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Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Residual and Fresh Charge Mixing in a Modern SI Engine Using Spontaneous Raman Scattering

1999-03-01
1999-01-1106
Line-imaging of Raman scattered light is used to simultaneously measure the mole fractions of CO2, H2O, N2, O2, and fuel (premixed C3H8) in a modern 4-valve spark-ignition engine operating at idle. The measurement volume consists of 16 adjacent sub-volumes, each 0.27 mm in diameter × 0.91 mm long, giving a total measurement length of 14.56 mm. Measurements are made 3 mm under the centrally-located spark plug, offset 3 mm from the spark plug center towards the exhaust valves. Data are taken in 15 crank angle degree increments starting from top center before the intake stroke (-360 CAD) through top center of the compression stroke (0 CAD).
Technical Paper

Overview of Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

1999-04-27
1999-01-2246
The objectives of this paper are to describe the ongoing projects in diesel engine combustion research at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to detail recent experimental results. The approach we are employing is to assemble experimental hardware that mimic realistic engine geometries while enabling optical access. For example, we are using multi-cylinder engine heads or one-cylinder versions of production heads mated to one-cylinder engine blocks. Optical access is then obtained through a periscope in an exhaust valve, quartz windows in the piston crown, windows in spacer plates just below the head, or quartz cylinder liners. We have three diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, and a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Scavenging System for a Two-Stroke Cycle, Free Piston Engine for High Efficiency and Low Emissions: A Computational Approach

2003-03-03
2003-01-0001
A free piston internal combustion (IC) engine operating on high compression ratio (CR) homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories to significantly improve the thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions relative to conventional crankshaft-driven SI and Diesel engines. A two-stroke scavenging process recharges the engine and is key to realizing the efficiency and emissions potential of the device. To ensure that the engine's performance goals can be achieved the scavenging system was configured using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), zero- and one-dimensional modeling, and single step parametric variations. A wide range of design options was investigated including the use of loop, hybrid-loop and uniflow scavenging methods, different charge delivery options, and various operating schemes. Parameters such as the intake/exhaust port arrangement, valve lift/timing, charging pressure and piston frequency were varied.
Technical Paper

Novel Three-Dimensional Ceramic Lattices as Catalyst Supports and Diesel Particulate Traps

2003-03-03
2003-01-0838
A novel direct-fabrication technique (robocasting) was used to produce periodic lattices of ceramic rods. The macrostructure is a three-dimensional mesh with controlled porosity in all dimensions but no line-of-sight pathways. These ceramic lattices can function as catalyst supports for gas combustion, and possibly self-regenerating filters for diesel particulates. Compared to the traditional two-dimensional “honeycomb” structured extrudates, the three-dimensional structures have high surface to volume ratios and highly turbulent flow. The flow behaviors of these ceramic lattices and the resulting enhancements in catalytic performance over traditional supports have been demonstrated for propane and methane combustion. Similar tests are underway for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx. The potential utility of these structures for diesel particulate trapping will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

Modeling Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps Under Reducing Conditions

2006-10-16
2006-01-3446
A set of elementary surface reactions is proposed for modeling the chemistry in a lean NOx trap during regeneration (reduction of stored NOx). The proposed reaction mechanism can account for the observed product distribution from the trap over a range of temperatures and inlet gas compositions similar to those expected for realistic operation. The mechanism includes many reactions already discussed in the literature, together with some hypothesized reactions that are required to match observations from temperature programmed reactor experiments with a commercial lean NOx trap catalyst. Preliminary results indicate that the NOx trap regeneration and byproduct formation rates can be effectively captured by using a relatively compact set of elementary reactions.
Technical Paper

LIF and Flame-Emission Imaging of Liquid Fuel Films and Pool Fires in an SI Engine During a Simulated Cold Start

1997-02-24
970866
Video imaging has been used to investigate the evolution of liquid fuel films on combustion chamber walls during a simulated cold start of a port fuel-injected engine. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder research engine with a production, four-valve head and a window in the piston crown. Flood-illuminated laser-induced fluorescence was used to observe the fuel films directly, and color video recording of visible emission from pool fires due to burning fuel films was used as an indirect measure of film location. The imaging techniques were applied to a comparative study of open and closed valve injection, for coolant temperatures of 20, 40 and 60 °C. In general, for all cases it is shown that fuel films form in the vicinity of the intake valve seats.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Relationship Between DI Diesel Combustion Processes and Engine-Out Soot Using an Oxygenated Fuel

