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Technical Paper

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Diesel Engine Exhaust Both with and without Aftertreatment

2018-09-10
2018-01-1812
Since the conception of the internal combustion engine, smoky and ill-smelling exhaust was prevalent. Over the last century, significant improvements have been made in improving combustion and in treating the exhaust to reduce these effects. One group of compounds typically found in exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), usually occurs at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust. Some of these compounds are considered carcinogenic, and most are considered hazardous air pollutants (HAP). Many methods have been developed for sampling, handling, and analyzing PAH. For this study, an improved method for dilute exhaust sampling was selected for sampling the PAH in diesel engine exhaust. This sampling method was used during transient engine operation both with and without aftertreatment to show the effect of aftertreatment.
Journal Article

Extension of Analytical Methods for Detailed Characterization of Advanced Combustion Engine Emissions

2016-10-17
2016-01-2330
Advanced combustion strategies used to improve efficiency, emissions, and performance in internal combustion engines (IC) alter the chemical composition of engine-out emissions. The characterization of exhaust chemistry from advanced IC engines requires an analytical system capable of measuring a wide range of compounds. For many years, the widely accepted Coordinating Research Council (CRC) Auto/Oil procedure[1,2] has been used to quantify hydrocarbon compounds between C1 and C12 from dilute engine exhaust in Tedlar polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) bags. Hydrocarbons greater than C12+ present the greatest challenge for identification in diesel exhaust. Above C12, PVF bags risk losing the higher molecular weight compounds due to adsorption to the walls of the bag or by condensation of the heavier compounds. This paper describes two specialized exhaust gas sampling and analytical systems capable of analyzing the mid-range (C10 - C24) and the high range (C24+) hydrocarbon in exhaust.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of the Scavenging Performance of a Two-Stroke Opposed-Piston Diesel Tank Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-1591
The Tank-Automotive RD&E Center periodically conducts foreign materiel evaluations to assess the current state of the art for ground vehicle technologies. The Propulsion Laboratory is conducting performance evaluations of an opposed-piston two-stroke diesel tank engine produced by the Kharkov Design Bureau in Ukraine. A key factor in the performance of all two-stroke engines is the scavenging process, which determines how well the cylinders are emptied of exhaust and filled with fresh air. The overall air flow rate is not sufficient to determine this, as a significant amount of air may be lost through the exhaust ports during the scavenging process. The inlet tracer gas method was employed to provide the additional data required. With methane as the tracer, it produced reasonable and consistent data over a wide range of engine speeds and loads. The inlet tracer gas method was found to be an effective tool for measuring the scavenging performance of a running two-stroke diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Emissions Reduction Performance of a Bimetallic Platinum/Cerium Fuel Borne Catalyst with Several Diesel Particulate Filters on Different Sulfur Fuels

2001-03-05
2001-01-0904
Results of engine bench tests on a 1998 heavy-duty diesel engine have confirmed the emissions reduction performance of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered platinum/cerium bimetallic fuel borne catalyst (FBC) used with several different catalyzed and uncatalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPF's). Performance was evaluated on both a 450ppm sulfur fuel (No.2 D) and a CARB 50ppm low sulfur diesel (LSD) fuel. Particulate emissions of less than 0.02g/bhp-hr were achieved on several combinations of FBC and uncatalyzed filters on 450ppm sulfur fuel while levels of 0.01g/bhp-hr were achieved for both catalyzed and uncatalyzed filters using the FBC with the low sulfur CARB fuel. Eight-mode steady state testing of one filter and FBC combination with engine timing changes produced a 20% nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction with particulates (PM) maintained at 0.01g/bhp-hr and no increase in measured fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Dilute Measurement of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2393
Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) are a group of compounds in engine exhaust that either form during combustion or are part of the fuel and lubricating oil. Since these compounds occur at very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust, the methods for sampling, handling, and analyzing these compounds are critical to obtaining good results. An improved dilute exhaust sampling method was used for sampling and analyzing SVOC in engine exhaust, and this method was performed during transient engine operation. A total of 22 different SVOC were measured using a 2012 medium-duty diesel engine. This engine was equipped with a stock diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), a diesel particulate filter (DPF), and a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in series. Exhaust concentrations for SVOC were compared both with and without exhaust aftertreatment. Concentrations for the engine-out SVOC were significantly higher than with the aftertreatment present.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Emissions and Fuel Economy Characteristics of Conventional, Additized, and Substantially Synthetic Diesel Fuels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1702
This study compared four different candidate fuels which were prepared by blending different components with a typical No. 2 diesel. Two fuels were blended with a synthetic diesel prepared from natural gas condensate, and all candidate fuels were splash blended with a proprietary additive package from International Fuel Technology Inc. (IFT). These fuels were then compared to the No. 2 diesel and to a California Air Resources Board (CARB) equivalent diesel fuel. The comparisons included fuel properties such as sulfur content, aromatics, cetane, lubricity, distillation; emissions; and fuel consumption. Emission testing was conducted on a 1991 Detroit Diesel Series 60. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transient cycle was utilized for emissions, fuel characterization was performed according to ASTM standards, and fuel consumption was calculated by the carbon balance method.
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