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Journal Article

Transient Liquid Penetration of Early-Injection Diesel Sprays

Diesel low-temperature combustion strategies often rely on early injection timing to allow sufficient fuel-ambient mixing to avoid NOx and soot-forming combustion. However, these early injection timings permit the spray to penetrate into a low ambient temperature and density environment where vaporization is poor and liquid impingement upon the cylinder liner and piston bowl are more likely to occur. The objective of this study is to measure the transient liquid and vapor penetration at early-injection conditions. High-speed Mie-scatter and shadowgraph imaging are employed in an optically accessible chamber with a free path of 100 mm prior to wall impingement and using a single-spray injector. The ambient temperature and density within the chamber are well-controlled (uniform) and selected to simulate in-cylinder conditions when injection occurs at -40 crank-angle degrees (CAD) or fewer before top-dead center (TDC).
Journal Article

Study of Soot Formation and Oxidation in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), Spray A: Effects of Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

Within the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) spray combustion research frame, simultaneous line-of-sight laser extinction measurements and laser-induced incandescence (LII) imaging were performed to derive the soot volume fraction (fv). Experiments are conducted at engine-relevant high-temperature and high-pressure conditions in a constant-volume pre-combustion type vessel. The target condition, called "Spray A," uses well-defined ambient (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m₃, 15% oxygen) and injector conditions (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K). Extinction measurements are used to calibrate LII images for quantitative soot distribution measurements at cross sections intersecting the spray axis. LII images are taken after the start of injection where quasi-stationary combustion is already established.
Technical Paper

Quantitative Measurements of Residual and Fresh Charge Mixing in a Modern SI Engine Using Spontaneous Raman Scattering

Line-imaging of Raman scattered light is used to simultaneously measure the mole fractions of CO2, H2O, N2, O2, and fuel (premixed C3H8) in a modern 4-valve spark-ignition engine operating at idle. The measurement volume consists of 16 adjacent sub-volumes, each 0.27 mm in diameter × 0.91 mm long, giving a total measurement length of 14.56 mm. Measurements are made 3 mm under the centrally-located spark plug, offset 3 mm from the spark plug center towards the exhaust valves. Data are taken in 15 crank angle degree increments starting from top center before the intake stroke (-360 CAD) through top center of the compression stroke (0 CAD).
Technical Paper

Penetration and combustion characterization of cavitating and non-cavitating fuel injectors under diesel engine conditions

This work investigates the effects of cavitation on spray characteristics by comparing measurements of liquid and vapor penetration as well as ignition delay and lift-off length. A smoothed-inlet, converging nozzle (nominal KS1.5) was compared to a sharp-edged nozzle (nominal K0) in a constant-volume combustion vessel under thermodynamic conditions consistent with modern compression ignition engines. Within the near-nozzle region, the K0 nozzle displayed larger radial dispersion of the liquid as compared to the KS1.5 nozzle, and shorter axial liquid penetration. Moving downstream, the KS1.5 jet growth rate increased, eventually reaching a growth rate similar to the K0 nozzle while maintaining a smaller radial width. The increasing spreading angle in the far field creates a virtual origin, or mixing offset, several millimeters downstream for the KS1.5 nozzle.
Technical Paper

Overview of Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

The objectives of this paper are to describe the ongoing projects in diesel engine combustion research at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to detail recent experimental results. The approach we are employing is to assemble experimental hardware that mimic realistic engine geometries while enabling optical access. For example, we are using multi-cylinder engine heads or one-cylinder versions of production heads mated to one-cylinder engine blocks. Optical access is then obtained through a periscope in an exhaust valve, quartz windows in the piston crown, windows in spacer plates just below the head, or quartz cylinder liners. We have three diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, and a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

Optimizing the Scavenging System for a Two-Stroke Cycle, Free Piston Engine for High Efficiency and Low Emissions: A Computational Approach

