Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

the behavior of Radiation-Resistant ANP TURBINE LUBRICANTS

1959-01-01
590051
RADIATION can produce almost instantaneous failure of modern aircraft lubricants, tests at Southwest Research Institute show. Two types of failures demonstrated are rapid viscosity rise and loss of heat conductivity. Furthermore, it was found that lubricants can become excessively corrosive under high-level radiation. Generally speaking, the better lubricants appeared to improve in performance while marginal ones deteriorated to a greater extent under radiation. When the better lubricants were subjected to static irradiation prior to the deposition test, there was a minor increase in deposition number as the total dose was increased.
Technical Paper

Vektron® 6913 Gasoline Additive NOX Evaluation Fleet Test Program

2001-05-07
2001-01-1997
A 28-vehicle fleet test was executed to verify and quantify the NOX emissions reductions achieved through the use of Infineum's Vektron 6913 gasoline additive. The fleet composition and experimental design were finalized in collaborative discussions with US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Transportation & Air Quality (OTAQ) and consultation / advice from several major US automotive manufacturers. The test was conducted over a period of five months at Southwest Research Institute. Statistical analysis of the emissions data indicated a 10% average fleet reduction in NOX emissions without any negative impact on other criteria pollutants (CO, HC) or fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Using Advanced Emission Control Systems to Demonstrate LEV II ULEV on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

1999-03-01
1999-01-0774
A program to demonstrate the performance of advanced emission control systems in light of the California LEV II light-duty vehicle standards and the EPA's consideration of Tier II emission standards was conducted. Two passenger cars and one light-duty pick-up truck were selected for testing, modification, and emission system performance tuning. All vehicles were 1997 Federal Tier I compliant. The advanced emission control technologies evaluated in this program included advanced three-way catalysts, high cell density substrates, and advanced thermally insulated exhaust components. Using these engine-aged advanced emission control technologies and modified stock engine control strategies (control modifications were made using an ERIC computer intercept/control system), each of the three test vehicles demonstrated FTP emission levels below the proposed California LEV II 193,000 km (120,000 mile) ULEV levels.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Technology for Off-Road Equipment Engines

1999-09-28
1999-01-3283
A project was conducted by Southwest Research Institute on behalf of the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District to demonstrate the technical feasibility of utilizing closed-loop three-way catalyst technology in off-road equipment applications. Five representative engines were selected, and baseline emission-tested using both gasoline and LPG. Emission reduction systems, employing three-way catalyst technology with electronic fuel control, were designed and installed on two of the engines. The engines were then installed in a fork lift and a pump system, and limited durability testing was performed. Results showed that low emission levels, easily meeting CARB's newly adopted large spark-ignited engine emission standards, could be achieved.
Technical Paper

The Winch-Dozer - A Tool for Area Mine Spoil Leveling

1977-02-01
770550
A new approach to reclaiming the spoil areas produced by area-type mining operations has been developed. This system uses a machine known as a winch-dozer, consisting of a pair of large back-to-back buckets which are drawn by cable across spoil piles, moving back and forth between a “tailblock” anchor and a “drawworks” winch unit developed as an attachment to a large crawler tractor. The system is expected to reduce the cost of reclamation leveling by 40-50%. The system permits more effective power utilization due to the blade system's light weight, induces caving of spoil banks, and permits moving spoil in both directions of blade travel.
Technical Paper

The Turbo Trac Traction Drive CVT

2004-08-23
2004-40-0038
A unique and attractive variator mechanism has been developed by Turbo Trac, Inc. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for initial use in a heavy duty diesel truck application. High efficiency levels have been predicted with analytical models and confirmed with actual test data. Further, this variator incorporates a very stable and simple control system and has extremely high torque capacity. The prototype of the variator mechanism has also been configured with a modified Allison 650 series transmission for use as a series application in a Peterbilt truck, the final configuration will be a split power design. The setup includes a preliminary control system that allows for highway driving. It is emphasized, however, that Allison did not contribute to this design or any of the content of this paper.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 4: Fuel Consumption, Emissions, and Cost-Effectiveness of an Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Compared to Conventional Diesel Fuels

