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Technical Paper

A Next-Generation Emission Test Procedure for Small Utility Engines - Part 1, Background and Approach

Measurement of emissions from small utility engines has usually been accomplished using steady-state raw emissions procedures such as SAE Recommended Practice J1088. While raw exhaust measurements have the advantage of producing modal exhaust gas concentration data for design feedback; they are laborious, may influence both engine performance and the emissions themselves, and have no provision for concurrent particulate measurements. It is time to consider a full-dilution procedure similar in principle to automotive and heavy-duty on-highway emission measurement practice, leading to improvements in many of the areas noted above, and generally to much higher confidence in data obtained. When certification and audit of small engine emissions become a reality, a brief dilute exhaust procedure generating only the necessary data will be a tremendous advantage to both manufacturers and regulatory agencies.
Technical Paper

A Non-Intrusive Method of Measuring PCV Blowby Constituents

A technique is presented that has been successfully demonstrated to non-intrusively and quickly sample gases typically found in PCV systems. Color Detection Tubes (CDTs) were used with a simple sampling arrangement to monitor CO2, NOx, O2, and H2O(g) at the closure line, crankcase, and PCV line. Measurements were accurate and could be made instantaneously. Short Path Thermal Desorbtion Tubes (SPTDTs) were used at the same engine locations for the characterization of fuel- and oil-derived hydrocarbon (HC) fractions and required only 50 cc samples. High engine loads caused pushover of blowby vapors as indicated by increased concentrations of CO2, NOx, H2O(g), and fuel HCs in the engines' fresh air inlets during WOT operation. Peak concentrations of blowby vapors were measured in the crankcase under no load and part throttle conditions. Oxygen concentrations always opposed the trends of CO2, NOx, and H2O(g).
Technical Paper

A Performance Comparison of Various Automatic Transmission Pumping Systems

The pumping system used in a step ratio automatic transmission can consume up to 20% of the total power required to operate a typical automotive transmission through the EPA city cycle. As such, it represents an area manufacturers have focused their efforts towards in their quest to obtain improved transmission efficiency. This paper will discuss the history of automatic transmission pumps that develop up to 300 psi along with a description of the factors used to size pumps and establish pump flow requirements. The various types of pumps used in current automatic transmissions will be described with a discussion of their characteristics including a comparison based upon observations of their performance. Specific attention will be focused on comparing the volumetric efficiency, mechanical efficiency, overall efficiency, pumping torque and discharge flow.
Technical Paper

Achieving the 2004 Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions Using Electronic EGR and a Cerium Based Fuel Borne Catalyst

The post-1998 diesel engine emissions challenge was put forth in July 1995 by the Statement of Principles (SOP) signed by the manufacturers of heavy duty engines, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB). Through this SOP, the signatories agreed to reduce the on-highway diesel engine NOx emissions by 50% from the legislated 1998 4.0 g/ to 2.0 g/ by the year 2004 with no increase over the 1998 particulate matter legislated level set at 0.1 g/ There are provisions in the SOP for the optional grouping of the gaseous hydrocarbons and NOx, limiting them at a combined value of 2.5 g/ with a 0.5 g/ hydrocarbon limit. In North America, particulate matter emissions standards were first imposed on heavy duty diesel engines in 1988. Since then, the NOx and particulate matter were balanced by taking advantage of the trade-off between the two pollutants inherent in diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Advanced Performance of Metallic Converter Systems Demonstrated on a Production V8 Engine

It has been shown within the catalyst industry that the emission performance with higher cell density technology and therefore with higher specific geometric area is improved. The focus of this study was to compare the overall performance of high cell density catalysts, up to 1600cpsi, using a MY 2001 production vehicle with a 4.7ltr.V8 engine. The substrates were configured to be on the edge of the design capability. The goal was to develop cost optimized systems with similar emission and back pressure performance, which meet physical and production requirements. This paper will present the results of a preliminary computer simulation study and the final emission testing of a production vehicle. For the pre-evaluation a numerical simulation model was used to compare the light-off performance of different substrate designs in the cold start portion of the FTP test cycle.
Technical Paper

