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Technical Paper

Well-to-Wheel Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions for Various Vehicle Technologies

2001-03-05
2001-01-1343
The well-to-wheel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use of selected alternative vehicles are compared to those of a conventional gasoline vehicle. The vehicle technologies investigated are internal combustion engine, hybrid and fuel cell technology. The fuels are assumed to be produced from either crude oil or natural gas. Wherever possible real data has been used. The study shows that hybrid vehicles emit a similar amount of greenhouse gas as fuel cell vehicles. The diesel hybrid uses the least primary energy. The least greenhouse gas emissions are produced by natural gas and hydrogen hybrid and fuel cell vehicles.
Journal Article

Understanding the Octane Appetite of Modern Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0834
Octane appetite of modern engines has changed as engine designs have evolved to meet performance, emissions, fuel economy and other demands. The octane appetite of seven modern vehicles was studied in accordance with the octane index equation OI=RON-KS, where K is an operating condition specific constant and S is the fuel sensitivity (RONMON). Engines with a displacement of 2.0L and below and different combinations of boosting, fuel injection, and compression ratios were tested using a decorrelated RONMON matrix of eight fuels. Power and acceleration performance were used to determine the K values for corresponding operating points. Previous studies have shown that vehicles manufactured up to 20 years ago mostly exhibited negative K values and the fuels with higher RON and higher sensitivity tended to perform better.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Driveability on Emissions in European Gasoline Vehicles

2000-06-19
2000-01-1884
Fuel volatility and vehicle characteristics have long been recognised as important parameters influencing the exhaust emissions and the driveability of gasoline vehicles. Limits on volatility are specified in a number of world-wide / national fuel specifications and, in addition, many Oil Companies monitor driveability performance to ensure customer satisfaction. However, the relationship between driveability and exhaust emissions is relatively little explored. A study was carried out to simultaneously measure driveability and exhaust emissions in a fleet of 10 European gasoline vehicles. The vehicles were all equipped with three-way catalysts and single or multi-point fuel injection. The test procedure and driving cycle used were based on the European Cold Weather Driveability test method.
Technical Paper

Particulate and Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Spray Guided Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine with Oxygenate Fuel Blends

2007-04-16
2007-01-0472
The blending of oxygenated compounds with gasoline is projected to increase because oxygenate fuels can be produced renewably, and because their high octane rating allows them to be used in substitution of the aromatic fraction in gasoline. Blending oxygenates with gasoline changes the fuels' properties and can have a profound affect on the distillation curve, both of which are known to affect engine-out emissions. In this work, the effect of blending methanol and ethanol with gasoline on unburned hydrocarbon and particulate emissions is experimentally determined in a spray guided direct injection engine. Particulate number concentration and size distribution were measured using a Cambustion DMS500. These data are presented for different air fuel ratios, loads, ignition timings and injection timings. In addition, the ASTM D86 distillation curve was modeled using the binary activity coefficients method for the fuel blends used in the experiments.
Technical Paper

Overview of the European “Particulates” Project on the Characterization of Exhaust Particulate Emissions From Road Vehicles: Results for Light-Duty Vehicles

2004-06-08
2004-01-1985
This paper presents an overview of the results on light duty vehicles collected in the “PARTICULATES” project which aimed at the characterization of exhaust particle emissions from road vehicles. A novel measurement protocol, developed to promote the production of nucleation mode particles over transient cycles, has been successfully employed in several labs to evaluate a wide range of particulate properties with a range of light duty vehicles and fuels. The measured properties included particle number, with focus separately on nucleation mode and solid particles, particle active surface and total mass. The vehicle sample consisted of 22 cars, including conventional diesels, particle filter equipped diesels, port fuel injected and direct injection spark ignition cars. Four diesel and three gasoline fuels were used, mainly differentiated with respect to their sulfur content which was ranging from 300 to below 10 mg/kg.
Technical Paper

