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Journal Article

Vehicle Level Brake Drag Target Setting for EPA Fuel Economy Certification

The strong focus on reducing brake drag, driven by a historic ramp-up in global fuel economy and carbon emissions standards, has led to renewed research on brake caliper drag behaviors and how to measure them. However, with the increased knowledge of the range of drag behaviors that a caliper can exhibit comes a particularly vexing problem - how should this complex range of behaviors be represented in the overall road load of the vehicle? What conditions are encountered during coastdown and fuel economy testing, and how should brake drag be measured and represented in these conditions? With the Environmental Protection Agency (amongst other regulating agencies around the world) conducting audit testing, and the requirement that published road load values be repeatable within a specified range during these audits, the importance of answering these questions accurately is elevated. This paper studies these questions, and even offers methodology for addressing them.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Analysis and Benchmark of Various Gasoline Combustion Concepts

Novel Combustion technologies and strategies show high potential in reducing the fuel consumption of gasoline spark ignition (SI) engines. In this paper, a comparison between various gasoline combustion concepts at two representative engine operating points is shown. Advantages of the combustion concepts are analyzed using thermodynamic split of losses method. In this paper, a tool for thermodynamic assessment (Split of Losses) of conventional and new operating strategies of SI engine and its derivatives is used. Technologies, like variable valve actuation and/or gasoline direct injection, allow new strategies to run the SI engine unthrottled with early inlet valve closing (SI-VVA) combined with high EGR, charge stratification (SI-STRAT) and controlled auto ignition (CAI), also known as gasoline homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). These diverse combustion concepts show thermodynamic gains that stem from several, often different sources.
Technical Paper

Thermal-Mechanical Durability of DOC and DPF After-treatment System for Light Heavy Pickup Truck Application

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)’s heavy duty diesel emission standard was tightened beginning from 2007 with the introduction of ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel. Most heavy duty diesel applications were required to equip Particulate Matter (PM) after-treatment systems to meet the new tighter, emission standard. Systems utilizing Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed-Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) are a mainstream of modern diesel PM after-treatment systems. To ensure appropriate performance of the system, periodic cleaning of the PM trapped in DPF by its oxidation (a process called “regeneration”) is necessary. As a result, of this regeneration, DOC’s and DPF’s can be exposed to hundreds of thermal cycles during their lifetime. Therefore, to understand the thermo-mechanical performance of the DOC and DPF is an essential issue to evaluate the durability of the system.
Technical Paper

The Robert Bosch In-Line Pump for Diesel Engines, Type MW, Design, Application and Further Development

The range of Robert Bosch in-line pumps is designed for engines with cylinder outputs of up to 200 kW. Within this family of pumps the MW pump is used in small IDI engines and medium-sized DI engines with cylinder outputs in the region of 30 kW. More stringent exhaust emission legislation and the need to ensure optimum fuel economy call for efficient fuel-injection systems for diesel engines. In both of its designs the new MW pump meets these more exacting requirements and forms the contribution of Robert Bosch GmbH toward developing advanced diesel engines.
Technical Paper

The Next Generation Northstar DOHC 4.6L V8 Engine with Four-Cam Continuously Variable Valve Timing for Cadillac

A new generation Northstar DOHC V8 engine has been developed for a new family of rear-wheel-drive (RWD) Cadillac vehicles. The new longitudinal engine architecture includes strategically selected technologies to enable a higher level of performance and refinement. These technologies include four-cam continuously variable valve timing, low restriction intake and exhaust manifolds and cylinder head ports, a steel crankshaft, electronic throttle control, and close-coupled catalysts. Additional design features beyond those required for RWD include optimized block ribbing, improved coolant flow, and a newly developed lubrication and ventilation system for high-speed operation and high lateral acceleration. This new design results in improved performance over the entire operating range, lower emissions, improved fuel economy, improved operating refinement, and reduced noise/vibration/harshness (NVH).
Technical Paper

The Impact of a Combustion Chamber Optimization on the Mixture Formation and Combustion in a CNG-DI Engine in Stratified Operation

