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Technical Paper

Tumble Vortex Characterization by Complex Moments

Rotating flow inside an internal combustion engine cylinder is deliberately engineered for improved fuel-air mixing and combustion. The details of the rotating flow structure vary temporally over an engine cycle as well as cyclically at the same engine phase. Algorithms in the literature to identify these structural details of the rotating flow invariably focus on locating its center and, on occasion, measuring its rotational strength and spatial extent. In this paper, these flow structure parameters are evaluated by means of complex moments, which have been adapted from image (scalar field) recognition applications to two-dimensional flow pattern (vector field) analysis. Several additional detailed characteristics of the rotating flow pattern - the type and extent of its deviation from the ideal circular pattern, its rotational and reflectional symmetry (if exists), and thus its orientation - are also shown to be related to the first few low-order complex moments of the flow pattern.
Technical Paper

Theoretical Study on Similarity of Diesel Combustion

Based on the similarity theory and conservation equations, some of the important dimensionless numbers in diesel combustion are deduced and discussed. Existence of similarity is theoretically proved in diffusion (or mixing-controlled) combustion and premixed combustion as well as in spray mixture formation processes in different size diesel engines. With the prerequisite of geometric similarity, scaling rules for some parameters including engine speed, injection pressure and injection duration are established to realize the similarity between large-bore and small-bore diesel engines. To verify the similarity theories, the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation are conducted, and three scaling rules, which keep the engine speed, injection pressure and lift-off length constant, respectively, are compared under the conditions of the light load (0.3 MPa IMEP) and high load (1.55 MPa IMEP) operations.
Technical Paper

The Nozzle Flows and Atomization Characteristics of the Two-Component Surrogate Fuel of Diesel from Indirect Coal Liquefaction at Engine Conditions

Recently, all world countries facing the stringent emission regulations have been encouraged to explore the clean fuel. The diesel from indirect coal liquefaction (DICL) has been verified that can reduce the soot and NOx emissions of compression-ignition engine. However, the atomization characteristics of DICL are rarely studied. The aim of this work is to numerically analyze the inner nozzle flow and the atomization characteristics of the DICL and compare the global and local flow characteristics of the DICL with the NO.2 diesel (D2) at engine conditions. A surrogate fuel of the DICL (a mixture of 72.4% n-dodecane and 27.6% methylcyclohexane by mass) was built according to its components to simulate the atomization characteristics of the DICL under the high-temperature and high-pressure environment (non-reacting) by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES).
Technical Paper

The Effects of Injection Strategies on Particulate Emissions from a Dual-Injection Gasoline Engine

European standards have set stringent PN (particle number) regulation (6×1011 #/km) for gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine, posing a great challenge for the particulate emission control of GDI engines. Dual-injection, which combines direct-injection (DI) with port-fuel-injection (PFI), is an effective approach to reduce particle emissions of GDI engine while maintaining good efficiency and power output. In order to investigate the PN emission characteristics under different dual-injection strategies, a DMS500 fast particle spectrometer was employed to characterize the effects of injection strategies on particulates emissions from a dual-injection gasoline engine. In this study, the injection strategies include injection timing, injection ratio and injection pressure of direct-injection.
Technical Paper

Suitability Study of n-Butanol for Enabling PCCI and HCCI and RCCI Combustion on a High Compression-ratio Diesel Engine

This work investigates the suitability of n-butanol for enabling PCCI, HCCI, and RCCI combustion modes to achieve clean and efficient combustion on a high compression ratio (18.2:1) diesel engine. Systematic engine tests are conducted at low and medium engine loads (6∼8 bar IMEP) and at a medium engine speed of 1500 rpm. Test results indicate that n-butanol is more suitable than diesel to enable PCCI and HCCI combustion with the same engine hardware. However, the combustion phasing control for n-butanol is demanding due to the high combustion sensitivity to variations in engine operating conditions where engine safety concerns (e.g. excessive pressure rise rates) potentially arise. While EGR is the primary measure to control the combustion phasing of n-butanol HCCI, the timing control of n-butanol direct injection in PCCI provides an additional leverage to properly phase the n-butanol combustion.
Technical Paper

Study on the Optimal Control Strategy of Transient Process for Diesel Engine with Sequential Turbocharging System

