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Technical Paper

The Generation of Cyclic Blockloading Test Profiles from Rainflow Histograms

A numerical method for generating a blockloading profile from a rainflow histogram is described. Unlike previous techniques, this method produces a blockloading profile which, when rainflow-counted, yields a rainflow histogram identical to the original. When implemented with modern data acquisition and signal-processing techniques, this generation method provides a means of developing blockloading test profiles which are correlated with actual service data. This key benefit elevates existing simple testing systems as useful and productive tools despite the emrgence of more complex testing systems.
Technical Paper

The Development of Tools for the Automatic Extraction of Desired Information from Large Amounts of Engineering Data

Product development processes generate large quantities of experimental and analytical data. The data evaluation process is usually quite lengthy since the data needs to be extracted from a large number of individual output files and arranged in suitable formats before they can be compared. When the data quantity grows extremely large, manual extraction cannot be done in a limited timeframe. This paper describes a set of tools developed by MTS engineers to automatically extract the desired information from a large number of files and perform data post-processing. The tools greatly improved both speed and accuracy of the evaluation process during the development of a sound quality-based end-of-line inspection system for seat tracks [1]. It allowed engineers to quickly gather a comprehensive understanding of the relative importance of individual design parameters and of their correlation to the subjective perception of the sound quality of the seat track.
Technical Paper

Study of Nano Particle Emissions and It's Metrices for Diesel 4-Wheelers Evaluation of Vehicle Categories, Models and Model Years at Different Fuel Levels

In recent studies, the health implications of ultra fine particle emissions from vehicles have been investigated in a number of international studies. The adverse health effects are not only dependent on total particulate mass but also on other attributes including size, number and surface area of the particles. These ultra fine particles cause more adverse effect than larger particles. With this need UNECE GRPE had launched a Particulate Measurement Program (PMP) to formulate the regulation to control both particulate mass and number of ultra fine particles. These new regulations are applicable to the diesel and gasoline direct injection passenger cars and heavy duty engines of Euro-V/VI technology. However, at present the other vehicle categories and alternate fuels are not been covered. Limited experiments have been carried-out on the in-use vehicles which are with old technologies.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Approach for FIS Configuration Selection

Environmental pollution is of great concern; hence the emission norms for the diesel engines are made more stringent. The purpose of this work is to develop a process to optimize the FIS parameters and select a most suitable FIS by simulation to meet the target emissions. During the combustion optimization exercise of diesel engine, different hardware combinations like injector, HPP etc are matched through testing to achieve the required performance and emissions. The process requires the real testing of the engine on engine dynamometer with various hardware combinations, which is expensive and time consuming. A simulation model of diesel FIS is constructed using ‘AVL Hydsim’. The model is validated by comparing the predicted and the experimental results. The validated model is used for further work. Critical parameters were listed based on the sensitivity analysis on the base model.
Technical Paper

SIZE INDIA- Anthropometric Size Measurement of Indian Driving Population

Anthropometric data of a country is vital database for automotive design and other design applications. It is also an important parameter in population studies. Most developed countries have invested resources over the years to develop such a database and this information is accessed by many OEMs and major Design Houses. However, an updated and comprehensive Anthropometry of Indian Population is largely unknown. In the past, a few institutions have done projects to bring out a picture of the Indian Anthropometry. However, keeping in view the rapid industrialization and increase of India-specific designs which require an access to latest Anthropometric database, the project “SIZE INDIA” has been initiated. For the first time in India, a state of the art 3D Whole body scanner technology has been used and thereby large volume of data has been generated in a very short span of time.
Technical Paper

Rollover Analysis of Bus Using Body Section Method as per AIS-031 Standard

Automotive Industry Standard (AIS)-031 specifies the requirement of strength of large passenger vehicles in case of rollover. In India the certificate is granted after the successful completion of rollover test of the vehicle as per AIS-031. Complete vehicle is used for rollover test in which the vehicle is tilted laterally in the ditch of 800 mm. Such tests with complete vehicle are costly and unaffordable to small bus body builders. So according to Annex 2 of AIS-031, manufacture can carryout rollover on body sections of the vehicle. This is an equivalent approval method which is less costly compared to rollover test on complete vehicle. It requires detailed study of superstructure and selection of weakest body sections from the given superstructure of bus, which in turn requires mass and energy calculation of body section. For doing rollover analysis using body section, bus is selected which has already passed a full-rollover test.
Technical Paper

Racing Motorcycle Design Process Using Physical and Virtual Testing Methods

Recently, the use of laboratory-based physical prototype testing as well as the design of virtual models and virtual test equipment has accelerated the pace and quality of racing vehicle development. In particular, the combined use of both virtual and physical testing, when correlated to racetrack improvements, yields a powerful development tool(1), (2),(3). In this study, we applied these techniques from the first stages of the design of a unique Grand Prix racing motorcycle. First, a wire-frame CAD model, then a parametric CAD solid model of the motorcycle was created after preliminary calculations specified the approximate design of structural elements. Subsequently, a virtual dynamic model was created and subjected to a variety of inputs, including sine sweeps, shaped white noise and simulated road time-histories. Loads and other dynamic responses were measured on the virtual model, so that it's design could then be optimized to yield acceptable performance and durability.
Technical Paper

Optimizing-What's That?

