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Technical Paper

Updating China Heavy-Duty On-Road Diesel Emission Regulations

With the rapid expansion of the automotive market in China, air quality in the major cities has become a severe concern. Great efforts have been made in introducing new emission regulations; however, fuel and lubricant qualities, emissions aftertreatment system durability and in-use compliance to the emissions regulations still require significant improvement. China follows the European Union (EU) emission regulations in general, but different levels of standards exist. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the current and near-future heavy-duty diesel emission regulations, as well as fuel and lubricant specifications.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Technology for Off-Road Equipment Engines

A project was conducted by Southwest Research Institute on behalf of the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District to demonstrate the technical feasibility of utilizing closed-loop three-way catalyst technology in off-road equipment applications. Five representative engines were selected, and baseline emission-tested using both gasoline and LPG. Emission reduction systems, employing three-way catalyst technology with electronic fuel control, were designed and installed on two of the engines. The engines were then installed in a fork lift and a pump system, and limited durability testing was performed. Results showed that low emission levels, easily meeting CARB's newly adopted large spark-ignited engine emission standards, could be achieved.
Technical Paper

The Winch-Dozer - A Tool for Area Mine Spoil Leveling

A new approach to reclaiming the spoil areas produced by area-type mining operations has been developed. This system uses a machine known as a winch-dozer, consisting of a pair of large back-to-back buckets which are drawn by cable across spoil piles, moving back and forth between a “tailblock” anchor and a “drawworks” winch unit developed as an attachment to a large crawler tractor. The system is expected to reduce the cost of reclamation leveling by 40-50%. The system permits more effective power utilization due to the blade system's light weight, induces caving of spoil banks, and permits moving spoil in both directions of blade travel.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 1: Development of TxDOT-Specific Test Cycles with Emphasis on a “Route” Technique for Comparing Fuel/Water Emulsions and Conventional Diesel Fuels

The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an emulsified diesel fuel in July 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel, which they use in both their on-road and off-road equipment. The study also incorporated analyses for the fleet operated by the Associated General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Some members of AGC use 2D off-road diesel fuel in their equipment. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsified fuel relative to the conventional diesel fuels. Cycles that are known to be representative of the typical operations for TxDOT and AGC equipment were required for use in this study. Four test cycles were developed from data logged on equipment during normal service: 1) the TxDOT Telescoping Boom Excavator Cycle, 2) the AGC Wheeled Loader Cycle, 3) the TxDOT Single-Axle Dump Truck Cycle, and 4) the TxDOT Tandem-Axle Dump Truck Cycle.
Technical Paper

The Port Fuel Injector Deposit Test - A Statistical Review

The Port Fuel Injector (PFI) Deposit Test is a performance-based test procedure developed by the Coordinating Research Council and adopted by state and federal regulatory agencies for fuel qualification in the United States. To date, Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has performed over 375 PFI tests between 1991 and 1998 for various clients. This paper details the analyses of these tests. Of the 375 tests, 199 were performed as keep-clean tests and 176 were performed as clean-up tests. The following areas of interest are discussed in this paper: Keep-clean versus clean-up test procedures Linearity of deposit formation Injector position effects as related to fouling Dirtyup / cleanup phenomena Seasonal effects This paper draws the conclusion that it is easier to keep new injectors from forming deposits than it is to clean up previously formed deposits. It was found that injector deposit formation is generally non-linear.
Technical Paper

The ASTM Test Monitoring Center - Evolving in a Changing Industry

This paper traces the evolution of the ASTM Test Monitoring Center (TMC) from its modest beginnings in 1976 to the present. Formed as an unbiased and non-aligned group within ASTM Subcommittee D02.B, the TMC operates a reference oil based calibration system that serves both the producers and users of automotive lubricants. Governed by the ASTM Test Monitoring Board, the center's primary mission is to calibrate engine dynamometer test stands used to conduct various ASTM test methods for evaluating lubricant performance. The core services of the TMC have remained the same over its nearly 25 year history. The center stores and distributes ASTM reference oils and is responsible for assuring, through the use of analytical testing, the quality and consistency of the oils. The number of reference oils handled by the TMC has steadily increased over time such that today the center inventories some 100 different formulations having a total volume of 65,000 gallons.
Journal Article

Test Protocols for Motorcoach Fire Safety

The Department of Transportation (DOT) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) awarded a contract to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct research and testing in the interest of motorcoach fire safety. The goal of this program was to develop and validate procedures and metrics to evaluate current and future detection, suppression, and exterior fire-hardening technologies that prevent or delay fire penetration into the passenger compartment of a motorcoach - in order to increase passenger evacuation time. The program was initiated with a literature review and characterization of the thermal environment of motorcoach fires and survey of engine compartments, firewalls, and wheel wells of motorcoaches currently in North American service. These characterizations assisted in the development of test methods and identification of the metrics for analysis. Test fixtures were designed and fabricated to simulate a representative engine compartment and wheel well.
Technical Paper