Three-phase sequential turbocharging system with two unequal-size turbochargers is developed to improve fuel economy performance and reduce emission of the automotive diesel engine, which satisfies wide range of intake flow demand. However, it results in complicated transient control strategies under frequently changing operating conditions. The present work aims to optimize the control scheme of boost system and fuel injection and evaluate their contributions to the improvement of transient performance. A mean value model for diesel engine was built up in SIMULINK environment and verified by experiment for transient study. Then a mathematical model of optimization issue was established. Strategies of control valves and fuel injection for typical acceleration and loading processes are obtained by coupled calculating of the simulation model and optimization algorithm.
Technical Paper

Study of Flash Boiling Spray Combustion in a Spark Ignition Direct Injection Optical Engine Using Digital Image Processing Diagnostics

Flash boiling spray has been proven to be a useful method in providing finer fuel droplet and stronger evaporation in favor of creating a homogeneous fuel-air mixture. Combustion characteristics of flash boiling spray are thus valuable to be investigated systematically for aiding the development of efficient internal combustion system. An experimental study of flash boiling spray combustion in a SIDI optical engine under early injection has been conducted. The fuel, Iso-octane, was used across all tests. Three fuel spray conditions experimented in the study: normal liquid, transitional flash boiling and flare flash boiling sprays, within each case that Pa/Ps ratio was set in (>1), (0.3~1), and (<0.3) respectively. A small quartz insert on the piston enables optical access for observing combustion process; non-intrusive measurements on flame radicals has been carried out using a high-speed color camera.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Measurement of the Flame Lift-Off Length on Direct Injection Diesel Sprays Using High Speed Schlieren Imaging and OH Chemiluminescence

Lift-off length is defined as the distance from injector hole to the location where flame stabilized on a high injection pressure direct injection (DI) diesel spray. In this paper we used the high-speed (40 kHz) Schlieren and time-averaged OH chemiluminescence imaging technique to simultaneously measure the flame lift-off locations on a DI diesel spray in an optically accessible and constant-volume combustion vessel. The time-resolved development of the diesel spray acquired from the high-speed Schlieren imaging system enabled us to observe the instantaneous spray structure details of the spray flames. The OH chemiluminescence image obtained from a gated, intensified CCD video camera with different delay and width settings was used to determine the quiescent lift-off length. Experiments were conducted under various ambient temperatures, ambient gas densities, injection pressures and oxygen concentrations.
Technical Paper

Research into Autoignition Characteristics of Diesel Fuel in a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere

A novel method is applied to analysis the autoignition phenomenon. Experiments on the study of autoignition characteristics of diesel fuel were carried out with a Controllable Active Thermo-Atmosphere Combustor. The results show that the method for autoignition studying of liquid fuel is of feasibility. Autoignition delay time and autoignition height from the nozzle increase with the coflow temperature decreasing and autoignition delay time changes sensitively under lower coflow temperature. Liftoff height of diesel spray flame decreases with the increasing of coflow temperature. Lower temperature causes higher variance of liftoff height. It might be speculated that there are two different mechanisms of flame stabilization that the lower lift-off heights flames are related to a balance between the flow velocity and flame speed while the higher lift-off heights flames are stabilized by the mixture autoignition.
Technical Paper

Partial Premixing Effects on the Evolution of Soot Morphology and Nanostructure in Co-Flow Flames of a Biodiesel Surrogate

Biodiesel is a potential alternative fuel which can meet the growing need for sustainable energy. Partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) is an important low-temperature combustion strategy to reduce NOx and soot emission of diesel engines. To investigate partial premixing impact on particle formation in flames of biodiesel or biodiesel surrogates, an experimental study was performed to compare the soot morphology and nanostructure evolution in laminar co-flow methyl decanoate non-premixed flame (NPF) and partially premixed flame (PPF). The thermophoretic sampling technique was used to capture particles along flame centerlines. Soot morphology information and volume fraction were obtained from TEM analysis and nanostructure features were evaluated by HR-TEM. With primary equivalence ratio of 19, gas temperature of PPF is higher along flame centerline compared with NPF. The results show an initially stronger sooting tendency in PPF at lower positions.
Technical Paper