2005-04-11
2005-01-1724
The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an ultra-low-sulfur, low aromatic, high cetane number diesel fuel (TxLED, Texas Low Emission Diesel) in June 2003. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness to reduce emissions and influence fuel economy of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel used in both their on-road and off-road equipment. The study incorporated analyses for the fleet operated by the Association of General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Some members of AGC use 2D off-road diesel in their equipment. One off-road engine, two single-axle dump trucks, and two tandem-axle dump trucks were tested. The equipment tested included newer electronically-controlled diesels. The off-road engine was tested over the TxDOT Telescoping Boom Excavator Cycle. The dump trucks were tested using the “route” technique over the TxDOT Single-Axle Dump Truck Cycle or the TxDOT Tandem-Axle Dump Truck Cycle.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 2: Comparisons of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for a Fuel/Water Emulsion and Conventional Diesel Fuels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0087
The Texas Department of Transportation began using an emulsified diesel fuel in 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel and 2D off-road diesel. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsion, Lubrizol PuriNOx®, relative to conventional diesel fuels. Two engines and eight trucks, four single-axle dump trucks, and four tandem-axle dump trucks were tested. The equipment tested included both older mechanically-controlled diesels and newer electronically-controlled diesels. The two engines were tested over two different cycles that were developed specifically for this project. The dump trucks were tested using the “route” technique over one or the other of two chassis dynamometer cycles that were developed for this project In addition to fuel efficiency, emissions of NOx, PM, CO, and HCs were measured. Additionally, second-by-second results were obtained for NOx and HCs.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 1: Development of TxDOT-Specific Test Cycles with Emphasis on a “Route” Technique for Comparing Fuel/Water Emulsions and Conventional Diesel Fuels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0090
The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an emulsified diesel fuel in July 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel, which they use in both their on-road and off-road equipment. The study also incorporated analyses for the fleet operated by the Associated General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Some members of AGC use 2D off-road diesel fuel in their equipment. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsified fuel relative to the conventional diesel fuels. Cycles that are known to be representative of the typical operations for TxDOT and AGC equipment were required for use in this study. Four test cycles were developed from data logged on equipment during normal service: 1) the TxDOT Telescoping Boom Excavator Cycle, 2) the AGC Wheeled Loader Cycle, 3) the TxDOT Single-Axle Dump Truck Cycle, and 4) the TxDOT Tandem-Axle Dump Truck Cycle.
Technical Paper

The Development of Techniques to Measure Vehicle Spray on Wet Roads

1974-02-01
740526
Several techniques have been developed to measure the relative amount of splash and spray produced by vehicles when driven on wet roads at highway speeds under controlled conditions. This paper discusses considerations in the development of measurement techniques such as those utilizing photographs, a photometer, densitometer, spraymeter, and spray collector. The development of each technique is described. Some test data utilizing the photometer and densitometer techniques are presented in a comparison of two different trucks run on two different road surfaces with new and worn tires, fully loaded and unloaded, and under light and heavy road moisture conditions.
Technical Paper

The Challenges of Developing an Energy, Emissions, and Fuel Economy Test Procedure for Heavy-Duty Hybrid Electric Transit Vehicles

1995-11-01
952610
Over twenty prototype hybrid buses and other commercial vehicles are currently being completed and deployed. These vehicles are primarily “series” hybrid vehicles which use electric motors for primary traction while internal combustion engines, or high-speed turbine engines connected to generators, supply some portion of the electric propulsion and battery recharge energy. Hybrid-electric vehicles have an electric energy storage system on board that influences the operation of the heat engine. The storage system design and level affect the vehicle emissions, electricity consumption, and fuel economy. Existing heavy-duty emissions test procedures require that the engine be tested over a transient cycle before it can be used in vehicles (over 26,000 lbs GVW). This paper describes current test procedures for assessing engine and vehicle emissions, and proposes techniques for evaluating engines used with hybrid-electric vehicle propulsion systems.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology to Quantify and Analyze Energy Consumption of Connected and Automated Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0116
A new generation of vehicle dynamics and powertrain control technologies are being developed to leverage information streams enabled via vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) connectivity [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]. While algorithms that use these connected information streams to enable improvements in energy efficiency are being studied in detail, methodologies to quantify and analyze these improvements on a vehicle have not yet been explored fully. A procedure to test and accurately measure energy-consumption benefits of a connected and automated vehicle (CAV) is presented. The first part of the test methodology enables testing in a controlled environment. A traffic simulator is built to model traffic flow in Fort Worth, Texas with sufficient accuracy. The benefits of a traffic simulator are two-fold: (1) generation of repeatable traffic scenarios and (2) evaluation of the robustness of control algorithms by introducing disturbances.
Technical Paper

Technology Demonstration of U.S. Army Ground Materiel Operating on Aviation Kerosene Fuel

1992-02-01
920193
A technology demonstration program was conducted by the U.S. Army to verify the feasibility of using aviation turbine fuel JP-8 in all military diesel fuel-consuming ground vehicles and equipment (V/E). Over 2,800 pieces of military equipment participated in a two and one-half year program accumulating over 2,621,000 total miles (4,219,810 km) using JP-8 in combat/tracked, tactical/wheeled, and transportation motor pool vehicles. Over 71,000 hours of operation were accumulated in diesel/turbine engine-driven generator sets using JP-8 fuel. Comparisons of various performance areas with baseline diesel fuel (DF-2) operation were made.
Technical Paper

Technical Approach to Increasing Fuel Economy Test Precision with Light Duty Vehicles on a Chassis Dynamometer

