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Technical Paper

Φ-Sensitivity for LTGC Engines: Understanding the Fundamentals and Tailoring Fuel Blends to Maximize This Property

2019-04-02
2019-01-0961
Φ-sensitivity is a fuel characteristic that has important benefits for the operation and control of low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines. A fuel is φ-sensitive if its autoignition reactivity varies with the fuel/air equivalence ratio (φ). Thus, multiple-injection strategies can be used to create a φ-distribution that leads to several benefits. First, the φ-distribution causes a sequential autoignition that reduces the maximum heat release rate. This allows higher loads without knock and/or advanced combustion timing for higher efficiencies. Second, combustion phasing can be controlled by adjusting the fuel-injection strategy. Finally, experiments show that intermediate-temperature heat release (ITHR) increases with φ-sensitivity, increasing the allowable combustion retard and improving stability. A detailed mechanism was applied using CHEMKIN to understand the chemistry responsible for φ-sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Using Chemical Kinetics to Understand Effects of Fuel Type and Compression Ratio on Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of Various EGR Constituents

2019-04-02
2019-01-1140
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to mitigate knock in SI engines. However, experiments have shown that the effectiveness of various EGR constituents to suppress knock varies with fuel type and compression ratio (CR). To understand some of the underlying mechanisms by which fuel composition, octane sensitivity (S), and CR affect the knock-mitigation effectiveness of EGR constituents, the current paper presents results from a chemical-kinetics modeling study. The numerical study was conducted with CHEMKIN, imposing experimentally acquired pressure traces on a closed reactor model. Simulated conditions include combinations of three RON-98 (Research Octane Number) fuels with two octane sensitivities and distinctive compositions, three EGR diluents, and two CRs (12:1 and 10:1). The experimental results point to the important role of thermal stratification in the end-gas to smooth peak heat-release rate (HRR) and prevent acoustic noise.
Technical Paper

Update on Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

2001-05-14
2001-01-2060
The objectives of this paper are to describe the research efforts in diesel engine combustion at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to provide recent experimental results. We have four diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative fuels, and a homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) engine. Recent experimental results of diesel combustion research will be discussed and a description will be given of our HCCI experimental program and of our HCCI modeling work.
Technical Paper

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles sampled directly from a Biodiesel Spray Flame

2011-08-30
2011-01-2046
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in a biodiesel spray flame, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in a spray flame fuelled with soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at different axial locations in the spray flame, 40, 50 and 70 mm from injector nozzle, which correspond to soot formation, peak, and oxidation zones, respectively. The biodiesel spray flame was generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and temperature condition (6.7 MPa, 1000K). Density, diameter of primary particles and radius of gyration of soot aggregates reached a peak at 50 mm from the injector nozzle and was lower or smaller in the formation or oxidation zones of the spray.
Journal Article

Transmission Electron Microscopy of Soot Particles Directly Sampled in Diesel Spray Flame - A Comparison between US#2 and Biodiesel Soot

2012-04-16
2012-01-0695
For a better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes in conventional diesel and biodiesel spray flames, the morphology, microstructure and sizes of soot particles directly sampled in spray flames fuelled with US#2 diesel and soy-methyl ester were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The soot samples were taken at 50mm from the injector nozzle, which corresponds to the peak soot location in the spray flames. The spray flames were generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber under a diesel-like high pressure and high temperature condition (6.7MPa, 1000K). Direct sampling permits a more direct assessment of soot as it is formed and oxidized in the flame, as opposed to exhaust PM measurements. Density of sampled soot particles, diameter of primary particles, size (gyration radius) and compactness (fractal dimension) of soot aggregates were analyzed and compared. No analysis of the soot micro-structure was made.
Technical Paper

Transient Rate of Injection Effects on Spray Development

2013-09-08
2013-24-0001
Transients in the rate of injection (ROI) with respect to time are ever-present in direct-injection engines, even with common-rail fueling. The shape of the injection ramp-up and ramp-down affects spray penetration and mixing, particularly with multiple-injection schedules currently in practice. Ultimately, the accuracy of CFD model predictions used to optimize the combustion process depends upon the accuracy of the ROI utilized as fuel input boundary conditions. But experimental difficulties in the measurement of ROI, as well as real-world affects that change the ROI from the bench to the engine, add uncertainty that may be mistaken for weaknesses in spray modeling instead of errors in boundary conditions. In this work we use detailed, time-resolved measurements of penetration at the Spray A conditions of the Engine Combustion Network to rigorously guide the necessary ROI shape required to match penetration in jet models that allow variable rate of injection.
Journal Article