One Better Model of Vehicle Turbocharged Diesel Engine than VNT Turbo

In the internal combustion engine, about 25%-40% of the energy released by burned fuel is taken away by the exhaust gas. The part of the usable energy in the exhaust can be used in the turbocharged engine. So, at present, turbocharged diesel engine hasn't made full use of exhaust gas energy. The authors propose a model of the 4-stroke turbocharged diesel engine of split exhausting system. Adding a rapidly on-and-off exhaust control valve between exhaust passage and manifold in the 4-stroke turbocharged diesel engine can improve the utilization rate of the usable energy in the exhaust. By utilizing the mean effective pressure (MEP), this paper is to calculate the maximum usable energy, the energy provided by exhaust and the energy required by intake. The results gets that the new type of exhausting system can help engine to increase usage rate of the exhaust gas energy to around 20% at the rated condition compared to the existing vehicle diesel engines with VNT.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Temperature and Soot (KL) Distributions in Spray Flames of Diesel-Butanol Blends by Two-Color Method Using High-Speed RGB Video Camera

Taking advantages of high speed RGB video cameras, the two-color method can be implemented with a relatively simple setup to obtain the temporal development of the two dimensional temperature and soot (KL) distributions in a reacting diesel jet. However, several issues such as the selection of the two wavelengths, the role of bandpass filters, and the proper optical settings, etc. should be known to obtain a reliable measurement. This paper, at first, discusses about the uncertainties in the measurement of temperature and KL distributions in the diesel flame by the two-color method using the high speed RGB video camera. Since n-butanol, as an alternative renewable fuel, has the potential application in diesel engines, the characteristic of spray combustion of diesel-butanol blends under the diesel-like ambient conditions in a pre-burning constant-volume combustion chamber is studied.
Technical Paper

Matching Optimum for Low HC and CO Emissions at Warm-up Phase in an LPG EFI Small SI Engine

Based on a 125cm3 single cylinder SI engine, the designated idle speed was controlled by adjusting of cycle ignition advance angle. By analyzing the effects of different idle speed and throttle open position on three way catalyst (TWC) light-off time and conversion efficiency of HC and CO emissions, combined with the corresponding total HC and CO emissions level, the optimum idle speed and throttle open position at engine's warm-up phase were found by the matching optimum. The present method for engine control strategy is helpful to optimize the warm-up phase emission levels in SI engine with LPG fuel.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Land Requirement, Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions of Biodiesel Derived from Microalgae and Jatropha curcas Seeds in China

The aim of this study is to evaluate the land requirement, energy consumption and GHG (greenhouse gases) emissions of microalgal biodiesel (M-BD) and Jatropha curcas seeds (J-BD) based biodiesel from the perspective of life cycle assessment (LCA). Mass and energy balance was used through the whole LCA calculation for each process. Two types of biodiesel (100% biodiesel: BD100, and 20% blends of biodiesel: BD20) were assumed to be combusted in the suitable diesel engine. Displacement method was adopted to measure the co-products credits. The results showed that the land requirement of producing 1 kg biodiesel from microalgae was about 1/31 of that from Jatropha curcas seeds. The well to pump (WTP) stage for microalgal biodiesel had higher fossil energy requirement but lower petroleum energy consumption and GHG emissions compared to Jatropha curcas and conventional diesel (CD). The WTP energy efficiency for J-BD100 and M-BD 100 were 26% and 17.4%, respectively.
Technical Paper

Influence of Early and Late Fuel Injection on Air Flow Structure and Kinetic Energy in an Optical SIDI Engine

The turbulent in-cylinder air flow and the unsteady high-pressure fuel injection lead to a highly transient air fuel mixing process in spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines, which is the leading cause for combustion cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) and requires further investigation. In this study, crank-angle resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV) was employed to simultaneously measure the air flow and fuel spray structure at 1300 rpm in an optically accessible single-cylinder SIDI engine. The measurement was conducted at the center tumble plane of the four-valve pent-roof engine, bisecting the spark plug and fuel injector. 84 consecutive cycles were recorded for three engine conditions, i.e. (1) none-fueled motored condition, (2) homogeneous-charge mode with start of injection (SOI) during intake (50 crank-angle degree (CAD) after top dead center exhaust, aTDCexh), and (3) stratified-charge mode with SOI during mid compression (270 aTDCexh).
Journal Article