2016-04-05
2016-01-0907
In 2012, NHTSA and EPA extended Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for light duty vehicles through the 2025 model year. The new standards require passenger cars to achieve an average of five percent annual improvement in fuel economy and light trucks to achieve three percent annual improvement. This regulatory requirement to improve fuel economy is driving research and development into fuel-saving technologies. A large portion of the current research is focused on incremental improvements in fuel economy through technologies such as new lubricant formulations. While these technologies typically yield less than two percent improvement, the gains are extremely significant and will play an increasing role in the overall effort to improve fuel economy. The ability to measure small, but statistically significant, changes in vehicle fuel economy is vital to the development of new technologies.
Technical Paper

System Component Coupling for Structure Borne Noise Isolation Studies

1997-05-01
971460
Control of structure borne noise transmission into an aircraft cabin generated from component excitation, such as rotor/engine vibration imbalance or firing excitations or from auxiliary equipment induced vibrations, can be studied empirically via impedance characterization of the system components and application of appropriate component coupling procedures. The present study was aimed at demonstrating the usefulness of such impedance modeling techniques as applied to a Bell 206B rotorcraft and a Cessna TR182 general aviation aircraft. Simulated rotor/engine excitations were applied to the assembled aircraft systems to provide baseline structure borne noise transmission data. Thereafter, impedance tests of the system components were carried out to provide a data base from which system component coupling studies were carried out.
Technical Paper

SwRI-BMW N.A. Intake Valve Deposit Test - A Statistical Review

1992-10-01
922215
The SwRI/BMW N.A. Intake Valve Deposit Test procedure was the first performance-based test procedure adopted for fuels qualification in the United States. The initial fuel evaluations were begun in January 1988 with six 1985 BMW 318i vehicles. Since that time, the fleet has grown to include over 60 BMW cars, and more than 2000 tests have been performed. This paper gives a statistical summary of approximately 1800 tests performed over a four-year period. Performance data and possible sources of test variation are discussed. Data and analyses offered represent results of tests by all clients. However, data is presented such that no individual test or client is identified.
Technical Paper

Spectrometric Analysis of Used Oils

1969-02-01
690776
This paper discusses the techniques and diagnostic significance of atomic absorption, atomic emission, and infrared spectrometric analysis of crankcase lubricants, with the use of supplementary data where pertinent. The parameters affecting used oil analytical data are discussed in terms of examples from Army general purpose vehicle test engines. Wear metals in used gear oils are also discussed and examples are given. Analytical methods and their applications are fully described, and the equipment and procedures for infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques are outlined.
Technical Paper

Snowmobile Engine Emissions and Their Impact

1974-02-01
740735
This paper describes a research program on exhaust emissions from snowmobile engines, including both emissions characterization and estimation of national emissions impact. Tests were conducted on three popular 2-stroke twins and on one rotary (Wankel) engine. Emissions that were measured included total hydrocarbons, (paraffinic) hydrocarbons by NDIR, CO, CO2, NO (by two methods), NOx, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulate, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and evaporative hydrocarbons were projected to be negligible for actual snowmobile operation. During emissions tests, intake air temperature was controlled to approximately -7°C (20°F), and room air at approximately 24°C (75°F) was used for engine cooling. Based on test results and the best snowmobile population and usage data available, impact of snowmobile emissions on a national scale was computed to be minimal.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Reduction of Diesel Particulate and NOx Using a Plasma

1994-10-01
942070
A non-thermal plasma treatment of diesel engine exhaust was effective in removing particulate (soot) and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from two different light-duty diesel vehicles: an older-technology indirect-injection Toyota truck, and a newer-technology direct-injection Dodge truck. Particulate removal efficiencies and NOx conversion efficiencies were determined at space velocities up to 20,000/hr. Particulate removal efficiencies were above 60 percent for most conditions, but decreased with increasing space velocities. Conversion efficiencies for NOx and carbon monoxide (CO) were also dependent on the space velocity. The NOx conversion efficiencies were generally greater than 40 percent at space velocities less than 7000/hr. The CO concentration increased through the plasma reaction bed indicating that CO was produced by reactions in the plasma.
Technical Paper

Scuderi Split Cycle Engine: Air Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain Simulation Study

2012-04-16
2012-01-1013
The Scuderi engine is a split cycle design that divides the four strokes of a conventional combustion cycle over two paired cylinders, one intake/compression cylinder and one power/exhaust cylinder, connected by a crossover port. This configuration provides potential benefits to the combustion process, as well as presenting some challenges; it also creates the possibility for pneumatic hybridization of the engine. This paper presents the methodology and results of a comprehensive study to investigate the benefits of air hybrid operation with the Scuderi Split Cycle (SSC) engine. Four air hybrid operating modes are made possible by the Split Cycle configuration, namely air compressor, air expander, air expander & firing and firing & charging. The predicted operating requirements for each individual operating mode are established. The air and fuel flow of the individual modes are fully mapped throughout the engine operating speed and load range and air tank pressure operating range.
X