A previous study by the authors has shown an efficiency benefit of up to Δηi = 10 % for stratified operation of a high pressure natural gas direct injection (DI) spark ignition (SI) engine compared to the homogeneous stoichiometric operation with port fuel injection (PFI). While best efficiencies appeared at extremely lean operation at λ = 3.2, minimum HC emissions were found at λ = 2. The increasing HC emissions and narrow ignition time frames in the extremely lean stratified operation have given the need for a detailed analysis. To further investigate the mixture formation and flame propagation und these conditions, an optically accessible single-cylinder engine was used. The mixture formation and the flame luminosity have been investigated in two perpendicular planes inside the combustion chamber.
Journal Article

The Electrification of the Automobile: From Conventional Hybrid, to Plug-in Hybrids, to Extended-Range Electric Vehicles

A key element of General Motors' Advanced Propulsion Technology Strategy is the electrification of the automobile. The objectives of this strategy are reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions and increased energy security/diversification. The introduction of hybrid vehicles was one of the first steps as a result of this strategy. To determine future opportunities and direction, an extensive study was completed to better understand the ability of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) and Extended-Range Electric Vehicles (E-REV) to address societal challenges. The study evaluated real world representative driving datasets to understand actual vehicle usage. Vehicle simulations were conducted to evaluate the merits of PHEV and E-REV configurations. As derivatives of conventional full hybrids, PHEVs have the potential to deliver a significant reduction in petroleum usage.
Technical Paper

The Challenge of Precise Characterizing the Specific Large-Span Flows in Urea Dosing Systems for NOx Reduction

The reduction of nitrous oxides in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines using a urea water solution is gaining more and more importance. While maintaining the future exhaust gas emission regulations, like the Euro 6 for passenger cars and the Euro 5 for commercial vehicles, urea dosing allows the engine management to be modified to improve fuel economy as well. The system manufacturer Robert Bosch has started early to develop the necessary dosing systems for the urea water solution. More than 300.000 Units have been delivered in 2007 for heavy duty applications. Typical dosing quantities for those systems are in the range of 0.01 l/h for passenger car systems and up to 10 l/h for commercial vehicles. During the first years of development and application of urea dosing systems, instantaneous flow measuring devices were used, which were not operating fully satisfactory.
Technical Paper

The CO2 Benefits of Electrification E-REVs, PHEVs and Charging Scenarios

Reducing Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions is one of the major challenges for automobile manufacturers. This is driven by environmental, consumer, and regulatory demands in all major regions worldwide. For conventional vehicles, a host of technologies have been applied that improve the overall efficiency of the vehicle. This reduces CO2 contributions by directly reducing the amount of energy consumed to power a vehicle. The hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) continues this trend. However, there are limits to CO2 reduction due to improvements in efficiency alone. Other major improvements are realized when the CO2 content of the energy used to motivate vehicles is reduced. With the introduction of Extended Range Electric Vehicles (E-REVs) and Plug-in HEVs (PHEVs), electric grid energy displaces petroleum. This enables the potential for significant CO2 reductions as the CO2 per unit of electrical energy is reduced over time with the improving mix of energy sources for the electrical grid.
Technical Paper

Tank-to-Wheels Preliminary Assessment of Advanced Powertrain and Alternative Fuel Vehicles for China

Well-to-Wheels analyses are important tools that provide a rigorous examination and quantify the environmental burdens associated with fuel production and fuel consumption during the vehicle use phase. Such assessments integrate the results obtained from the Well-to-Tank (WtT) and the Tank-to-Wheels (TtW) analysis components. The purpose of this study is to provide a preliminary Tank-to-Wheels assessment of the benefits associated with the introduction of alternative powertrains and fuels in the Chinese market by the year 2015 as compared to the results obtained with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). An emphasis is given on the vehicles powered by those fuels that have the potential to play a major role in the Chinese auto-sector, such as: M10, M85, E10, E85, Di-methyl Ether (DME) and Coal-to-Liquids (CTL). An important conclusion of this report is that hybridization reduces fuel consumption in all propulsion systems.
Technical Paper