In-Flame Soot Sampling and Morphology Analysis in an Optical Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (SIDI) Engine

Stringent particulate emission regulations are applied to spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines, calling for a significant in-cylinder reduction of soot particles. To enhance fundamental knowledge of the soot formation and oxidation process inside the cylinder of the engine, a new in-flame particle sampling system has been developed and implemented in a working optical SIDI engine with a side-mounted, wall-guided injection system. Using the sampling probes installed on the piston top, the soot particles are directly sampled from the petrol flame for detailed analysis of particle size distribution, structure, and shape. At the probe tip, a transmission electron microscope (TEM) grid is stored for the soot collection via thermophoresis, which is imaged and post-processed for statistical analysis. Simultaneously, the flame development was recorded using two high-speed cameras to evidence the direct exposure of the sampling grids to the soot-laden diffusion flames and pool fires.
Journal Article

Impact of Fuel Sprays on In-Cylinder Flow Length Scales in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

The interaction of fuel sprays and in-cylinder flow in direct-injection engines is expected to alter kinetic energy and integral length scales at least during some portions of the engine cycle. High-speed particle image velocimetry was implemented in an optical four-valve, pent-roof spark-ignition direct-injection single-cylinder engine to quantify this effect. Non-firing motored engine tests were performed at 1300 RPM with and without fuel injection. Two fuel injection timings were investigated: injection in early intake stroke represents quasi-homogenous engine condition; and injection in mid compression stroke mimics the stratified combustion strategy. Two-dimensional crank angle resolved velocity fields were measured to examine the kinetic energy and integral length scale through critical portions of the engine cycle. Reynolds decomposition was applied on the obtained engine flow fields to extract the fluctuations as an indicator for the turbulent flow.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous Charge Preparation of Diesel Fuel by Spray Impingement onto a Hot Surface at Intake Manifold

A segment of steel tube with the inner diameter of 60 mm and length of 100 mm was fixed between the intake manifold and cylinder head in a direct injection natural aspirated diesel engine. The surface of the tube could be heated to be above 400 °C by the heater enwrapped outside within several minutes under the power less than 600 W. The tip of an injector traditionally used for in-cylinder diesel direct injection was extended to the axis of the tube. The diesel sprays could impinge onto the hot inner surface of the tube and atomize quickly if the temperature of the tube was high enough. Then the fuel-air mixture would be sucked into the cylinder, and HCCI combustion could be fulfilled. The vaporization ratio of the impinged diesel sprays was estimated by fuel consumption, intake air flux and excess air coefficient (λ) calculated from the volumetric concentration of O2, CO2 and CO emissions. The NOx emission was always very low.
Technical Paper

Flow Field Characterization of Superheated Sprays from a Multi-Hole Injector by Using High-Speed PIV

Superheated spray is expected to improve the fuel atomization and evaporation processes by introducing fuel temperature as a new control parameter in spark-ignited direct-injection (SIDI) engines. In this study, flow fields of n-hexane spray from a multi-hole injector in both vertical and cross-sectional directions were investigated by using high-speed particle image velocimetry (HS-PIV) within the lower density regions. The results provide insight to the spray-collapsing processes under various superheated conditions. It was found that in axial direction, the vertical velocity increases while the radial velocity decreases with increasing superheat degree, which determines the convergent spray structure. In cross-sectional direction, the dynamic variation of the spray structure and interaction among spray plumes were investigated. The relationship between the spray structure and flow field was found. The flow patterns during and after the injection are significantly different.
Technical Paper

Flame Area Correlations with Heat Release at Early Flame Development of Combustion Process in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol and Butanol

As the vehicle emission regulations become stricter worldwide, one way to meet the emission requirements is to engage the use of alternative fuels in engine combustion. In this investigation, the early combustion processes of regular gasoline and alternative fuels, including ethanol and butanol, were studied by simultaneously recording both the in-cylinder pressure and the crank angle-resolved high-speed flame images in a single-cylinder spark-ignition direct-injection engine. The engine was equipped with a quartz insert in the piston which provided an optical access to its cylinder through the piston. The effects of engine coolant & oil temperatures and intake air swirl ratio on the early flame development were also studied. The heat release was derived from the in-cylinder pressure measurements and the corresponding flame area characteristics were extracted from the images.