SwRI-BMW N.A. Intake Valve Deposit Test - A Statistical Review

The SwRI/BMW N.A. Intake Valve Deposit Test procedure was the first performance-based test procedure adopted for fuels qualification in the United States. The initial fuel evaluations were begun in January 1988 with six 1985 BMW 318i vehicles. Since that time, the fleet has grown to include over 60 BMW cars, and more than 2000 tests have been performed. This paper gives a statistical summary of approximately 1800 tests performed over a four-year period. Performance data and possible sources of test variation are discussed. Data and analyses offered represent results of tests by all clients. However, data is presented such that no individual test or client is identified.
Technical Paper

Spectrometric Analysis of Used Oils

This paper discusses the techniques and diagnostic significance of atomic absorption, atomic emission, and infrared spectrometric analysis of crankcase lubricants, with the use of supplementary data where pertinent. The parameters affecting used oil analytical data are discussed in terms of examples from Army general purpose vehicle test engines. Wear metals in used gear oils are also discussed and examples are given. Analytical methods and their applications are fully described, and the equipment and procedures for infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques are outlined.
Journal Article

Scuderi Split Cycle Research Engine: Overview, Architecture and Operation

The Scuderi engine is a split cycle design that divides the four strokes of a conventional combustion cycle over two paired cylinders, one intake/compression cylinder and one power/exhaust cylinder, connected by a crossover port. This configuration provides potential benefits to the combustion process, as well as presenting some challenges. It also creates the possibility for pneumatic hybridization of the engine. This paper reviews the first Scuderi split cycle research engine, giving an overview of its architecture and operation. It describes how the splitting of gas compression and combustion into two separate cylinders has been simulated and how the results were used to drive the engine architecture together with the design of the main engine systems for air handling, fuel injection, mixing and ignition. A prototype engine was designed, manufactured, and installed in a test cell. The engine was heavily instrumented and initial performance results are presented.
Technical Paper

Review of the Computer Science and Engineering Solutions for Model Sharing and Model Co-Simulation

The process of developing, parameterizing, validating, and maintaining models occurs within a wide variety of tools, and requires significant time and resources. To maximize model utilization, models are often shared between various toolsets and experts. One common example is sharing aircraft engine models with airframers. The functionality of a given model may be utilized and shared with a secondary model, or multiple models may run collaboratively through co-simulation. There are many technical challenges associated with model sharing and co-simulation. For example, data communication between models and tools must be accurate and reliable, and the model usage must be well-documented and perspicuous for a user. This requires clear communication and understanding between computer scientists and engineers. Most often, models are developed by engineers, whereas the tools used to share the models are developed by computer scientists.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Structural Analysis Methods

The purpose in doing probabilistic structural analysis is to provide the designer with a more realistic ability to assess the importance of uncertainty in the structural response. This paper provides an overview of the methodology and discusses validation of modular structural analysis packages capable of predicting the probabilistic response distribution for key structural variables such as stress, displacement, natural frequencies, buckling loads, transient responses, etc. The structural analysis solution is in terms of the cumulative distribution function (CDF). Probabilistic structural analysis methods (PSAM) can be used to estimate structural safety and reliability, while providing the engineer with information on the confidence that should be given to the predicted behavior.
Technical Paper

Port Design for Charge Motion Improvement within the Cylinder

The engine intake process governs many aspects of the flow within the cylinder. The inlet valve is the minimum area, so gas velocities at the valve are the highest velocities seen. Geometric configuration of the inlet ports and valves, and the opening schedule create organized large scale motions in the cylinder known as swirl and tumble. Good charge motion within the cylinder will produce high turbulence levels at the end of the compression stroke. As the turbulence resulting from the conversion energy of the inlet jet decays fast, the strategy is to encapsulate some of the inlet jet in the organized motions. In this work the baseline port of a 2.0 L gasoline engine was modified by inserting a tumble plate. The work was done in support of an experimental study for which a new single-cylinder research engine was set up to allow combustion system parameters to be varied in steps over an extensive range. Tumble flow was one such parameter.
Technical Paper

Parametric Design of Helical Intake Ports

The design of helical Intake ports for swirl generation is a process that has been developed over a number of years through primarily empirical methods. A number of design rules have been established that enable designers to develop ports that approach the state-of-the-art for maximum swirl generation with minimum pressure loss. More recently, computer-aided design (CAD) tools have been introduced that permit geometry and features to be accurately defined by mathematical surface descriptions, and to be parameterized such that derived geometry is updated automatically along with parent features. The author has developed a parametric design approach for helical ports that incorporates the lessons learned from experience into a systematic design procedure. This procedure takes advantage of the current CAD capabilities to expedite the design process and improve the result.