Switching Roller Finger Follower Meets Lifetime Passenger Car Durability Requirements

An advanced variable valve actuation (VVA) system is characterized following end-of-life testing to enable fuel economy solutions for passenger car applications. The system consists of a switching roller finger follower (SRFF) combined with a dual feed hydraulic lash adjuster and an oil control valve that are integrated into a four cylinder gasoline engine. The SRFF provides discrete valve lift capability on the intake valves. The motivation for designing this type of VVA system is targeted to improve fuel economy by reducing the air pumping losses during part load engine operation. This paper addresses the durability of a SRFF for meeting passenger car durability requirements. Extensive durability tests were conducted for high speed, low speed, switching, and cold start operation. High engine speed test results show stable valvetrain dynamics above 7000 engine rpm. System wear requirements met end-of-life criteria for the switching, sliding, rolling and torsion spring interfaces.
Technical Paper

Supplementation of Measured Vehicle Road Loads to Study Vehicle Configuration Changes

Measured vehicle loads, taken during durability events, are commonly used to drive in-lab vehicle subsystem validation testing. The use of measured loads can be problematic due to (a) off-nominal characteristics of the test vehicle, (b) post-test changes to vehicle tuning - bushings, springs, and shocks for example, (c) scheduling, timing and weather requirements, (d) modification of vehicle characteristics by the inclusion of transducers and (e) the cost of executing tests. A general process for supplementing and rationalizing measured vehicle data through the use of correlated multi-body dynamic simulations is presented. Difficulties in modeling tires and other components, as well as difficulties in model correlation for abusive load events are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Study on Boosted Direct Injection SI Combustion with Ethanol Blends and the Influence on the Ignition System

The stricter worldwide emission legislation and growing demands for lower fuel consumption and CO2-emission require for significant efforts to improve combustion efficiency while satisfying the emission quality demands. Ethanol fuel combined with boosting on direct injection gasoline engines provides a particularly promising and, at the same time, a challenging approach. Brazil is one of the main Ethanol fuel markets with its E24 and E100 fuel availability, which covers a large volume of the national needs. Additionally, worldwide Ethanol availability is becoming more and more important, e.g., in North America and Europe. Considering the future flex-fuel engine market with growing potentials identified on downsized spark ignition engines, it becomes necessary to investigate the synergies and challenges of Ethanol boosted operation. Main topic of the present work focuses on the operation of Ethanol blends up to E100 at high loads up to 30 bar imep.
Journal Article

Start/Stop Strategies for Two-Wheelers in the Emerging Markets

Fuel economy of two-wheelers is an important factor influencing the purchasing psychology of the consumer within the emerging markets. Additionally, air pollution being a major environmental topic, there is a rising concern about vehicle emissions, especially in the big cities and their metropolitan areas. Potentially, the relatively expensive engine management systems are providing more features and value in comparison to the carburettor counterpart. The combustion system analysis is carried out on a 125 cm3 motorcycle engine and the subsequent numerical simulation comparing the carburettor and the Electronic (Port) Fuel Injection which provides a basis to establish the fuel consumption benefit for the electronic injection systems [1].
Technical Paper

Spray Formation of High Pressure Swirl Gasoline Injectors Investigated by Two-Dimensional Mie and LIEF Techniques

Two-dimensional Mie and LIEF techniques were applied to investigate the spray formation of a high pressure gasoline swirl injector in a constant volume chamber. The results obtained provide information on the propagation of liquid fuel and fuel vapor for different fuel pressures and ambient conditions. Spray parameters like tip penetration, cone angles and two new defined parameters describing the radial fuel distribution were used to quantify the fuel distributions measured. Simultaneous detection of liquid and vapor fuel was applied to study the influence of ambient temperature, injector temperature and ambient pressure on the evaporating spray.
Technical Paper

