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Technical Paper

Φ-Sensitivity for LTGC Engines: Understanding the Fundamentals and Tailoring Fuel Blends to Maximize This Property

2019-04-02
2019-01-0961
Φ-sensitivity is a fuel characteristic that has important benefits for the operation and control of low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines. A fuel is φ-sensitive if its autoignition reactivity varies with the fuel/air equivalence ratio (φ). Thus, multiple-injection strategies can be used to create a φ-distribution that leads to several benefits. First, the φ-distribution causes a sequential autoignition that reduces the maximum heat release rate. This allows higher loads without knock and/or advanced combustion timing for higher efficiencies. Second, combustion phasing can be controlled by adjusting the fuel-injection strategy. Finally, experiments show that intermediate-temperature heat release (ITHR) increases with φ-sensitivity, increasing the allowable combustion retard and improving stability. A detailed mechanism was applied using CHEMKIN to understand the chemistry responsible for φ-sensitivity.
Technical Paper

World Fuels and Modern Fuel Systems - A Path to Coexistence

2015-09-29
2015-01-2818
All around the world, steps are being taken to improve the quality of our environment. Prominent among these are the definition, implementation, and attainment of increasingly stringent emissions regulations for all types of engines, including off-highway diesels. These rigorous regulations have driven use of technologies like after-treatment, advanced air systems, and advanced fuel systems. Fuel dispensed off-highway is routinely and significantly dirtier than fuel from on-highway outlets. Furthermore, fuels used in developing countries can be up to 30 times dirtier than the average fuels in North America. Poor fuel cleanliness, coupled with the higher pressures and performance demands of modern fuel systems, create life challenges greater than encountered with cleaner fuels. This can result in costly disruption of operations, loss of productivity, and customer dissatisfaction in the off-highway market.
Technical Paper

Visualization techniques to identify and quantify sources and paths of exterior noise radiated from stationary and nonstationary vehicles

2000-06-12
2000-05-0326
In recent years, Nearfield Acoustical Holography (NAH) has been used to identify stationary vehicle exterior noise sources. However that application has usually been limited to individual components. Since powertrain noise sources are hidden within the engine compartment, it is difficult to use NAH to identify those sources and the associated partial field that combine to create the complete exterior noise field of a motor vehicle. Integrated Nearfield Acoustical Holography (INAH) has been developed to address these concerns: it is described here. The procedure entails sensing the sources inside the engine compartment by using an array of reference microphones, and then calculating the associated partial radiation fields by using NAH. In the second part of this paper, the use of farfield arrays is considered. Several array techniques have previously been applied to identify noise sources on moving vehicles.
Journal Article

Visualization of Ignition Processes in High-Pressure Sprays with Multiple Injections of n-Dodecane

2015-04-14
2015-01-0799
We investigate the mixing, penetration, and ignition characteristics of high-pressure n-dodecane sprays having a split injection schedule (0.5/0.5 dwell/0.5 ms) in a pre-burn combustion vessel at ambient temperatures of 750 K, 800 K and 900 K. High-speed imaging techniques provide a time-resolved measure of vapor penetration and the timing and progression of the first- and second-stage ignition events. Simultaneous single-shot planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging identifies the timing and location where formaldehyde (CH2O) is produced from first-stage ignition and consumed following second-stage ignition. At the 900-K condition, the second injection penetrates into high-temperature combustion products remaining in the near-nozzle region from the first injection. Consequently, the ignition delay for the second injection is shorter than that of the first injection (by a factor of two) and the second injection ignites at a more upstream location near the liquid length.
Journal Article

Visualization of Diesel Spray Penetration, Cool-Flame, Ignition, High-Temperature Combustion, and Soot Formation Using High-Speed Imaging