Overview of Southwest Research Institute Activities in Engine Technology R&D

The worldwide drive to improved energy efficiency for engine systems is being supported by several engine R&D programs at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). This research includes large programs in major-market engine categories, such as heavy-duty, non-road, and light-duty; and includes diesel, gasoline, and alternative fuel aspects. This presentation describes several key diesel engine programs being pursued under the SwRI Clean High Efficiency Diesel Engine consortium (CHEDE-VI), whose goal is to demonstrate future diesel technology exceeding 50% brake thermal efficiency. Additionally, SwRI?s High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engines consortium (HEDGE-II), is reviewed, where advanced technology for ultra-high efficiency gasoline engines is being demonstrated. The HEDGE-II program is built upon dilute gasoline engine research, where brake thermal efficiencies in excess of 42% are being obtained for engines applicable to the light-duty market. Presenter Charles E.
Technical Paper

On-Line Oil Consumption Measurement and Characterization of an Automotive Gasoline Engine by SO2 Method

An on-line oil consumption measurement system using the SO2 tracer method has characterized automotive gasoline engine oil consumption under various engine operating conditions, including a 200-hour durability test. An oil consumption map of total engine, individual cylinder, and valve train was produced for various speed and load ranges under both steady-state and step-transient operating conditions. The effect of spark timing as an additional engine parameter on the oil consumption was also investigated. Oil consumption maps have enlightened the conventional understanding of oil consumption characteristics and broadened the areas of concern for control technologies. This paper reports the benefit of the on-line oil consumption measurement system, the result of oil consumption history over the durability test, discrete measurement of oil consumption contribution within the engine, and various oil consumption characteristics affected by engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Observations from Cylinder Liner Wear Studies in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines and the Evolution towards Lower Viscosity Heavy Duty Engine Lubricants

Since the invention of the internal combustion engine, the contact between piston ring and cylinder liner has been a major concern for engine builders. The quality and durability of this contact has been linked to the life of the engine, its maintenance, and its exhaust gas and blowby emissions, but also to its factional properties and therefore fuel economy. While the basic design has not changed, many factors that affect the performance of the ring/liner contact have evolved and are still evolving. This paper provides an overview of observations related to the lubrication of the ring/liner contact.
Technical Paper

Navigation Control in an Urban Autonomous Ground Vehicle

Southwest Research Institute developed an Autonomous Ground Vehicle (AGV) capable of navigating in urban environments. The paper first gives an overview of hardware and software onboard the vehicle. The systems onboard are classified into perception, intelligence, and command and control modules to mimic a human driver. Perception deals with sensing from the world and translating it into situation awareness. This awareness is then fed into intelligence modules. Intelligence modules take inputs from the user to understand the need to navigate from its current location to another destination and, then, generate a path between them on urban, drivable surfaces using its internal urban database. Situational awareness helps intelligence to update the path in real time by avoiding any static/moving obstacles while following traffic rules.
Technical Paper

Nanoparticle Growth During Dilution and Cooling of Diesel Exhaust: Experimental Investigation and Theoretical Assessment

Nanoparticle formation during exhaust sampling and dilution has been examined using a two-stage micro-dilution system to sample the exhaust from a modern, medium-duty diesel engine. Growth rates of nanoparticles at different exhaust dilution ratios and temperatures have been determined by monitoring the evolution of particle size distributions in the first stage of the dilution system. Two methods, graphical and analytical, are described to determine particle growth rate. Extrapolation of size distribution down to 1 nm in diameter has been demonstrated using the graphical method. The average growth rate of nanoparticles is calculated using the analytical method. The growth rate ranges from 6 nm/sec to 24 nm/sec, except at a dilution ratio of 40 and primary dilution temperature of 48 °C where the growth rate drops to 2 nm /sec. This condition seems to represent a threshold for growth. Observed nucleation and growth patterns are consistent with predictions of a simple physical model.
Technical Paper

Microcomputer Control System Design for a Tracked Amphibious Vehicle

A 14-ton tracked amphibious vehicle has been equipped with a hydrostatic drivetrain that consists of land drive and seaborne transmissions. The transmissions and the vehicle's engine are under microcomputer control. In addition, the microcomputer reads operator inputs and does operational checks of the vehicle's various subsystems. If arty of the subsystems is found to be degraded in their performance the microcomputer informs the operator. This paper presents an overview of the drivetrain systems and the implementation of the control and diagnostic systems.