Aging of Zeolite Based Automotive Hydrocarbon Traps

This paper analyzes the aging of zeolite based hydrocarbon traps to guide development of diagnostic algorithms. Previous research has shown the water adsorption ability of zeolite ages along with the hydrocarbon adsorption ability, and this leads to a possible diagnostic algorithm: the water concentration in the exhaust can be measured and related to aging. In the present research, engine experiments demonstrate that temperature measurements are also related to aging. To examine the relationship between temperature-based and moisture-based diagnostic algorithms, a transient, nonlinear heat and mass transfer model of the exhaust during cold-start is developed. Despite some idealizations, the model replicates the qualitative behavior of the exhaust system. A series of parametric studies reveals the sensitivity of the system response to aging and various noise factors.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Sample Bag Hydrocarbon Emissions and Carbon Dioxide Permeation Properties

The equipment for collecting dilute exhaust samples involves the use of bag materials (i.e., Tedlar®) that emit hydrocarbons that contaminate samples. This study identifies a list of materials and treatments to produce bags that reduce contamination. Based on the average emission rates, baked Tedlar®, Capran® treated with alumina deposition, supercritical CO2 extracted Kynar® and supercritical CO2 extracted Teflon NXT are capable of achieving the target hydrocarbon emission rate of less than 15 ppbC per 30 minutes. CO2 permeation tests were also performed. Tedlar, Capran, Kynar and Teflon NXT showed comparable average permeation rates. Based on the criteria of HC emission performance, changes in measured CO2 concentration, ease of sealing, and ease of surface treatment, none of the four materials could be distinguished from one another.
Technical Paper

Application of On-Highway Emissions Technology to a Backhoe

Recent legislation, including the California Clean Air Act of 1988 and the Federal Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990, includes off-road engines, equipment, and vehicles as targets for new exhaust emissions regulations. The Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District in cooperation with EXXON USA is conducting a major Low NOx Demonstration Program including mobile sources, construction equipment, and offshore equipment. As a part of this program, an existing backhoe has been retrofitted with a low NOx engine and demonstrated in the field. This paper discusses the work performed to allow Case model 580 backhoes to be retrofitted with Cummins 4BTAA3.9 on-highway turbocharged diesel engines. A standard production conversion kit can be used to mount the new engines in place of the older existing JI Case engines in some models while other newer models already have 4B3.9 engines. In addition, an air-to-air aftercooler and associated plumbing was designed and installed.
Journal Article

Automated Driving Impediments

Since the turn of the millennium, automated vehicle technology has matured at an exponential rate, evolving from research largely funded and motivated by military and agricultural needs to a near-production market focused on everyday driving on public roads. Research and development has been conducted by a variety of entities ranging from universities to automotive manufacturers to technology firms demonstrating capabilities in both highway and urban environments. While this technology continues to show promise, corner cases, or situations outside the average driving environment, have emerged highlighting scenarios that impede the realization of full automation anywhere, anytime. This paper will review several of these corner cases and research deficiencies that need to be addressed for automated driving systems to be broadly deployed and trusted.
Technical Paper

Cetane Number Prediction from Proton-Type Distribution and Relative Hydrogen Population

A theoretical model for predicting cetane number of primary reference fuels from parameters measurable by proton nuclear magnetic resonance is presented. This modeling technique is expanded to include secondary reference fuels, pure hydrocarbons, and commercial-type fuels. An evaluation of the ignition process indicated that not only hydrogen type distribution measurable by proton NMR, but also relative hydrogen population is important in predicting cetane number. Two mathematical models are developed. One predicts cetane number of saturate fuels and the second predicts cetane number of fuels containing aromatic components. The aromatic fuel model is tested using the ASTM Diesel Check Fuels and shown to predict within the standard error of the model.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Particle Size Distribution of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine During FTP Transient Cycle Using ELPI

Particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured for the diluted exhaust of a 1991 diesel engine during the US FTP transient cycle for heavy-duty diesel engines. The engine was operated on US 2-D on-highway diesel fuel. The particle measurement system consisted of a full flow dilution tunnel as the primary dilution stage, an air ejector pump as the secondary dilution stage, and an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for particle size distribution measurements. Particle number emission rate was the highest during the Los Angeles Non Freeway (LANF) and the Los Angeles Freeway (LAF) segments of the transient cycle. However, on brake specific number basis the LAF had the lowest emission level. The particle size distribution was monomodal in shape with a mode between 0.084 μm and 0.14 μm. The shape of the size distribution suggested no presence of nanoparticles below the lower detection limit of the instrument (0.032 μm), except during engine idle.
Technical Paper

Cold-Start Hydrocarbon Collection for Advanced Exhaust Emission Control

This paper describes the findings of a laboratory effort to demonstrate improved automotive exhaust emission control with a cold-start hydrocarbon collection system. The emission control strategy developed in this study incorporated a zeolite molecular sieve in the exhaust system to collect cold-start hydrocarbons for subsequent release to an active catalytic converter. A prototype emission control system was designed and tested on a gasoline-fueled vehicle. Continuous raw exhaust emission measurements upstream and downstream of the zeolite molecular sieve revealed collection, storage, and release of cold-start hydrocarbons. Federal Test Procedure (FTP) emission results show a 35 percent reduction in hydrocarbons emitted during the cold-transient segment (Bag 1) due to adsorption by the zeolite.
Technical Paper

Comparative Emissions Performance of Sasol Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuel in Current and Older Technology Heavy-Duty Engines

Comparative exhaust emission tests were performed with five diesel fuels, namely a Sasol Fischer-Tropsch diesel, a fuel meeting the CARB diesel fuel specification, a fuel meeting the US 2-D diesel fuel specification, and two blends of the Fischer-Tropsch diesel and the 2-D diesel. Hot-start and cold-start heavy-duty transient emission tests were performed using a 1999 model year DDC series 60 engine. Regulated exhaust emissions with the Fischer-Tropsch diesel were significantly lower than with the 2-D and CARB diesel fuels, in both the hot-start and cold-start tests. When compared with test results obtained previously with a 1991 engine, it was found that the reduction in NOX with the Fischer-Tropsch fuel was smaller in the 1999 engine, while the reduction in PM was greater.
Technical Paper

Comparison Between Real-Life Dust Samples and Standardized Test Dusts

Soil samples were collected from various geographical areas in the United States and Saudi Arabia. The samples were obtained from U.S. military installations at which off-road maneuvers are conducted. Saudi Arabia samples were obtained from the deserts surrounding Riyadh. The samples were characterized using particle size distributions, elemental analysis, mineral composition and particle angularity. Particle size distributions were determined for simulated fuel cells with intermittent and continual mixing. The results obtained from the world-wide soil sample analyses were compared against AC and PTI SAE fine and coarse test dust results.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Emission Characteristics of Conventional, Hydrotreated, and Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

This study compared diesel exhaust emission from four different diesel fuels: a conventional low sulfur D2 diesel (0.03% sulfur, 28% aromatics), California Air Resources Board (CARB) diesel (0.015% sulfur, 8% aromatics), “Swedish” diesel (<0.001% sulfur, 4% aromatics), and a Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel (<0.0001% sulfur, <0.1% aromatics) fuel. The comparison included regulated emissions, hydrocarbon speciation, air toxics, aldehydes and ketones, particle size distribution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Testing was conducted using a Cummins B-Series engine installed both in a heavy light-duty truck operating on a chassis dynamometer and on an engine dynamometer. The chassis driving cycles included city, highway, and aggressive driving operation. Engine dynamometer tests included the U.S. transient cycle.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Emissions and Fuel Economy Characteristics of Conventional, Additized, and Substantially Synthetic Diesel Fuels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