2009-04-20
2009-01-0658
Shadowgraph/schlieren imaging techniques have often been used for flow visualization of reacting and non-reacting systems. In this paper we show that high-speed shadowgraph visualization in a high-pressure chamber can also be used to identify cool-flame and high-temperature combustion regions of diesel sprays, thereby providing insight into the time sequence of diesel ignition and combustion. When coupled to simultaneous high-speed Mie-scatter imaging, chemiluminescence imaging, pressure measurement, and spatially-integrated jet luminosity measurements by photodiode, the shadowgraph visualization provides further information about spray penetration after vaporization, spatial location of ignition and high-temperature combustion, and inactive combustion regions where problematic unburned hydrocarbons exist. Examples of the joint application of high-speed diagnostics include transient non-reacting and reacting injections, as well as multiple injections.
Technical Paper

Validation of the Generalized RNG Turbulence Model and Its Application to Flow in a HSDI Diesel Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0140
A generalized re-normalization group (RNG) turbulence model based on the local "dimensionality" of the flow field is proposed. In this modeling approach the model coefficients C₁, C₂, and C₃ are all constructed as functions of flow strain rate. In order to further validate the proposed turbulence model, the generalized RNG closure model was applied to model the backward facing step flow (a classic test case for turbulence models). The results indicated that the modeling of C₂ in the generalized RNG closure model is reasonable, and furthermore, the predictions of the generalized RNG model were in better agreement with experimental data than the standard RNG turbulence model. As a second step, the performance of the generalized RNG closure was investigated for a complex engine flow.
Technical Paper

Validation of an LES Multi Mode Combustion Model for Diesel Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0361
Diesel engine combustion is simulated using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) with a multi-mode combustion (MMC) model. The MMC model is based on the combination of chemical kinetics, chemical equilibrium, and quasi-steady flamelet calculations in different local combustion regimes. The local combustion regime is identified by two combustion indices based on the local temperature and the extent of mixture homogeneity. The LES turbulence model uses the dynamic structure model (DSM) for sub-grid stresses. A new spray model in the LES context is used, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) based wall model is retained with the LES derived scales. These models are incorporated in the KIVA3V-ERC-Release 2 code for engine combustion simulations. A wide range of diesel engine operating conditions were chosen to validate the combustion model.
Technical Paper

Using a Statistical Machine Learning Tool for Diesel Engine Air Path Calibration

2014-09-30
2014-01-2391
A full calibration exercise of a diesel engine air path can take months to complete (depending on the number of variables). Model-based calibration approach can speed up the calibration process significantly. This paper discusses the overall calibration process of the air-path of the Cat® C7.1 engine using statistical machine learning tool. The standard Cat® C7.1 engine's twin-stage turbocharger was replaced by a VTG (Variable Turbine Geometry) as part of an evaluation of a novel air system. The changes made to the air-path system required a recalculation of the air path's boost set point and desired EGR set point maps. Statistical learning processes provided a firm basis to model and optimize the air path set point maps and allowed a healthy balance to be struck between the resources required for the exercise and the resulting data quality.
Technical Paper

Using Pilot Diesel Injection in a Natural Gas Fueled HCCI Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2866
Previous research has shown that the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion concept holds promise for reducing pollutants (i.e. NOx, soot) while maintaining high thermal efficiency. However, it can be difficult to control the operation of the HCCI engines even under steady state running conditions. Power density may also be limited if high inlet air temperatures are used for achieving ignition. A methodology using a small pilot quantity of diesel fuel injected during the compression stroke to improve the power density and operation control is considered in this paper. Multidimensional computations were carried out for an HCCI engine based on a CAT3401 engine. The computations show that the required initial temperature for ignition is reduced by about 70 K for the cases of the diesel pilot charge and a 25∼35% percent increase in power density was found for those cases without adversely impacting the NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Using Chemical Kinetics to Understand Effects of Fuel Type and Compression Ratio on Knock-Mitigation Effectiveness of Various EGR Constituents

2019-04-02
2019-01-1140
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) can be used to mitigate knock in SI engines. However, experiments have shown that the effectiveness of various EGR constituents to suppress knock varies with fuel type and compression ratio (CR). To understand some of the underlying mechanisms by which fuel composition, octane sensitivity (S), and CR affect the knock-mitigation effectiveness of EGR constituents, the current paper presents results from a chemical-kinetics modeling study. The numerical study was conducted with CHEMKIN, imposing experimentally acquired pressure traces on a closed reactor model. Simulated conditions include combinations of three RON-98 (Research Octane Number) fuels with two octane sensitivities and distinctive compositions, three EGR diluents, and two CRs (12:1 and 10:1). The experimental results point to the important role of thermal stratification in the end-gas to smooth peak heat-release rate (HRR) and prevent acoustic noise.
Technical Paper