The purpose of this paper is to present the past and present concepts of mechanical test optimization, which means the adjustment of a test machine command signal to achieve desired amplitude and mean levels. In particular, the methods of null pacing, dynamic frequency control, classical amplitude control, and maximum velocity limiting / control are discussed along with their respective application areas, advantages and disadvantages. Also, the factors of data verification and over-complication of the test are noted.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Load Transducer Design Using Computer-Based Analytical Tools

Rapid development of advanced multi-axial load transducer systems now requires the use of computer-based analytical tools to assist the development engineer optimize the design to meet often-conflicting design targets. This paper presents a case study based on the development of a wheel force load transducer to meet a challenging set of performance goals including accuracy, repeatability, durability and insensitivity to the external environment. The paper also highlights the limitations of some of the current analytical tools when used for load transducer design, and how these limitations can be overcome by cost-effective combinations of analytical performance prediction and physical test confirmation.
Technical Paper

Optimization in Forging Process Using Computer Simulation

New process development of forging component require lot of process knowledge and experience. Even lots of trial-and-error methods need to be used to arrive at optimum process and initial billet dimensions. But with help of reliable computer simulation tools, now it is possible to optimize the complete process and billet dimensions without a single forging trial. This saves lot of time, energy and money. Additionally, simulation gives much more insight about the process and possible forging defects. In this paper, a complete forging process was needed to be designed for a complex component. With the help of computer simulation, the complete conventional forging process and modified forging process were simulated and optimized. Forging defects were removed during optimization of the process. Also billet weight optimization was carried out. Deciding the pre-forming shape of the billet was the main challenge.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Intake Flow Structure and Swirl Optimization Strategies in Four-Valve Off-Highway Diesel Engine

Future emission limits for off-highway application engines need advanced power train solutions to meet stringent emissions legislation, whilst meeting customer requirements and minimizing engineering costs. DI diesel engines with four valves per cylinder are widely used in off- highway applications because of the fundamental advantages of higher volumetric efficiency, lower pumping loss, symmetric fuel spray & distribution in combination with the symmetric air motion which can give nearly optimal mixture formation and combustion process. As a result, the fuel consumption, smoke levels and exhaust emissions can be considerably reduced. In particular, the four-valve technology, coupled with mechanical low pressure and electronic high pressure fuel delivery systems set different requirements for inlet port performance. In the present paper four valve intake port design strategies are analysed for off highway engine using mechanical fuel injection systems.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Suspension Development Using Ride Comfort Analysis with a Laboratory Test System

An analytical approach to developing motorcycle suspensions is presented. Typical uncontrolled and subjective evaluations that place limits on suspension development are curtailed through the use of a laboratory-based road simulation technique, which evaluates vehicle ride quality. Ride comfort is calculated using a specifically tailored NASA model after primary and secondary frequency regimes have been established for this type of motorcycle. Correlation between road and laboratory simulation is measured and compared to the road data variance. A designed experiment evaluates changes in ride quality as a function of suspension and tire pressure adjustments. Various suspension settings are repeated on the simulator and corresponding ride numbers are calculated for both environments. An analysis is performed to correlate ride quality improvements on the simulator with ride quality improvements in the field.
Technical Paper

Monitoring of In-use Vehicle Emissions in India

The exhaust emission legislation for automotive vehicles came into effect in India from 1991. Since then, the exhaust mass emission certification tests are conducted on a prototype vehicle for emission compliance before commencing commercial production. The exhaust emission norms are reviewed and tightened after every five years. This should lead to a better emission control system in new vehicles. But the old vehicles which are designed prior to emission control era continue to emit heavily due to their inherent design and condition. The problem of in use vehicle emissions will be on the rise with the low scrappage rate of old vehicles in India. The impact of implementing tighter norms for new vehicles on ambient air quality can be felt only after a period of about 10 years. To have an effective improvement in ambient air quality levels, it is necessary to identify the gross polluters and retune them for bringing their emissions to an acceptable level.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Steady State Handling Characteristics of Formula Vehicle with Antiroll Bars