This study compared four different candidate fuels which were prepared by blending different components with a typical No. 2 diesel. Two fuels were blended with a synthetic diesel prepared from natural gas condensate, and all candidate fuels were splash blended with a proprietary additive package from International Fuel Technology Inc. (IFT). These fuels were then compared to the No. 2 diesel and to a California Air Resources Board (CARB) equivalent diesel fuel. The comparisons included fuel properties such as sulfur content, aromatics, cetane, lubricity, distillation; emissions; and fuel consumption. Emission testing was conducted on a 1991 Detroit Diesel Series 60. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transient cycle was utilized for emissions, fuel characterization was performed according to ASTM standards, and fuel consumption was calculated by the carbon balance method.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Exhaust Emissions from a Vehicle Fueled with Methanol-Containing Additives for Flame Luminosity

Two additive blends proposed for improving the flame luminosity in neat methanol fuel were investigated to determine the effect of these additives on the exhaust emissions in a dual-fueled Volkswagen Jetta. The two blends contained 4 percent toluene plus 2 percent indan in methanol and 5 percent cyclopentene plus 5 percent indan in methanol. Each blend was tested for regulated and unregulated emissions as well as a speciation of the exhaust hydrocarbons resulting from use of each fuel. The vehicle exhaust emissions from these two fuel blends were compared to the Coordinating Research Council Auto-Oil national average gasoline (RF-A), M100, and M85 blended from RF-A. Carter Maximum Incremental Reactivity Factors were applied to the speciated hydrocarbon emission results to determine the potential ozone formation for each fuel. Toxic emissions as defined in the 1990 Clean Air Act were also compared for each fuel.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Four Sampling Methods for Semi-volatile Organic Compounds in Gas Phase Diesel Engine Exhausts

Newly designed Teflon® O-rings along with XAD-2 resin, stainless steel screens, lock rings, and glass cartridges were used to construct a new semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC's) sampling device. This new sampling device allows direct and repeated sampling, extraction, and cleaning without ever having to be disassembled or reassembled. This new XAD-2 glass cartridge (X2) was compared with three other sampling methods namely Empore® membrane (EM), hexane impinger (HI), and “Cold Trap” (CT) for SVOC sampling efficiency on diesel engine exhaust emissions. The X2 method showed the highest overall SVOC collection efficiency, followed by the EM and HI methods. The X2 method has higher trapping efficiency for the oxygenates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), alkyl cyclohexanes, and the alkyl aromatics than the other three SVOC sampling methods. The HI method has the highest trapping efficiency for the normal alkanes.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Hydrocarbon Measurement with FTIR and FID in a Dual Fuel Locomotive Engine

Exhaust emissions of non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and methane were measured from a Tier 3 dual-fuel demonstration locomotive running diesel-natural gas blend. Measurements were performed with the typical flame ionization detector (FID) method in accordance with EPA CFR Title 40 Part 1065 and with an alternative Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy method. Measurements were performed with and without oxidation catalyst exhaust aftertreatment. FTIR may have potential for improved accuracy over the FID when NMHC is dominated by light hydrocarbons. In the dual fuel tests, the FTIR measurement was 1-4% higher than the FID measurement of. NMHC results between the two methods differed considerably, in some cases reporting concentrations as much as four times those of the FID. However, in comparing these data it is important to note that the FTIR method has several advantages over the FID method, so the differences do not necessarily represent error in the FTIR.
Technical Paper

Comparison of SCR Catalyst Performance on RMC SET Emission Cycle between an Engine and a High Flow Burner Rig

Government agencies like EPA play an important role through regulation to reduce emissions and fuel consumption and to drive technological developments to reduce the environmental impact of burning petroleum fuels. Emissions testing and control is one of the leading and growing fields in the development of modern vehicles. Recently, Cummins Emissions Solutions (CES) and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) worked jointly in order to achieve a method to conduct emissions testing efficiently and effectively. The collaborative work between the two organizations led to the usage of FOCAS HGTR™ (a diesel-based burner test rig at SwRI) to simulate the exhaust conditions generated by a 2010 ISX Cummins production engine operating over an EPA standard Ramped Modal Cycle Supplemental Emissions Test (RMC SET) cycle.