Transient Liquid Penetration of Early-Injection Diesel Sprays

2009-04-20
2009-01-0839
Diesel low-temperature combustion strategies often rely on early injection timing to allow sufficient fuel-ambient mixing to avoid NOx and soot-forming combustion. However, these early injection timings permit the spray to penetrate into a low ambient temperature and density environment where vaporization is poor and liquid impingement upon the cylinder liner and piston bowl are more likely to occur. The objective of this study is to measure the transient liquid and vapor penetration at early-injection conditions. High-speed Mie-scatter and shadowgraph imaging are employed in an optically accessible chamber with a free path of 100 mm prior to wall impingement and using a single-spray injector. The ambient temperature and density within the chamber are well-controlled (uniform) and selected to simulate in-cylinder conditions when injection occurs at -40 crank-angle degrees (CAD) or fewer before top-dead center (TDC).
Journal Article

Thermal Response and Flammability of Li-Ion Cells for HEV and PHEV Applications

2008-04-14
2008-01-0400
Lithium-Ion batteries are being considered as a high-energy density replacement for Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) batteries in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) and in the new Plug-In Hybrids (PHEVs). Although these cells can result in significant reduction in weight and volume, they have several safety related issues that still need to be addressed. We report here on the thermal response of Li-ion cells specifically assembled in our laboratory to test new materials, electrolytes and additives. Improvements in the thermal abuse tolerance of cells will be presented and discussed in terms of the need for overall battery system safety.
Technical Paper

The Use of Transient Operation to Evaluate Fuel Effects on Knock Limits Well beyond RON Conditions in Spark-Ignition Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2234
Fundamental engine research is primarily conducted under steady-state conditions, in order to better describe boundary conditions which influence the studied phenomena. However, light-duty automobiles are operated, and tested, under heavily transient conditions. This mismatch between studied conditions and in-use conditions is deemed acceptable due to the fundamental knowledge gained from steady-state experiments. Nonetheless, it is useful to characterize the conditions encountered during transient operation and determine if the governing phenomena are unduly influenced by the differences between steady-state and transient operation, and further, whether transient behavior can be reasonably extrapolated from steady-state behavior. The transient operation mode used in this study consists of 20 fired cycles followed by 80 motored cycles, operating on a continuous basis.
Technical Paper

The Quantification of Mixture Stoichiometry When Fuel Molecules Contain Oxidizer Elements or Oxidizer Molecules Contain Fuel Elements

2005-10-24
2005-01-3705
The accurate quantification and control of mixture stoichiometry is critical in many applications using new combustion strategies and fuels (e.g., homogeneous charge compression ignition, gasoline direct injection, and oxygenated fuels). The parameter typically used to quantify mixture stoichiometry (i.e., the proximity of a reactant mixture to its stoichiometric condition) is the equivalence ratio, ϕ. The traditional definition of ϕ is based on the relative amounts of fuel and oxidizer molecules in a mixture. This definition provides an accurate measure of mixture stoichiometry when the fuel molecule does not contain oxidizer elements and when the oxidizer molecule does not contain fuel elements. However, the traditional definition of ϕ leads to problems when the fuel molecule contains an oxidizer element, as is the case when an oxygenated fuel is used, or once reactions have started and the fuel has begun to oxidize.
Technical Paper

The Influence of Fuel Volatility on the Liquid-Phase Fuel Penetration in a Heavy-Duty D.I. Diesel Engine

1998-02-23
980510
The objective of this investigation is to verify and characterize the influence of fuel volatility on maximum liquid-phase fuel penetration for a variety of actual Diesel fuels under realistic Diesel engine operating conditions. To do so, liquid-phase fuel penetration was measured for a total of eight Diesel fuels using laser elastic-scatter imaging. The experiments were carried out in an optically accessible Diesel engine of the “heavy-duty” size class at a representative medium speed (1200 rpm) operating condition. In addition to liquid-phase fuel penetration, ignition delay was assessed for each fuel based on pressure-derived apparent heat release rate and needle lift data. For all fuels examined, it was observed that initially the liquid fuel penetrates almost linearly with increasing crank angle until reaching a maximum characteristic length. Beyond this characteristic length, the fuel is entirely vapor phase and not just smaller fuel droplets.
Journal Article

