps is designed for engines with cylinder outputs of up to 200 kW. Within this family of pumps the MW pump is used in small IDI engines and medium-sized DI engines with cylinder outputs in the region of 30 kW. More stringent exhaust emission legislation and the need to ensure optimum fuel economy call for efficient fuel-injection systems for diesel engines. In both of its designs the new MW pump meets these more exacting requirements and forms the contribution of Robert Bosch GmbH toward developing advanced diesel engines.
Technical Paper

The Impact of a Combustion Chamber Optimization on the Mixture Formation and Combustion in a CNG-DI Engine in Stratified Operation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0779
A previous study by the authors has shown an efficiency benefit of up to Δηi = 10 % for stratified operation of a high pressure natural gas direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine compared to the homogeneous stoichiometric operation with port fuel injection (PFI). While best efficiencies appeared at extremely lean operation at λ = 3.2, minimum HC emissions were found at λ = 2. The increasing HC emissions and narrow ignition time frames in the extremely lean stratified operation have given the need for a detailed analysis. To further investigate the mixture formation and flame propagation und these conditions, an optically accessible single-cylinder engine was used. The mixture formation and the flame luminosity have been investigated in two perpendicular planes inside the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

The Challenge of Precise Characterizing the Specific Large-Span Flows in Urea Dosing Systems for NOx Reduction

2008-04-14
2008-01-1028
The reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines using a urea water solution is gaining more and more importance. While maintaining the future exhaust gas emission regulations, like the Euro 6 for passenger cars and the Euro 5 for commercial vehicles, urea dosing allows the engine management to be modified to improve fuel economy as well. The system manufacturer Robert Bosch has started early to develop the necessary dosing systems for the urea water solution. More than 300.000 Units have been delivered in 2007 for heavy duty applications. Typical dosing quantities for those systems are in the range of 0.01 l/h for passenger car systems and up to 10 l/h for commercial vehicles. During the first years of development and application of urea dosing systems, instantaneous flow measuring devices were used, which were not operating fully satisfactory.
Technical Paper

System Architecture and Algorithm for Advanced Passive Safety by Integration of Surround Sensing Information

2005-04-11
2005-01-1233
Surround sensing methods provide information which can be used in PRECRASH functionalities for advanced control of the passenger protection system. The relevant data (closing velocity (cv), time to impact (tti), and offset of contact point (Δy)) are determined with a Predictive Safety System and transmitted to the airbag control unit for further processing in the PRECRASH algorithm. The PRECRASH algorithm controls both, the activation of reversible restraints and the deployment of irreversible restraints. Therefore it consists of two components: The PREFIRE and the PRESET algorithm. The PREFIRE algorithm uses the PRECRASH information for the activation of the reversible belt pretensioner in advance of a crash to reduce chest load in the crash phase. The PRESET algorithm calculates the trigger decision for deployment of pyrotechnical restraints. Inputs of the PRESET algorithm are the PRECRASH information as well as the acceleration signal.
Technical Paper

Study on Boosted Direct Injection SI Combustion with Ethanol Blends and the Influence on the Ignition System

2011-10-04
2011-36-0196
The stricter worldwide emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption and CO2-emission require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Ethanol fuel combined with boosting on direct injection gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, a challenging approach. Brazil is one of the main Ethanol fuel markets with its E24 and E100 fuel availability, which covers a large volume of the national needs. Additionally, worldwide Ethanol availability is becoming more and more important, e.g., in North America and Europe. Considering the future flex-fuel engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized spark ignition engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of Ethanol boosted operation. Main topic of the present work focuses on the operation of Ethanol blends up to E100 at high loads up to 30 bar imep.
Journal Article

Start/Stop Strategies for Two-Wheelers in the Emerging Markets

2013-10-15
2013-32-9125
Fuel economy of two-wheelers is an important factor influencing the purchasing psychology of the consumer within the emerging markets. Additionally, air pollution being a major environmental topic, there is a rising concern about vehicle emissions, especially in the big cities and their metropolitan areas. Potentially, the relatively expensive engine management systems are providing more features and value in comparison to the carburettor counterpart. The combustion system analysis is carried out on a 125 cm3 motorcycle engine and the subsequent numerical simulation comparing the carburettor and the Electronic (Port) Fuel Injection which provides a basis to establish the fuel consumption benefit for the electronic injection systems [1].
Technical Paper

Spray Formation of High Pressure Swirl Gasoline Injectors Investigated by Two-Dimensional Mie and LIEF Techniques

1999-03-01
1999-01-0498
Two-dimensional Mie and LIEF techniques were applied to investigate the spray formation of a high pressure gasoline swirl injector in a constant volume chamber. The results obtained provide information on the propagation of liquid fuel and fuel vapor for different fuel pressures and ambient conditions. Spray parameters like tip penetration, cone angles and two new defined parameters describing the radial fuel distribution were used to quantify the fuel distributions measured. Simultaneous detection of liquid and vapor fuel was applied to study the influence of ambient temperature, injector temperature and ambient pressure on the evaporating spray.
Technical Paper

