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Journal Article

Visual, Thermodynamic, and Electrochemical Analysis of Condensate in a Stoichiometric Spark-Ignited EGR Engine

The objectives of this project were to investigate the corrosivity of condensate in a stoichiometric spark-ignited (SI) engine when running exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and to determine the effects of sulfur-in-fuel on corrosion. A 2.0 L turbocharged direct-injected SI engine was operated with low-pressure EGR for this study. The engine was instrumented for visual, thermodynamic, and electrochemical analyses to determine the potential for corrosion at locations where condensation was deemed likely in a low-pressure loop EGR (LPL-EGR) engine. The electrochemical analysis was performed using multi-electrode array (MEA) corrosion probes. Condensate was also collected and analyzed. These analyses were performed downstream of both the charge air cooler (CAC) and the EGR cooler. It was found that while conditions existed for sulfuric acid to form with high-sulfur fuel, no sulfuric acid was detected by any of the measurement methods.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Drive Cycle Fuel Economy Prediction Using Single Cylinder Engine Data

The confluence of fuel economy improvement requirements and increased use of ethanol as a gasoline blend component has led to various studies into the efficiency and performance benefits to be had when using high octane number, high ethanol content fuels in modern engines. As part of a comprehensive study of the autoignition of fuels in both the CFR octane rating engine and a modern, direct injection, turbocharged spark ignited engine, a series of fuel blends were prepared with market relevant ranges of octane numbers and ethanol blends levels. The paper reports on the first part of this study where fuel flow measurements were done on a single cylinder research engine, utilizing a GM LHU combustion system, and then used to predict drive cycle fuel economy. For a range of engine speeds and manifold air pressures, spark timing was adjusted to achieve either the maximum brake torque (MBT) or a matched 50 % mass fraction burnt location.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Technology for Off-Road Equipment Engines

A project was conducted by Southwest Research Institute on behalf of the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District to demonstrate the technical feasibility of utilizing closed-loop three-way catalyst technology in off-road equipment applications. Five representative engines were selected, and baseline emission-tested using both gasoline and LPG. Emission reduction systems, employing three-way catalyst technology with electronic fuel control, were designed and installed on two of the engines. The engines were then installed in a fork lift and a pump system, and limited durability testing was performed. Results showed that low emission levels, easily meeting CARB's newly adopted large spark-ignited engine emission standards, could be achieved.
Technical Paper

The Winch-Dozer - A Tool for Area Mine Spoil Leveling

A new approach to reclaiming the spoil areas produced by area-type mining operations has been developed. This system uses a machine known as a winch-dozer, consisting of a pair of large back-to-back buckets which are drawn by cable across spoil piles, moving back and forth between a “tailblock” anchor and a “drawworks” winch unit developed as an attachment to a large crawler tractor. The system is expected to reduce the cost of reclamation leveling by 40-50%. The system permits more effective power utilization due to the blade system's light weight, induces caving of spoil banks, and permits moving spoil in both directions of blade travel.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 1: Development of TxDOT-Specific Test Cycles with Emphasis on a “Route” Technique for Comparing Fuel/Water Emulsions and Conventional Diesel Fuels

The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an emulsified diesel fuel in July 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel, which they use in both their on-road and off-road equipment. The study also incorporated analyses for the fleet operated by the Associated General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Some members of AGC use 2D off-road diesel fuel in their equipment. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsified fuel relative to the conventional diesel fuels. Cycles that are known to be representative of the typical operations for TxDOT and AGC equipment were required for use in this study. Four test cycles were developed from data logged on equipment during normal service: 1) the TxDOT Telescoping Boom Excavator Cycle, 2) the AGC Wheeled Loader Cycle, 3) the TxDOT Single-Axle Dump Truck Cycle, and 4) the TxDOT Tandem-Axle Dump Truck Cycle.
Technical Paper

The Stratified Charge Glowplug Ignition (SCGI) Engine with Natural Gas Fuel

The objective was to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a natural gas two-stroke engine using glow plug ignition with very lean mixtures. Based on the results obtained, the term SCGI (stratified charge glow plug ignition) was coined to describe the engine. An JLO two-stroke diesel engine was converted first to a natural gas fueled spark-ignited engine for the baseline tests, and then to an SCGI engine. The SCGI engine used a gas operated valve in the cylinder head to admit the natural gas fuel, and a glow plug was used as a means to initiate the combustion. The engine was successfully run, but was found to be sensitive to various conditions such as the glow plug temperature. The engine would run very lean, to an overall equivalence ratio of 0.33, offering the potential of good fuel economy and low NOx emissions.
Journal Article

The Effects of Piston Crevices and Injection Strategy on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted SI Engines