Update on Engine Combustion Research at Sandia National Laboratories

2001-05-14
2001-01-2060
The objectives of this paper are to describe the research efforts in diesel engine combustion at Sandia National Laboratories' Combustion Research Facility and to provide recent experimental results. We have four diesel engine experiments supported by the Department of Energy, Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies: a one-cylinder version of a Cummins heavy-duty engine, a diesel simulation facility, a one-cylinder Caterpillar engine to evaluate combustion of alternative fuels, and a homogeneous-charge, compression-ignition (HCCI) engine. Recent experimental results of diesel combustion research will be discussed and a description will be given of our HCCI experimental program and of our HCCI modeling work.
Journal Article

Understanding the Chemical Effects of Increased Boost Pressure under HCCI Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0019
One way to increase the load range in an HCCI engine is to increase boost pressure. In this modeling study, we investigate the effect of increased boost pressure on the fuel chemistry in an HCCI engine. Computed results of HCCI combustion are compared to experimental results in a HCCI engine. We examine the influence of boost pressure using a number of different detailed chemical kinetic models - representing both pure compounds (methylcyclohexane, cyclohexane, iso-octane and n-heptane) and multi-component models (primary reference fuel model and gasoline surrogate fuel model). We examine how the model predictions are altered by increased fueling, as well as reaction rate variation, and the inclusion of residuals in our calculations. In this study, we probe the low temperature chemistry (LTC) region and examine the chemistry responsible for the low-temperature heat release (LTHR) for wide ranges of intake boost pressure.
Journal Article

Understanding Hydrocarbon Emissions in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines Combining Experimental and Computational Methods

2017-03-28
2017-01-0703
Fundamental understanding of the sources of fuel-derived Unburned Hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions in heavy duty diesel engines is a key piece of knowledge that impacts engine combustion system development. Current emissions regulations for hydrocarbons can be difficult to meet in-cylinder and thus after treatment technologies such as oxidation catalysts are typically used, which can be costly. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations are combined with engine experiments in an effort to build an understanding of hydrocarbon sources. In the experiments, the combustion system design was varied through injector style, injector rate shape, combustion chamber geometry, and calibration, to study the impact on UHC emissions from mixing-controlled diesel combustion.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty in Sampling and TEM Analysis of Soot Particles in Diesel Spray Flame

2013-04-08
2013-01-0908
For better understanding of soot formation and oxidation processes applicable to diesel engines, the size, morphology, and nanostructure of soot particles directly sampled in a diesel spray flame generated in a constant-volume combustion chamber have been investigated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). For this soot diagnostics, the effects of the sampling processes, TEM observation methodology and image processing methods on the uncertainty in the results have not been extensively discussed, mainly due to the complexity of the analysis.
Journal Article

UHC and CO Emissions Sources from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Undergoing Dilution-Controlled Low-Temperature Combustion

2009-09-13
2009-24-0043
Unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission sources are examined in an optical, light-duty diesel engine operating under low load and engine speed, while employing a highly dilute, partially premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategy. The impact of engine load and charge dilution on the UHC and CO sources is also evaluated. The progression of in-cylinder mixing and combustion processes is studied using ultraviolet planar laser-induced fluorescence (UV PLIF) to measure the spatial distributions of liquid- and vapor-phase hydrocarbon. A separate, deep-UV LIF technique is used to examine the clearance volume spatial distribution and composition of late-cycle UHC and CO. Homogeneous reactor simulations, utilizing detailed chemical kinetics and constrained by the measured cylinder pressure, are used to examine the impact of charge dilution and initial stoichiometry on oxidation behavior.
Technical Paper

Type X and Y Errors and Data & Model Conditioning for Systematic Uncertainty in Model Calibration, Validation, and Extrapolation1