Simulation, Performance and Quality Evaluation of ABS and ASR

1988-02-01
880323
The article describes the methods, which are employed in order to ensure high performance, safety and quality of ABS and ASR. System behaviour is evaluated and optimized by computer simulation. Moreover, a real-time simulator has been developed by which the consequences of hardware defects can be investigated systematically, Despite the increasing use of simulation the testing of vehicles remains the most important tool for system evaluation. For that purpose, a digital data acquisition system has been developed and objective evaluation criteria have been established. In order to achieve high product quality the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) is carried out at an early phase of development. Another prerequisite for high product quality is thorough durability and endurance testing before release of production.
Technical Paper

Simulation for the Development of the Bosch-VDC

1996-02-01
960486
A new automotive active safely system, the Vehicle Dynamics Control System (VDC) of BOSCH was introduced on the market in 1995. Besides improving the ABS/ASR functions, VDC will also actively support the driver in critical situations of lateral vehicle dynamics. This system includes new ABS/ASR-control algorithms and a superimposed control algorithm, the vehicle dynamics controller. Furthermore, an extension of the standard ABS/ASR-hydraulic system was necessary as well as the development of new automotive sensors. During all phases of the interdisciplinary system development, tests on experimental cars and extensive computer simulations were used in parallel. In order to provide adequate simulation models for different tasks, a modular concept for the simulation tool is important. Furthermore, a transparent and portable application of the control algorithm for both, experiment and simulation, is required.
Technical Paper

Simulation Tool Chain for the Estimation of EMC Characteristics of ECU Modules

2007-04-16
2007-01-1591
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) requirements and the effort to fulfill them are increasing steadily in automotive applications. This paper demonstrates the usage of virtual prototyping to efficiently investigate the EMC behavior of a gasoline direct injection system. While the system worked functionally as designed, tests indicated that current and especially future client-specific EMC limits could not be met. The goal of this investigation was to identify and eliminate the cause of EMC emissions using a virtual software prototype including the controller ASIC, boost converter, pi filter, injection valves and wire harness. Applying virtual prototyping techniques it was possible to capture the motor control system in a simulation model which reproduced EMC measurements in the frequency ranges of interest.
Journal Article

Procedure for Determining the Allowable Particle Contamination for Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment (FIE)

2009-04-20
2009-01-0870
Increasing injection pressures together with Diesel fuel lubricated Common Rail pumps replacing oil lubricated systems demand a more sophisticated investigation of robustness and durability against particle contamination of fuel. The established way of requiring filtration efficiency levels per lab standard is not significant enough if we look at variable factors like vibration of the fuel filter and viscosity of the fuel. Because these and other factors tremendously influence filtration efficiency, future Diesel FIE cleanliness requirements will need to define an allowable contamination limit downstream of the filter. More precisely, this is not a scalar limit but a contamination collective that considers the varying vehicle filtration and operating environment. This paper describes a procedure for defining allowable contamination limits of the FIE components. The procedure includes sensitivity, robustness and “key life” tests.
Technical Paper

Preparing for CARTRONIC - Interface and New Strategies for Torque Coordination and Conversion in a Spark Ignition Engine-Management System

2001-03-05
2001-01-0268
A major trend in modern vehicle control is the increase of complexity and interaction of formerly autonomous systems. In order to manage the resulting network of more and more integrated (sub)systems Bosch has developed an open architecture called CARTRONIC for structuring the entire vehicle control system. Structuring the system in functionally independent components improves modular software development and allows the integration of new elements such as integrated starter/generator and the implementation of advanced control concepts as drive train management. This approach leads to an open structure on a high level for the design of advanced vehicle control systems. The paper describes the integration of the spark-ignition (SI) engine management system (EMS) into a CARTRONIC conform vehicle coordination requiring a new standard interface between the vehicle coordination and the EMS level.
Journal Article

Predictive Multi-Objective Operation Strategy Considering Battery Cycle Aging for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1011
Due to the new CO2 targets for vehicles, electrification of powertrains and operation strategies for electrified powertrains have drawn more attention. This article presents a predictive multi-objective operation strategy for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which simultaneously minimizes the fuel consumption and the cycle aging of traction batteries. This proposed strategy shows better performance by using predictive information and high robustness to inaccuracy of predictive information. In this work, the benefits of the developed operation strategies are demonstrated in a strong hybrid electric vehicle (sHEV) with P2-configuration. For the cycle aging of a lithium-ion battery, an empirical model is built up with Gaussian processes based on experimental data.
Technical Paper

Optimal Automated Calibration of Model-Based ECU-Functions in Air System of Diesel Engines

2018-05-05
2018-01-5003
The success of model-based ECU-functions relies on precise and efficient modeling of the behavior of combustion engines. Due to the limited computing power, usually a combination of physical models and calibration parameters is preferred for engine modeling in ECU. The parameters can be scalars, 1 or 2-dimensional empirical models, such as look-up table for volumetric efficiency and effective area of the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). A novel algorithm is proposed to automatically calibrate the look-up tables characterizing stationary functional relationships in ECU-function of the air system of a diesel engine with minimum calibration cost. The algorithm runs in the framework of online design of experiment (DoE), in which Gaussian process model (GPM) is adopted to approximate the relationships of interest.
X