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Technical Paper

Study of High-Pressure Injection DI Diesel Engine

Visualization of in-cylinder reaction processes and performance analysis of a direct-injection Diesel engine equipped with a high injection pressure (HIP) unit were conducted. The study was directed towards evaluation of high-power-density (HPD) engine design strategies, which utilize more intake air operating at rich overall fuel-air ratios. Two separate engine apparatus were used in this study: a Cummins 903 engine and a single-cylinder optical engine equipped with the same family engine components including the cylinder head. The engines were mated with an intensifier-type HIP fuel system fabricated at Rutgers which can deliver fuel injection pressure of over 200 MPa (30,000psi). The one-of-a-kind high-speed four-band infrared (IR) imaging system was used to obtain over fifteen hundred sets of spectral digital movies under varied engine design and operating conditions for the present analysis.
Technical Paper

Spectral IR Images of Direct-Injection Diesel Combustion by High-Pressure Fuel Injection

Instantaneous successive spectral infrared (IR) images were obtained from a spray plume in a direct injection (DI) type compression-ignition (CI) engine during the compression and combustion periods. The engine equipped with a high pressure electronic-controlled fuel injector system was operated by using D-2 Diesel fuel. In the new imaging system used for the present study, four high-speed IR cameras (with respective band filters in front) were lined up to a single optical arrangement containing three spectral beam splitters to obtain four spectral images at once. Two band filters were used for imaging the water vapor distribution and another two band filters were placed for capturing images of combustion chamber wall or soot formation. The simultaneous imaging was successively triggered by signals from an encoder connected to the engine. The fuel injection parameters were precisely controlled and the pressure-time (p-t) history was obtained for individual sets of images.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine by High-Speed Spectral IR Imaging and KIVA-II

In-cylinder process of a direct injection (DI) compression ignition (CI) engine was studied by using the Rutgers high-speed spectral infrared (M) imaging system and the KIVA-II computer code. Comparison of the engine measurements with the computational prediction was attempted. In order to perform the instantaneous IR imaging, a Cummins 903 engine cylinder head was modified by installing an optical access in place of one of the intake valves, which required designing a new rocker-arm mechanism. The measurements obtained using the highspeed dual spectra IR imaging system were processed by the conventional two-color method which employed soot as the radiating target. The KIVA-II program was coded in order to match engine and operation conditions to those employed in the present measurements for achieving mutual consistency of the analysis.
Technical Paper

In-cylinder Liquid Fuel Layers, Cause of Unburned Hydrocarbon and Deposit Formation in SI Engines?

In-cylinder reaction processes in a production port-fuel-injection (PFI) spark-ignition engine having optical access were visualized using a high speed four-spectra IR Imaging system. Over one thousand sets of digital movies were accumulated for this study. To conduct a close analysis of this vast amount of results, a new data analysis and presentation method was developed, which permits the simultaneous display of as many as twenty-eight (28) digital movies over a single PC screen in a controlled manner, which is called the Rutgers Animation Program (RAP for short). The results of this parametric study of the in-cylinder processes (including the period before and after the presence of luminous flame fronts) suggest that, even after the engine was well warmed, liquid fuel layers (LFL) are formed over and in the vicinity of the intake valve to which the PFI was mated.
Technical Paper

High-speed Imaging from Consecutive Cycles

A new high-speed data handling method has been developed by advancing the Rutgers Super Imaging System (SIS) (having four units of infrared digital cameras) in order to capture successive in-cylinder spectral thermal images at high rates from consecutive cycles (HSI-CC). The present HSI-CC method has been made possible by incorporating recent advancements in digital data handling peripheral devices and development of new dedicated computer programs including an MS Window-based operating system (WOS) for the SIS. The SIS-HSI-CC permits simultaneous high-speed imaging of four (4) sets of 64 sequential images (or 128 images) at rates of over 2,000 frames/camera/sec in each cycle, which can be repeated for as many as 150 consecutive cycles. This amounts to a data volume of nearly 400 mega bytes (in 12-bit dynamic resolution) in an experiment.
Technical Paper

Flames and Liquid Fuel in an SI Engine Cylinder During Cold Start

The flame propagations in the very first firing and subsequent cycles in an SI engine during cold start were studied to gain a better understanding of reaction fronts associated with liquid fuel (regular unleaded) in the cylinder. This work was performed using the Rutgers high-speed spectral infrared digital imaging system on a single-cylinder engine with optical access. The engine was mounted with a production engine cylinder-head mated with a conventional port fuel injection (PFI) system. In the study, four images in respective spectral bands were simultaneously obtained at successive instants of time during the combustion period, which was done for eight sequential cycles. This multiple-band successive-imaging was repeated in intervals of about two minutes over a period of more than twenty-five minutes after the engine start. During this experiment, the temperature changes at the intake port, the water jacket and the exhaust gas were monitored.