Antiroll bar plays an important role in rollover stability of the vehicle. But not only does it limit the vehicle roll during cornering, but also alters the lateral load transfer between the tracks, which in turn affects the cornering performance of the vehicle. This paper deals with the design and mathematical modeling of antiroll bars to reduce the body roll of the vehicle from 1.5°/g to less than 1.0°/g. Rear bar uses a conventional torsion type bar but the front anti roll mechanism is an unconventional antiroll bar using a rotating double cantilever mechanism. Mathematical modeling is done for pushrod rod actuated antiroll mechanisms to simulate its non-linear roll rates. Antiroll bars for front and rear are designed for the calculated stiffness. Finite Element Analysis of antiroll bar and its components is done and the mechanism is tested on the vehicle. Steady state tire model parameters are generated by curve fitting tire testing data into pacejka coefficients.
Technical Paper

Methodology Development for External Aerodynamic Evaluation of a Bus and Its Impact on Fuel Economy along with Experimental Validation

The objective of this study is to develop, demonstrate and validate the methodology of external aerodynamic analysis of a State Road Transport bus for prediction of drag coefficient and its impact on fuel consumption with experimental validation. It has been verified that vehicle consumes around 40% of the available engine power to overcome the air drag. This gives us a huge scope to study the effect of aerodynamic drag. Baseline model of State Road Transport Bus was evaluated for estimating fuel consumption using Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology. The CFD results were validated with the experimental data with less than 10% deviation. Bus design was optimized with an objective of reducing the fuel consumption with parameters like angle of windshield, rounding and tapering corners and rear draft angle. Optimized bus design is also ensured to meet functional specifications as per AIS052.
Technical Paper

Method for Prediction of Coffin Manson Parameters from Monotonic Tensile Property for Aluminium 6XXX Series Alloy to Predict Fatigue Life

Light weighting is significant in for automotive industry as it helps in less fuel consumption and to achieve better performance. Aluminium is a candidate material for light weighting. To design a component made of aluminium material, it is necessary to understand the fatigue performance of the material. In this paper, a study is carried out to understand the fatigue performance of aluminium 6xxx series alloys at an early stage of design without carrying out comprehensive fatigue testing. Coffin Manson Parameters are used to predict fatigue life. This research focusses on determining the gaps in existing models for aluminium alloys by carrying out comprehensive review of various models developed for 6xxx series which uses monotonic tensile data. Two models are developed and the predicted fatigue properties for this class of material are further compared with experimental fatigue, monotonic data and literature.
Technical Paper

Mathematical Modeling of Hydropneumatic Suspension System

Mathematical modeling of any system plays an important role in research and engineering applications. Development of hydropneumatic suspension system requires a complete understanding of physical phenomenon and generating governing equations of the same. In this paper, mathematical model of a typical hydropneumatic suspension system is made and simulation of such a complex multi domain system is programmed in MATLAB Simulink software. Vibration isolation potential of hydropneumatic suspension system is investigated through mathematical modeling, incorporating nonlinearity due to polytropic nature of gas spring.
Technical Paper

Literature Review and Simulation of Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG Engines

Dual fuel operating strategy offers great opportunity to reduce emissions like particulate matter and NOx from compression ignition engine and use of clearer fuels like natural gas. Dual-fuel engines have number of potential advantages like fuel flexibility, lower emissions, higher compression ratio, better efficiency and easy conversion of existing diesel engines without major hardware modifications. In view of energy depletion and environmental pollution, dual-fuel technology has caught attention of researchers. It is an ecological and efficient combustion technology. This paper summarizes a review of recent research on dual-fuel technology and future scope of research. Paper also throws light on present limitations and drawbacks of dual-fuel engines and proposed methods to overcome these drawbacks. A parametric study of different engine-operating variables affecting performance of diesel-CNG dual-fuel engines vis-à-vis base diesel operation is also summarized here.
Technical Paper

LEAN Techniques for Effective, Efficient and Secure Information Processing in Automotive Homologation

It is an established fact that virtual knowledge based engineering has revolutionized R & D activities by streamlining processes, ensuring productivity and accuracy. This has resulted in freeing up time for quality interpretational work and decision making for engineering the best of products. Subsequently, homologation is a mandatory requisite activity for product signoff. It certifies the quality of the product and is an important factor in giving the product an authenticity for sale in the market. Homologation entails compliance to regulations existing in form of well-established standards which elaborate systematic and detailed guidelines on conducting physical testing for automotive systems, sub-systems or components for specific vehicle types.
Technical Paper

LCV Chassis Frame Optimization Using Combined Simulation and Experimental Approach

The design and development of complete vehicle, understanding of chassis system development process is an important task. Chassis frame of a vehicle is supporting member, both structurally and functionally, to all other chassis aggregate systems viz. suspension, steering, braking system etc. In this paper, a methodology for chassis frame model construction and validation is explained. In present work, chassis frame model is validated in terms of modal parameters and also against static loading conditions. Existing chassis 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) data was generated using scanning and cloud point data conversion technique. FE model was generated and validated through experimental measurements viz. modal testing, vertical bending, lateral bending, and torsional bending test. Loading and boundary conditions were replicated on the complete FE model in CAE domain and test validation was carried out using appropriate mesh biasing and weld modeling techniques.