Rationale for Technology Selections in GM's PNGV Precept Concept Car Based on Systems Analysis

The CY2000 cornerstone goal of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) is the demonstration in CY 2000 of a 5-passenger vehicle with fuel economy of up 80 mpg (3 l/100km). As a PNGV partner, GM will demonstrate a technology-demonstration concept vehicle, the Precept, having a lightweight aluminum-intensive body, hybrid-electric propulsion system and a portfolio of efficient vehicle technologies. This paper describes: 1) the strategy for the vehicle design including mass requirements, 2) the selection of dual axle application of regenerative braking and electric traction, and 3) the complementary perspective on energy management strategy. This paper outlines information developed through systems analysis that drove technology selections. The systems analyses relied on vehicle simulation models to estimate fuel economy associated with technology selections. Modeling analyses included consideration of both federal test requirements and more severe driving situations.
Technical Paper

R-152a Refrigeration System for Mobile Air Conditioning

In recent years, climate protection has become as important as ozone layer protection was in the late 1980's and early 1990s. Concerns about global warming and climate change have culminated in the Kyoto Protocol, a treaty requiring its signatories to limit their total emission of greenhouse gases to pre-1990 levels by 2008. The inclusion of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as one of the controlled substances in the Kyoto Protocol has increased global scrutiny of the global warming impact of HFC-134a (called R-134a when used as a refrigerant), the current mobile air conditioning refrigerant. Industry's first response was to begin improving current R-134a systems to reduce leakage, reduce charge, and increase system energy efficiency, which in turn reduces tailpipe CO2 emissions. An additional option would be to replace the current R-134a with a refrigerant of lower global warming impact. This paper documents the use of another HFC, R-152a, in a mobile A/C system.
Journal Article

Procedure for Determining the Allowable Particle Contamination for Diesel Fuel Injection Equipment (FIE)

Increasing injection pressures together with Diesel fuel lubricated Common Rail pumps replacing oil lubricated systems demand a more sophisticated investigation of robustness and durability against particle contamination of fuel. The established way of requiring filtration efficiency levels per lab standard is not significant enough if we look at variable factors like vibration of the fuel filter and viscosity of the fuel. Because these and other factors tremendously influence filtration efficiency, future Diesel FIE cleanliness requirements will need to define an allowable contamination limit downstream of the filter. More precisely, this is not a scalar limit but a contamination collective that considers the varying vehicle filtration and operating environment. This paper describes a procedure for defining allowable contamination limits of the FIE components. The procedure includes sensitivity, robustness and “key life” tests.
Technical Paper

Preparing for CARTRONIC - Interface and New Strategies for Torque Coordination and Conversion in a Spark Ignition Engine-Management System

A major trend in modern vehicle control is the increase of complexity and interaction of formerly autonomous systems. In order to manage the resulting network of more and more integrated (sub)systems Bosch has developed an open architecture called CARTRONIC for structuring the entire vehicle control system. Structuring the system in functionally independent components improves modular software development and allows the integration of new elements such as integrated starter/generator and the implementation of advanced control concepts as drive train management. This approach leads to an open structure on a high level for the design of advanced vehicle control systems. The paper describes the integration of the spark-ignition (SI) engine management system (EMS) into a CARTRONIC conform vehicle coordination requiring a new standard interface between the vehicle coordination and the EMS level.
Journal Article

Predictive Multi-Objective Operation Strategy Considering Battery Cycle Aging for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Due to the new CO2 targets for vehicles, electrification of powertrains and operation strategies for electrified powertrains have drawn more attention. This article presents a predictive multi-objective operation strategy for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), which simultaneously minimizes the fuel consumption and the cycle aging of traction batteries. This proposed strategy shows better performance by using predictive information and high robustness to inaccuracy of predictive information. In this work, the benefits of the developed operation strategies are demonstrated in a strong hybrid electric vehicle (sHEV) with P2-configuration. For the cycle aging of a lithium-ion battery, an empirical model is built up with Gaussian processes based on experimental data.