The spark ignition (SI) engine has been known to exhibit several different abnormal combustion phenomena, such as knock or pre-ignition, which have been addressed with improved engine design or control schemes. However, in highly boosted SI engines, Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), a pre-ignition event typically followed by heavy knock, has developed into a topic of major interest due to its potential for engine damage. Previous experiments associated increases in hydrocarbon emissions with the blowdown event of an LSPI cycle [1]. Also, the same experiments showed that there was a dependency of the LSPI activity on fuel and/or lubricant compositions [1]. Based on these findings it was hypothesized that accumulated hydrocarbons play a role in LSPI and are consumed during LSPI events. A potential source for accumulated HC is the top land piston crevice.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Wall Wetting Location on the HC Emissions from SI Engines

The effect of combustion chamber wall-wetting on the emissions of unburned and partially-burned hydrocarbons (HCs) from gasoline-fueled SI engines was investigated experimentally. A spark-plug mounted directional injection probe was developed to study the fate of liquid fuel which impinges on different surfaces of the combustion chamber, and to quantify its contribution to the HC emissions from direct-injected (DI) and port-fuel injected (PFI) engines. With this probe, a controlled amount of liquid fuel was deposited on a given location within the combustion chamber at a desired crank angle while the engine was operated on pre-mixed LPG. Thus, with this technique, the HC emissions due to in-cylinder wall wetting were studied independently of all other HC sources. Results from these tests show that the location where liquid fuel impinges on the combustion chamber has a very important effect on the resulting HC emissions.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Hydrogen Enrichment on EGR Tolerance in Spark Ignited Engines

Small (up to 1% by volume) amounts of hydrogen (H2) were added to the intake charge of a single-cylinder, stoichiometric spark ignited engine to determine the effect of H2 addition on EGR tolerance. Two types of tests were performed at 1500 rpm, two loads (3.1 bar and 5.5 bar IMEP), two compression ratios (11:1 and 14:1) and with two fuels (gasoline and natural gas). The first test involved holding EGR level constant and increasing the H2 concentration. The EGR level of the engine was increased until the CoV of IMEP was > 5% and then small amounts of hydrogen were added until the total was 1% by volume. The effect of increasing the amount of H2 on engine stability was measured along with combustion parameters and engine emissions. The results showed that only a very small amount of H2 was necessary to stabilize the engine. At amounts past that level, increasing the level of H2 had no or only a very small effect.
Journal Article

The Effect of EGR on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted SI Engines

The spark ignition (SI) engine has been known to exhibit several different abnormal combustion phenomena, such as knock or pre-ignition, which have been addressed with improved engine design or control schemes. However, in highly boosted SI engines - where the engine displacement is reduced and turbocharging is employed to increase specific power - a new combustion phenomenon, described as Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), has been exhibited. LSPI is characterized as a pre-ignition event typically followed by heavy knock, which has the potential to cause degradation of the engine. However, because LSPI events occur only sporadically and in an uncontrolled fashion, it is difficult to identify the causes for this phenomenon and to develop solutions to suppress it. Some countermeasures exist that OEMs can use to avoid LSPI, such as load limiting, but these have drawbacks.
Technical Paper

Spray Characterization in a DISI Engine During Cold Start: (1) Imaging Investigation

Spray angle and penetration length data were taken under cold start conditions for a Direct Injection Spark Ignition engine to investigate the effect of transient conditions on spray development. The results show that during cold start, spray development depends primarily on fuel pressure, followed by Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP). Injection frequency had little effect on spray development. The spray for this single hole, pressure-swirl fuel injector was characterized using high speed imaging. The fuel spray was characterized by three different regimes. Regime 1 comprised fuel pressures from 6 - 13 bar, MAPs from 0.7 - 1 bar, and was characterized by a large pre-spray along with large drop sizes. The spray angle and penetration lengths were comparatively small. Regime 2 comprised fuel pressures from 30 - 39 bar and MAPs from 0.51 - 0.54 bar. A large pre-spray and large drop sizes were still present but reduced compared to Regime 1.
Technical Paper

Spectrometric Analysis of Used Oils

This paper discusses the techniques and diagnostic significance of atomic absorption, atomic emission, and infrared spectrometric analysis of crankcase lubricants, with the use of supplementary data where pertinent. The parameters affecting used oil analytical data are discussed in terms of examples from Army general purpose vehicle test engines. Wear metals in used gear oils are also discussed and examples are given. Analytical methods and their applications are fully described, and the equipment and procedures for infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques are outlined.
Journal Article

Simulation of Organic Rankine Cycle Electric Power Generation from Light-Duty Spark Ignition and Diesel Engine Exhaust Flows