A free piston internal combustion (IC) engine operating on high compression ratio (CR) homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion is being developed by Sandia National Laboratories to significantly improve the thermal efficiency and exhaust emissions relative to conventional crankshaft-driven SI and Diesel engines. A two-stroke scavenging process recharges the engine and is key to realizing the efficiency and emissions potential of the device. To ensure that the engine's performance goals can be achieved the scavenging system was configured using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), zero- and one-dimensional modeling, and single step parametric variations. A wide range of design options was investigated including the use of loop, hybrid-loop and uniflow scavenging methods, different charge delivery options, and various operating schemes. Parameters such as the intake/exhaust port arrangement, valve lift/timing, charging pressure and piston frequency were varied.
Technical Paper

Novel Three-Dimensional Ceramic Lattices as Catalyst Supports and Diesel Particulate Traps

A novel direct-fabrication technique (robocasting) was used to produce periodic lattices of ceramic rods. The macrostructure is a three-dimensional mesh with controlled porosity in all dimensions but no line-of-sight pathways. These ceramic lattices can function as catalyst supports for gas combustion, and possibly self-regenerating filters for diesel particulates. Compared to the traditional two-dimensional “honeycomb” structured extrudates, the three-dimensional structures have high surface to volume ratios and highly turbulent flow. The flow behaviors of these ceramic lattices and the resulting enhancements in catalytic performance over traditional supports have been demonstrated for propane and methane combustion. Similar tests are underway for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx. The potential utility of these structures for diesel particulate trapping will also be discussed.
Technical Paper

More Leaders and Fewer Initiatives: Key Ideas for the Future of Engineering

Panel Discussions held at the SAE World Congress in both 2013 and 2014 observed that a shortage of good quality engineering talent formed a chronic and major challenge. (“Good quality” refers to applicants that would be shortlisted for interview.) While doubts have been expressed in some quarters, the shortage is confirmed by automotive sector employers and the Panel's view was that it was symptomatic of a range of issues, all of which have some bearing on the future of the profession. Initiatives to improve recruitment and retention have had varying degrees of success. Efforts need to be intensified in primary schools where negative perceptions develop and deepen. Schemes like AWIM that operate on a large scale and are designed to supplement school curricula should operate at an international level. Universities represent the entry point into the engineering profession and their role in the recruitment process as well as education and training is crucial.
Technical Paper

Modeling Chemistry in Lean NOx Traps Under Reducing Conditions

A set of elementary surface reactions is proposed for modeling the chemistry in a lean NOx trap during regeneration (reduction of stored NOx). The proposed reaction mechanism can account for the observed product distribution from the trap over a range of temperatures and inlet gas compositions similar to those expected for realistic operation. The mechanism includes many reactions already discussed in the literature, together with some hypothesized reactions that are required to match observations from temperature programmed reactor experiments with a commercial lean NOx trap catalyst. Preliminary results indicate that the NOx trap regeneration and byproduct formation rates can be effectively captured by using a relatively compact set of elementary reactions.
Journal Article

Mixture Formation in Direct Injection Hydrogen Engines: CFD and Optical Analysis of Single- and Multi-Hole Nozzles

This paper describes the validation of a CFD code for mixture preparation in a direct injection hydrogen-fueled engine. The cylinder geometry is typical of passenger-car sized spark-ignited engines, with a centrally located injector. A single-hole and a 13-hole nozzle are used at about 100 bar and 25 bar injection pressure. Numerical results from the commercial code Fluent (v6.3.35) are compared to measurements in an optically accessible engine. Quantitative planar laser-induced fluorescence provides phase-locked images of the fuel mole-fraction, while single-cycle visualization of the early jet penetration is achieved by a high-speed schlieren technique. The characteristics of the computational grids are discussed, especially for the near-nozzle region, where the jets are under-expanded. Simulation of injection from the single-hole nozzle yields good agreement between numerical and optical results in terms of jet penetration and overall evolution.
Technical Paper

LIF and Flame-Emission Imaging of Liquid Fuel Films and Pool Fires in an SI Engine During a Simulated Cold Start