Octane Response of a Highly Boosted Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine at Different Compression Ratios

2018-04-03
2018-01-0269
Stringent regulations on fuel economy have driven major innovative changes in the internal combustion engine design. (E.g. CAFE fuel economy standards of 54.5 mpg by 2025 in the U.S) Vehicle manufacturers have implemented engine infrastructure changes such as downsizing, direct injection, higher compression ratios and turbo-charging/super-charging to achieve higher engine efficiencies. Fuel properties therefore, have to align with these engine changes in order to fully exploit the possible benefits. Fuel octane number is a key metric that enables high fuel efficiency in an engine. Greater resistance to auto-ignition (knock) of the fuel/air mixture allows engines to be operated at a higher compression ratio for a given quantity of intake charge without severely retarding the spark timing resulting in a greater torque per mass of fuel burnt. This attribute makes a high octane fuel a favorable hydrocarbon choice for modern high efficiency engines that aim for higher fuel economy.
Technical Paper

New Catalyst Preparation Procedure for OBDII-Monitoring Requirements

2001-03-05
2001-01-0933
In order to match catalyst OBDII conditions the common procedure is oven aging with air, which is not suitable for complete converter systems due to mantle corrosion. The goal was, therefore, to find an alternative procedure to ensure a defined catalyst aging that would match 1,75 times the emission standard and is also good for SULEV. The new procedure currently being developed allows the aging of metal and ceramic catalysts as well as complete catalyst systems. The paper will present the aging process, emission data of fresh and aged catalysts and the feedback to the test car OBDII system.
Technical Paper

Mechanism Analysis on the Effect of Fuel Properties on Knocking Performance at Boosted Conditions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0035
In recent years, boosted and downsized engines have gained much attention as a promising technology to improve fuel economy; however, knocking is a common issue of such engines that requires attention. To understand the knocking phenomenon under downsized and boosted engine conditions deeply, fuels with different Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) were prepared, and the knocking performances of these fuels were evaluated using a single cylinder engine, operated under a variety of conditions. Experimental results showed that the knocking performance at boosted conditions depend on both RON and MON. While higher RON showed better anti-knocking performance, lower MON showed better anti-knocking performance. Furthermore, the tendency for a reduced MON to be beneficial became stronger at lower engine speeds and higher boost pressures, in agreement with previously published modelling work.
Journal Article

Injector Fouling and Its Impact on Engine Emissions and Spray Characteristics in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0808
In Gasoline Direct Injection engines, direct exposure of the injector to the flame can cause combustion products to accumulate on the nozzle, which can result in increased particulate emissions. This research observes the impact of injector fouling on particulate emissions and the associated injector spray pattern and shows how both can be reversed by utilising fuel detergency. For this purpose multi-hole injectors were deliberately fouled in a four-cylinder test engine with two different base fuels. During a four hour injector fouling cycle particulate numbers (PN) increased by up to two orders of magnitude. The drift could be reversed by switching to a fuel blend that contained a detergent additive. In addition, it was possible to completely avoid any PN increase, when the detergent containing fuel was used from the beginning of the test. Microscopy showed that increased injector fouling coincided with increased particulate emissions.
Journal Article

Impact of Fuel Sensitivity (RON-MON) on Engine Efficiency

2017-03-28
2017-01-0799
Modern spark ignition engines can take advantage of better fuel octane quality either towards improving acceleration performance or fuel economy via an active ignition management system. Higher fuel octane allows for spark timing advance and consequently higher torque output and higher engine efficiency. Additionally, engines can be designed with higher compression ratios if a higher anti-knock quality fuel is used. Due to historical reasons, Research Octane (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are the metrics used to characterize the anti-knock quality of a fuel. The test conditions used to compute RON and MON correlated well with those in older engines designed about 20 years ago. But the correlation has drifted considerably in the recent past due to advances in engine infrastructures mainly governed by stringent fuel economy and emission standards.
Technical Paper