The Future Adoption and Benefit of Electric Vehicles: A Parametric Assessment

2013-04-08
2013-01-0502
We present a parametric analysis of electric vehicle (EV) adoption rates and the corresponding contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction in the US light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet through 2050. The analysis is performed with a system dynamics based model of the supply-demand interactions among the fleet, its fuels, and the corresponding primary energy sources. The differentiating feature of the model is the ability to conduct global sensitivity and parametric trade-space analyses. We find that many factors impact the adoption rates of EVs. These include, in particular, policy initiatives that encourage consumers to consider lifetime ownership costs, the price of oil, battery performance, as well as the pace of technological development for all powertrains (conventional internal combustion engines included). Widespread EV adoption can have noticeable impact on petroleum consumption and GHG emissions by the LDV fleet.
Journal Article

The Feasibility of Using Raw Liquids from Fast Pyrolysis of Woody Biomass as Fuels for Compression-Ignition Engines: A Literature Review

2013-04-08
2013-01-1691
This study summarizes the peer-reviewed literature regarding the use of raw pyrolysis liquids (PLs) created from woody biomass as fuels for compression-ignition (CI) engines. First, a brief overview is presented of fast pyrolysis and the potential advantages of PLs as fuels for CI engines. Second, a discussion of the general composition and properties of PLs relative to conventional, petroleum-derived diesel fuels is provided, with emphasis on the differences that are most likely to affect PL performance in CI-engine applications. Next, a synopsis is given of the peer-reviewed literature describing experimental studies of CI engines operated using neat PLs and PLs combined in various ways with other fuels. This literature conclusively indicates that raw PLs and PL blends cannot be used as “drop-in replacements” for diesel fuel in CI engines, which is reflected in part by none of the cited studies reporting successful operation on PL fuels for more than twelve consecutive hours.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Swirl Ratio and Fuel Injection Parameters on CO Emission and Fuel Conversion Efficiency for High-Dilution, Low-Temperature Combustion in an Automotive Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0197
Engine-out CO emission and fuel conversion efficiency were measured in a highly-dilute, low-temperature diesel combustion regime over a swirl ratio range of 1.44-7.12 and a wide range of injection timing. At fixed injection timing, an optimal swirl ratio for minimum CO emission and fuel consumption was found. At fixed swirl ratio, CO emission and fuel consumption generally decreased as injection timing was advanced. Moreover, a sudden decrease in CO emission was observed at early injection timings. Multi-dimensional numerical simulations, pressure-based measurements of ignition delay and apparent heat release, estimates of peak flame temperature, imaging of natural combustion luminosity and spray/wall interactions, and Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) measurements of in-cylinder turbulence levels are employed to clarify the sources of the observed behavior.
Journal Article

Study of Soot Formation and Oxidation in the Engine Combustion Network (ECN), Spray A: Effects of Ambient Temperature and Oxygen Concentration

2013-04-08
2013-01-0901
Within the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) spray combustion research frame, simultaneous line-of-sight laser extinction measurements and laser-induced incandescence (LII) imaging were performed to derive the soot volume fraction (fv). Experiments are conducted at engine-relevant high-temperature and high-pressure conditions in a constant-volume pre-combustion type vessel. The target condition, called "Spray A," uses well-defined ambient (900 K, 60 bar, 22.8 kg/m₃, 15% oxygen) and injector conditions (common rail, 1500 bar, KS1.5/86 nozzle, 0.090 mm orifice diameter, n-dodecane, 363 K). Extinction measurements are used to calibrate LII images for quantitative soot distribution measurements at cross sections intersecting the spray axis. LII images are taken after the start of injection where quasi-stationary combustion is already established.
Technical Paper