Video imaging has been used to investigate the evolution of liquid fuel films on combustion chamber walls during a simulated cold start of a port fuel-injected engine. The experiments were performed in a single-cylinder research engine with a production, four-valve head and a window in the piston crown. Flood-illuminated laser-induced fluorescence was used to observe the fuel films directly, and color video recording of visible emission from pool fires due to burning fuel films was used as an indirect measure of film location. The imaging techniques were applied to a comparative study of open and closed valve injection, for coolant temperatures of 20, 40 and 60 °C. In general, for all cases it is shown that fuel films form in the vicinity of the intake valve seats.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Relationship Between DI Diesel Combustion Processes and Engine-Out Soot Using an Oxygenated Fuel

The relationship between combustion processes and engine-out soot was investigated in an optically accessible DI diesel engine using diethylene glycol diethyl ether (DGE) fuel, a viable diesel oxygenate. The high oxygen content of DGE enables operation without soot emissions at higher loads than with a hydrocarbon fuel. The high cetane number of DGE enables operation at charge-gas temperatures below those required for current diesel fuels, which may be advantageous for reducing NOx emissions. In-cylinder optical measurements of flame lift-off length and natural luminosity were obtained simultaneously with engine-out soot measurements while varying charge-gas density and temperature. The local mixture stoichiometry at the lift-off length was characterized by a parameter called the oxygen ratio that was estimated from the measured flame lift-off length using an entrainment correlation for non-reacting sprays.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Small-Scale Unintended Releases of Hydrogen

Knowledge of the concentration field and flammability envelope from a small-scale hydrogen leak is an issue of importance for the safe use of hydrogen. A combined experimental and modeling program is being carried out by Sandia National Laboratories to characterize and predict the behavior of small-scale hydrogen releases. In contrast to the previous work performed by Sandia on large, momentum-dominated hydrogen leaks, these studies are focusing on small leaks in the Froude number range where both buoyant and inertial forces are important or, in the limit, where buoyancy dominates leak behavior. In the slow leak regime buoyant forces affect the trajectory and rate of air entrainment of the hydrogen jet leak and significant curvature can occur in the jet trajectory. Slow leaks may occur from leaky fittings or o-ring seals on hydrogen vehicles or other hydrogen-based systems where large amounts of pressure drop occur across the leak path.
Journal Article

Investigation of Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Products Using Gas Sampling and Single-Zone Modeling

Negative valve overlap (NVO) is a viable control strategy that enables low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) at low loads. Thermal effects of NVO fueling on main combustion are well understood, but fuel reforming chemistry during NVO has not been extensively studied. The objective of this work is to analyze the impact of global equivalence ratio and available oxidizer on NVO product concentrations. Experiments were performed in a LTGC single-cylinder engine under a sweep of NVO oxygen concentration and NVO fueling rates. Gas sampling at the start and end of the NVO period was performed via a custom dump-valve apparatus with detailed sample speciation by gas chromatography. Single-zone reactor models using detailed chemistry at relevant mixing and thermodynamic conditions were used in parallel to the experiments to evaluate expected yields of partially oxidized species under representative engine time scales.
Technical Paper

Interaction of Intake-Induced Flow and Injection Jet in a Direct-Injection Hydrogen-Fueled Engine Measured by PIV

The in-cylinder charge motion during the compression stroke of an optically accessible engine equipped with direct injection of hydrogen fuel is measured via particle image velocimetry (PIV). The evolution of the mean flow field and the tumble ratio are examined with and without injection, each with the unmodified 4-valve pent-roof engine head and with the intake ports modified to yield higher tumble. The measurements in the vertical symmetry plane of the cylinder show that intake modification produces the desired drastic increase in tumble flow, changing the tumble ratio at BDC from 0.22 to 0.70. Either intake-induced flow is completely disrupted by the high-pressure hydrogen injection from an angled, centrally located single-hole nozzle. The injection event leads to sudden reversal of the tumble. Hence the tumble ratio is negative after injection. However, the two intake configurations still differ in tumble ratio by about the same magnitude as before injection.
Journal Article

Influence of the In-Cylinder Flow Field (Tumble) on the Fuel Distribution in a DI Hydrogen Engine Using a Single-Hole Injector