Impact of Diesel Fuel Composition on Soot Oxidation Characteristics

2009-04-20
2009-01-0286
The regeneration of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is dependent on both the amount and type of soot present on the filter. The objective of this work is to understand how the fuel can affect this ease with which soot can be oxidized. This soot was produced in a two-cylinder four-stroke direct-injection diesel engine, operated with a matrix of fuels with varying aromatic and sulphur level. Their oxidation behaviour in different environments was determined by Temperature Programmed Oxidation in TGA and a six-flow reactor. Transmission electron microscopy was used to examine the soot morphology. Oxidation with only O2 shows oxidation temperatures strongly dependent on the fuel type. Soot oxidation in the presence of NO and a Pt-catalyst results in a lower oxidation temperature. SO2 has an inhibiting effect leading to higher soot oxidation temperature.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Fuel Economy: Lubricant Sensitivities

2000-06-19
2000-01-2056
The fuel consumption of heavy duty diesel engines is of great importance to fleet operators, since fuel can contribute up to 30% of the operating costs. This paper discusses the differences between fuel economy oils for heavy duty diesel engines and passenger car engines. A simple model is then presented showing how the reduced friction due to the use of fuel economy lubricants (both in the engine and the transmission) can lead to fuel consumption benefits. By including realistic losses due to air resistance and tyre rolling resistance, the model can predict fuel consumption benefits under different speed and load conditions that are in reasonable agreement with the benefits found in carefully controlled field trials.
Technical Paper

Exhaust gas fuel reforming for IC Engines using diesel type fuels

2007-07-23
2007-01-2044
Control of NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions from diesel engines remains a significant challenge. One approach to reduce both emissions simultaneously without fuel economy penalty is the reformed exhaust gas recirculation (REGR) technique, where part of the fuel is catalytically reacted with hot engine exhaust gas to produce a hydrogen-rich combustible gas that is then fed to the engine. On the contrary to fuel cell technology where the reforming requirements are to produce a reformate with maximized H2 concentration and minimized (virtually zero) CO concentration, the key requirement of the application of the exhaust gas fuel reforming technique in engines is the efficient on-demand generation of a reformate with only a relatively low concentration of hydrogen (typically up to 20%).
Technical Paper

Emissions Response of a European Specification Direct-Injection Gasoline Vehicle to a Fuels Matrix Incorporating Independent Variations in Both Compositional and Distillation Parameters

1999-10-25
1999-01-3663
An emissions programme has been undertaken to gain information on the effect of selected fuel parameters on gasoline direct injection (G-DI) vehicle technology(1) with respect to exhaust emissions. Seven fuel parameters, namely aromatic, methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE), sulphur and olefin content as well as 3 distillation parameters covering the whole boiling range, were independently investigated. It was found that, overall, the fuel effects on regulated (THC, CO, NOx), particulate (Pm), and CO2 emissions were relatively small.
Technical Paper

Emissions Performance of Shell GTL Fuel in the Context of Future Fuel Specifications

2006-10-16
2006-01-3325
Worldwide concern about air quality has led to ever-tougher emissions legislation for vehicles and a concomitant tightening of fuel specifications. However, not all countries or regions will move at the same rate. For example, parts of Europe and the US have already seen the introduction of the so-called “sulphur-free” fuels (i.e. <10 and <15ppm S). However, in many developing countries there are fuel specifications with sulphur limits in higher range of 1500 - 2500ppm, and other properties are also more relaxed, such as distillation or density. For a future world where larger volumes of GTL Fuel are available (2010 and beyond), it is essential to know the environmental impact of using both neat GTL and GTL blends, when compared to conventional market diesel. Moreover it is important to take into account the significant variation still anticipated for specifications of diesel between different countries.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Properties Associated with In-Cylinder Behavior on Particulate Number from a Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-1002
The purpose of this work was to gain a fundamental understanding of which fuel property parameters are responsible for particulate emission characteristics, associated with key intermediate behavior in the engine cylinder such as the fuel film and insufficient mixing. Accordingly, engine tests were carried out using various fuels having different volatility and chemical compositions under different coolant temperature conditions. In addition, a fundamental spray and film visualization analysis was also conducted using a constant volume vessel, assuming the engine test conditions. As for the physical effects, the test results showed that a low volatility fuel displayed high particulate number (PN) emissions when the injection timing was advanced. The fundamental test clearly showed that the amount of fuel film on the impingement plate increased under such operating conditions with a low volatility fuel.
Technical Paper