2008-04-14
2008-01-1368
This paper introduces and develops the concept of “Type X” and “Type Y” errors in model validation and calibration, and their implications on extrapolative prediction. Type X error is non-detection of model bias because it is effectively hidden by the uncertainty in the experiments. Possible deleterious effects of Type X error can be avoided by mapping uncertainty into the model until it envelopes the potential model bias, but this likely assigns a larger uncertainty than is needed to account for the actual bias (Type Y error). A philosophy of Best Estimate + Uncertainty modeling and prediction is probably best supported by taking the conservative choice of guarding against Type X error while accepting the downside of incurring Type Y error. An associated methodology involving data- and model- conditioning is presented and tested on a simple but rich test problem.
Journal Article

Two-Wavelength PLIF Diagnostic for Temperature and Composition

2008-04-14
2008-01-1067
Laser excitation wavelengths for two-line planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of 3-pentanone have been optimized for simultaneous imaging of temperature and composition under engine-relevant conditions. Validation of the diagnostic was performed in a motored optical IC engine seeded homogeneously with 3-pentanone. PLIF measurements of the uniform mixture during the compression stroke were used to measure the average temperature and to access the random uncertainty in the measurements. To determine the accuracy of the temperature measurements, experimental average temperatures were compared to values computed assuming isentropic compression and to the output of a tuned 1-D engine simulation. The comparison indicated that the absolute accuracy of the temperature measurements is better than ±5%. Probability density functions (PDFs) calculated from the single-shot images were used to estimate the precision of the measurements.
Technical Paper

Two-Photon Laser-Induced Fluorescence of Nitric Oxide in a Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-1201
In-cylinder concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) in a diesel engine were studied using a laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technique that employs two-photon excitation. Two-photon NO LIF images were acquired during the expansion and exhaust portions of the engine cycle providing useful NO fluorescence signal levels from 60° after top dead center through the end of the exhaust stroke. The engine was fueled with the oxygenated compound diethylene glycol diethyl ether to minimize soot within the combustion chamber. Results of the two-photon NO LIF technique from the exhaust portion of the cycle were compared with chemiluminescence NO exhaust-gas measurements over a range of engine loads from 1.4 to 16 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure. The overall trend of the two-photon NO LIF signal showed good qualitative agreement with the NO exhaust-gas measurements.
Journal Article

Two-Color Diffused Back-Illumination Imaging as a Diagnostic for Time-Resolved Soot Measurements in Reacting Sprays

2013-10-14
2013-01-2548
Despite ongoing research efforts directed at reducing engine-out emissions, diesel engines are known to be one of the largest sources of atmospheric particulate matter (i.e., soot). Quantitative measurements are of primary importance to address soot production during the combustion process in the cylinder of diesel engines. This study presents the capabilities of an extinction-based diagnostic developed to quantitatively measure the soot volume fraction in n-dodecane sprays injected in a high-pressure, high-temperature vessel. Coupled with high-speed imaging, the technique yields time-resolved measurements of the soot field by relying on a diffused back-illumination scheme to improve extinction quantification in the midst of intense beam steering. The experiments performed in this work used two wavelengths, which, when combined with the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory, provide information about the optical and physical properties of soot.
Technical Paper

Tribodynamics of a New De-Clutch Mechanism Aimed for Engine Downsizing in Off-Road Heavy-Duty Vehicles

2017-06-05
2017-01-1835
Clutches are commonly utilised in passenger type and off-road heavy-duty vehicles to disconnect the engine from the driveline and other parasitic loads. In off-road heavy-duty vehicles, along with fuel efficiency start-up functionality at extended ambient conditions, such as low temperature and intake absolute pressure are crucial. Off-road vehicle manufacturers can overcome the parasitic loads in these conditions by oversizing the engine. Caterpillar Inc. as the pioneer in off-road technology has developed a novel clutch design to allow for engine downsizing while vehicle’s performance is not affected. The tribological behaviour of the clutch will be crucial to start engagement promptly and reach the maximum clutch capacity in the shortest possible time and smoothest way in terms of dynamics. A multi-body dynamics model of the clutch system is developed in MSC ADAMS. The flywheel is introducing the same speed and torque as the engine (represents the engine input to the clutch).
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