This paper examines the interaction of bulk flow and jet-induced fuel convection in an optically accessible hydrogen-fueled engine with direct injection. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of gaseous acetone as a fuel tracer was performed to obtain quantitative images of the hydrogen mole-fraction in the operating engine. With the engine motored, fuel was injected into inert bulk gas from a centrally located injector during the compression stroke. The injector had a single-hole nozzle with the jet angled at 50 degrees with respect to the vertical injector axis. Two parameters were varied in the experiments, injector orientation and tumble intensity, and for each of these, the injection timing was varied. Image series of the mean fuel mole-fraction between injection and near-TDC crank angles capture the mixture-formation process for each configuration and injection timing.
Journal Article

Influence of Diesel Injection Parameters on End-of-Injection Liquid Length Recession

Diesel injection parameters effect on liquid-phase diesel spray penetration after the end-of-injection (EOI) is investigated in a constant-volume chamber over a range of ambient and injector conditions typical of a diesel engine. Our past work showed that the maximum liquid penetration length of a diesel spray may recede towards the injector after EOI at some conditions. Analysis employing a transient jet entrainment model showed that increased fuel-ambient mixing occurs during the fuel-injection-rate ramp-down as increased ambient-entrainment rates progress downstream (i.e. the entrainment wave), permitting complete fuel vaporization at distances closer to the injector than the quasi-steady liquid length. To clarify the liquid-length recession process, in this study we report Mie-scatter imaging results near EOI over a range of injection pressure, nozzle size, fuel type, and rate-of-injection shape. We then use a transient jet entrainment model for detailed analysis.
Technical Paper

Identification and Characterization of Steady Spray Conditions in Convergent, Single-Hole Diesel Injectors

Reduced-order models typically assume that the flow through the injector orifice is quasi-steady. The current study investigates to what extent this assumption is true and what factors may induce large-scale variations. Experimental data were collected from a single-hole metal injector with a smoothly converging hole and from a transparent facsimile. Gas, likely indicating cavitation, was observed in the nozzles. Surface roughness was a potential cause for the cavitation. Computations were employed using two engineering-level Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes that considered the possibility of cavitation. Neither computational model included these small surface features, and so did not predict internal cavitation. At steady state, it was found that initial conditions were of little consequence, even if they included bubbles within the sac. They however did modify the initial rate of injection by a few microseconds.
Technical Paper

Full Cycle CFD Simulations to Study Thermal and Chemical Effects of Fuel Injection during Negative Valve Overlap in an Automotive Research Engine

Recently experiments were conducted on an automotive homogeneous-charge-compression-ignition (HCCI) research engine with a negative-valve-overlap (NVO) cam. In the study two sets of experiments were run. One set injected a small quantity of fuel (HPLC-grade iso-octane) during NVO in varying amounts and timings followed by a larger injection during the intake stroke. The other set of experiments was similar, but did not include an NVO injection. By comparing both sets of results researchers were able to investigate the use of NVO fuel injection to control main combustion phasing under light-load conditions. For this paper a subset of these experiments are modeled with the computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) code KIVA3V [ 6 ] using a multi-zone combustion model. The computational domain includes the combustion chamber, and intake and exhaust valves, ports, and runners. Multiple cycles are run to minimize the influence of initial conditions on final simulated results.
Journal Article

Experimental and Computational Investigation of Subcritical Near-Nozzle Spray Structure and Primary Atomization in the Engine Combustion Network Spray D

In order to improve understanding of the primary atomization process for diesel-like sprays, a collaborative experimental and computational study was focused on the near-nozzle spray structure for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray D single-hole injector. These results were presented at the 5th Workshop of the ECN in Detroit, Michigan. Application of x-ray diagnostics to the Spray D standard cold condition enabled quantification of distributions of mass, phase interfacial area, and droplet size in the near-nozzle region from 0.1 to 14 mm from the nozzle exit. Using these data, several modeling frameworks, from Lagrangian-Eulerian to Eulerian-Eulerian and from Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), were assessed in their ability to capture and explain experimentally observed spray details. Due to its computational efficiency, the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was able to provide spray predictions across a broad range of conditions.