Stochastic Knock Detection Model for Spark Ignited Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-1421
This paper presents the development of a Stochastic Knock Detection (SKD) method for combustion knock detection in a spark-ignition engine using a model based design approach. The SKD set consists of a Knock Signal Simulator (KSS) as the plant model for the engine and a Knock Detection Module (KDM). The KSS as the plant model for the engine generates cycle-to-cycle accelerometer knock intensities following a stochastic approach with intensities that are generated using a Monte Carlo method from a lognormal distribution whose parameters have been predetermined from engine tests and dependent upon spark-timing, engine speed and load. The lognormal distribution has been shown to be a good approximation to the distribution of measured knock intensities over a range of engine conditions and spark-timings for multiple engines in previous studies.
Technical Paper

Spark Assist for CA50 Control and Improved Robustness in a Premixed LTGC Engine – Effects of Equivalence Ratio and Intake Boost

2018-04-03
2018-01-1252
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can deliver high efficiencies, with ultra-low emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM). However, controlling the combustion timing and maintaining robust operation remains a challenge for LTGC engines. One promising technique to overcoming these challenges is spark assist (SA). In this work, well-controlled, fully premixed experiments are performed in a single-cylinder LTGC research engine at 1200 rpm using a cylinder head modified to accommodate a spark plug. Compression ratios (CR) of 16:1 and 14:1 were used during the experiments. Two different fuels were also tested, with properties representative of premium- and regular-grade market gasolines. SA was found to work well for both CRs and fuels. The equivalence ratio (ϕ) limits and the effect of intake-pressure boost on the ability of SA to compensate for a reduced Tin were studied. For the conditions studied, ϕ=0.42 was found to be most effective for SA.
Journal Article

Soot Volume Fraction and Morphology of Conventional, Fischer-Tropsch, Coal-Derived, and Surrogate Fuel at Diesel Conditions

2012-04-16
2012-01-0678
Future fuels will come from a variety of feed stocks and refinement processes. Understanding the fundamentals of combustion and pollutants formation of these fuels will help clear hurdles in developing flex-fuel combustors. To this end, we investigated the combustion, soot formation, and soot oxidation processes for various classes of fuels, each with distinct physical properties and molecular structures. The fuels considered include: conventional No. 2 diesel (D2), low-aromatics jet fuel (JC), world-average jet fuel (JW), Fischer-Tropsch synthetic fuel (JS), coal-derived fuel (JP), and a two-component surrogate fuel (SR). Fuel sprays were injected into high-temperature, high-pressure ambient conditions that were representative of a practical diesel engine. Simultaneous laser extinction measurement and planar laser-induced incandescence imaging were performed to derive the in-situ soot volume fraction.
Technical Paper

Soot Formation in Diesel Combustion under High-EGR Conditions

2005-10-24
2005-01-3834
Experiments were conducted in an optically accessible constant-volume combustion vessel to investigate soot formation at diesel combustion conditions in a high exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) environment. The ambient oxygen concentration was decreased systematically from 21% to 8% to simulate a wide range of EGR conditions. Quantitative measurements of in-situ soot in quasi-steady n-heptane and #2 diesel fuel jets were made by using laser extinction and planar laser-induced incandescence (PLII) measurements. Flame lift-off length measurements were also made in support of the soot measurements. At constant ambient temperature, results show that the equivalence ratio estimated at the lift-off length does not vary with the use of EGR, implying an equal amount of fuel-air mixing prior to combustion. Soot measurements show that the soot volume fraction decreases with increasing EGR.
Technical Paper

Smoothing HCCI Heat-Release Rates Using Partial Fuel Stratification with Two-Stage Ignition Fuels

2006-04-03
2006-01-0629
This work explores the potential of partial fuel stratification to smooth HCCI heat-release rates at high load. A combination of engine experiments and multi-zone chemical-kinetics modeling was used for this. The term “partial” is introduced to emphasize that care is taken to supply fuel to all parts of the in-cylinder charge, which is essential for reaching high power output. It was found that partial fuel stratification offers good potential to achieve a staged combustion event with reduced pressure-rise rates. Therefore, partial fuel stratification has the potential to increase the high-load limits for HCCI/SCCI operation. However, for the technique to be effective the crank-angle phasing of the “hot” ignition has to be sensitive to the local ϕ. Sufficient sensitivity was observed only for fuel blends that exhibit low-temperature heat release (like diesel fuel).
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