Effect of Octane Number on the Performance of Euro 5 and Euro 6 Gasoline Passenger Cars

2017-03-28
2017-01-0811
Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Number (MON) are used to describe gasoline combustion which describe antiknock performance under different conditions. Recent literature suggests that MON is less important than RON in modern cars and a relaxation in the MON specification could improve vehicle performance. At the same time, for the same octane number change, increasing RON appears to provide more benefit to engine power and acceleration than reducing MON. Some workers have advocated the use of an octane index (OI) which incorporates both parameters instead of either RON or MON to give an indication of gasoline knock resistance. Previous Concawe work investigated the effect of RON and MON on the power and acceleration performance of two Euro 4 gasoline passenger cars during an especially-designed acceleration test cycle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Diesel Properties on Emissions and Fuel Consumption from Euro 4, 5 and 6 European Passenger Cars

2016-10-17
2016-01-2246
Certain diesel fuel specification properties are considered to be environmental parameters according to the European Fuels Quality Directive (FQD, 2009/EC/30) and previous regulations. These limits included in the EN 590 specification were derived from the European Programme on Emissions, Fuels and Engine Technologies (EPEFE) which was carried out in the 1990’s on diesel vehicles meeting Euro 2 emissions standards. These limits could potentially constrain FAME blending levels higher than 7% v/v. In addition, no significant work has been conducted since to investigate whether relaxing these limits would give rise to performance or emissions debits or fuel consumption benefits in more modern vehicles. The objective of this test programme was to evaluate the impact of specific diesel properties on emissions and fuel consumption in Euro 4, Euro 5 and Euro 6 light-duty diesel vehicle technologies.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Performance and Emissions when First Generation Meets Next Generation Biodiesel

2009-06-15
2009-01-1935
Limits on the total future potential of biodiesel fuel due to the availability of raw materials mean that ambitious 20% fuel replacement targets will need to be met by the use of both first and next generation biodiesel fuels. The use of higher percentage biodiesel blends requires engine recalibration, as it affects engine performance, combustion patterns and emissions. Previous work has shown that the combustion of 50:50 blends of biodiesel fuels (first generation RME and next generation synthetic fuel) can give diesel fuel-like performance (i.e. in-cylinder pressure, fuel injection and heat release patterns). This means engine recalibration can be avoided, plus a reduction in all the regulated emissions. Using a 30% biodiesel blend (with different first and next generation proportions) mixed with Diesel may be a more realistic future fuel.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Performance Analysis of Conventional and Future Fuels using Advanced CAE

2013-10-14
2013-01-2673
In recent years, there has been rapid progress in characterizing the detailed chemical kinetics associated with the oxidation of liquid hydrocarbons and their blends. However adding these fuel models to the industrial engineer's toolkit has proven a major challenge due to issues associated with high CPU cost and the poor suitability of many of the most promising and well known fuel models to IC engine applications. This paper demonstrates the state-of-the-art in the analysis and modelling of current and future transportation fuels or fuel blends for internal combustion engine applications. First-of-all, a benchmarking of eleven representative fuel models (39 to 1034 species in size) is carried out at engine/engine-like operating conditions by adopting the standard Research Octane and Cetane Number test data for comparison. Next, methods to construct a fuel model for a commercial fuel are outlined using a simple, yet robust surrogate mapping technique.
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