2004-03-08
2004-01-1400
The relationship between combustion processes and engine-out soot was investigated in an optically accessible DI diesel engine using diethylene glycol diethyl ether (DGE) fuel, a viable diesel oxygenate. The high oxygen content of DGE enables operation without soot emissions at higher loads than with a hydrocarbon fuel. The high cetane number of DGE enables operation at charge-gas temperatures below those required for current diesel fuels, which may be advantageous for reducing NOx emissions. In-cylinder optical measurements of flame lift-off length and natural luminosity were obtained simultaneously with engine-out soot measurements while varying charge-gas density and temperature. The local mixture stoichiometry at the lift-off length was characterized by a parameter called the oxygen ratio that was estimated from the measured flame lift-off length using an entrainment correlation for non-reacting sprays.
Technical Paper

Full Cycle CFD Simulations to Study Thermal and Chemical Effects of Fuel Injection during Negative Valve Overlap in an Automotive Research Engine

2010-10-25
2010-01-2236
Recently experiments were conducted on an automotive homogeneous-charge-compression-ignition (HCCI) research engine with a negative-valve-overlap (NVO) cam. In the study two sets of experiments were run. One set injected a small quantity of fuel (HPLC-grade iso-octane) during NVO in varying amounts and timings followed by a larger injection during the intake stroke. The other set of experiments was similar, but did not include an NVO injection. By comparing both sets of results researchers were able to investigate the use of NVO fuel injection to control main combustion phasing under light-load conditions. For this paper a subset of these experiments are modeled with the computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) code KIVA3V [ 6 ] using a multi-zone combustion model. The computational domain includes the combustion chamber, and intake and exhaust valves, ports, and runners. Multiple cycles are run to minimize the influence of initial conditions on final simulated results.
Journal Article

Determination of Cycle Temperatures and Residual Gas Fraction for HCCI Negative Valve Overlap Operation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0343
Fuel injection during negative valve overlap offers a promising method of controlling HCCI combustion, but sorting out the thermal and chemical effects of NVO fueling requires knowledge of temperatures throughout the cycle. Computing bulk temperatures throughout closed portions of the cycle is relatively straightforward using an equation of state, once a temperature at one crank angle is established. Unfortunately, computing charge temperatures at intake valve closing for NVO operation is complicated by a large, unknown fraction of residual gases at unknown temperature. To address the problem, we model blowdown and recompression during exhaust valve opening and closing events, allowing us to estimate in-cylinder charge temperatures based on exhaust-port measurements. This algorithm permits subsequent calculation of crank-angle-resolved bulk temperatures and residual gas fraction over a wide range of NVO operation.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Single and Dual Spray Fuel Injectors During Cold Start of a PFI Spark Ignition Engine Using Visualization of Liquid Fuel Films and Pool Fires

2005-10-24
2005-01-3863
Video imaging has been used to investigate the evolution of liquid fuel films on combustion chamber walls during a simulated cold start of a port fuel-injected engine. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder research engine with a production, four-valve head and a window in the piston crown. Flood-illuminated laser-induced fluorescence was used to observe the fuel films directly, and color video recording of visible emission from pool fires due to burning fuel films was used as an indirect measure of film location. The imaging techniques were applied to a comparative study of single and dual spray fuel injectors for both open and closed valve injection, for coolant temperatures of 20, 40 and 60°C. In general, for all cases it is shown that fuel films form in the vicinity of the intake valve seats.
Journal Article

Characterization of Flow Asymmetry During the Compression Stroke Using Swirl-Plane PIV in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine with the Re-entrant Piston Bowl Geometry

2015-04-14
2015-01-1699
Flow field asymmetry can lead to an asymmetric mixture preparation in Diesel engines. To understand the evolution of this asymmetry, it is necessary to characterize the in-cylinder flow over the full compression stroke. Moreover, since bowl-in-piston cylinder geometries can substantially impact the in-cylinder flow, characterization of these flows requires the use of geometrically correct pistons. In this work, the flow has been visualized via a transparent piston top with a realistic bowl geometry, which causes severe experimental difficulties due to the spatial and temporal variation of the optical distortion. An advanced optical distortion correction method is described to allow reliable particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements through the full compression stroke. Based on the ensemble-averaged velocity results, flow asymmetry characterized by the swirl center offset and the associated tilting of the vortex axis is quantified.
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