The performance of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) used to recover waste heat from the exhaust of a diesel and a spark ignition engine for electric power generation was modeled. The design elements of the ORC incorporated into the thermodynamic model were based on an experimental study performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in which a regenerative organic Rankine cycle system was designed, assembled and integrated into the exhaust of a 1.9 liter 4-cylinder automotive turbo-diesel. This engine was operated at a single fixed-load point at which Rankine cycle state point temperatures as well as the electrical power output of an electric generator coupled to a turbine that expanded R245fa refrigerant were measured. These data were used for model calibration.
Technical Paper

Review of the Computer Science and Engineering Solutions for Model Sharing and Model Co-Simulation

The process of developing, parameterizing, validating, and maintaining models occurs within a wide variety of tools, and requires significant time and resources. To maximize model utilization, models are often shared between various toolsets and experts. One common example is sharing aircraft engine models with airframers. The functionality of a given model may be utilized and shared with a secondary model, or multiple models may run collaboratively through co-simulation. There are many technical challenges associated with model sharing and co-simulation. For example, data communication between models and tools must be accurate and reliable, and the model usage must be well-documented and perspicuous for a user. This requires clear communication and understanding between computer scientists and engineers. Most often, models are developed by engineers, whereas the tools used to share the models are developed by computer scientists.
Technical Paper

Predictive GT-Power Simulation for VNT Matching to EIVC Strategy on a 1.6 L Turbocharged GDI Engine

The use of early intake valve closing (EIVC) can lead to improvements in spark-ignition engine efficiency. One of the greatest barriers facing adoption of EIVC for high power-density applications is the challenge of boosting as EIVC strategies reduce volumetric efficiency. Turbochargers with variable nozzle turbines (VNT) have recently been developed for gasoline applications operating at high exhaust gas temperatures. The use of a single VNT as a boost device may provide a lower-cost option compared to two-stage boosting systems or 48 V electronic boost devices for some EIVC applications. A predictive model was created based on engine testing results from a 1.6 L turbocharged gasoline direct injection engine [1]. The model was tuned so that it predicted burn-rates and end-gas knock over an engine operating map with varying speeds, loads, compression ratios and fuel types.
Technical Paper

Port Design for Charge Motion Improvement within the Cylinder

The engine intake process governs many aspects of the flow within the cylinder. The inlet valve is the minimum area, so gas velocities at the valve are the highest velocities seen. Geometric configuration of the inlet ports and valves, and the opening schedule create organized large scale motions in the cylinder known as swirl and tumble. Good charge motion within the cylinder will produce high turbulence levels at the end of the compression stroke. As the turbulence resulting from the conversion energy of the inlet jet decays fast, the strategy is to encapsulate some of the inlet jet in the organized motions. In this work the baseline port of a 2.0 L gasoline engine was modified by inserting a tumble plate. The work was done in support of an experimental study for which a new single-cylinder research engine was set up to allow combustion system parameters to be varied in steps over an extensive range. Tumble flow was one such parameter.
Technical Paper

Parametric Design of Helical Intake Ports

The design of helical Intake ports for swirl generation is a process that has been developed over a number of years through primarily empirical methods. A number of design rules have been established that enable designers to develop ports that approach the state-of-the-art for maximum swirl generation with minimum pressure loss. More recently, computer-aided design (CAD) tools have been introduced that permit geometry and features to be accurately defined by mathematical surface descriptions, and to be parameterized such that derived geometry is updated automatically along with parent features. The author has developed a parametric design approach for helical ports that incorporates the lessons learned from experience into a systematic design procedure. This procedure takes advantage of the current CAD capabilities to expedite the design process and improve the result.
Technical Paper

Modeling NOx Emissions from Lean-Burn Natural Gas Engines

A zero-dimensional cycle simulation model coupled with a chemical equilibrium model and a two-zone combustion model has been extended to predict nitric oxide formation and emissions from spark-ignited, lean-burn natural gas engines. It is demonstrated that using the extended Zeldovich mechanism alone, the NOx emissions from an 8.1-liter, 6-cylinder, natural gas engine were significantly under predicted. However, by combining the predicted NOx formation from both the extended Zeldovich thermal NO and the Fenimore prompt NO mechanisms, the NOx emissions were predicted with fair accuracy over a range of engine powers and lean-burn equivalence ratios. The effect of injection timing on NOx emissions was under predicted. Humidity effects on NOx formation were slightly under predicted in another engine, a 6.8-liter, 6-cylinder, natural gas engine. Engine power was well predicted in both engines, which is a prerequisite to accurate NOx predictions.
Technical Paper

Mixture Preparation Measurements

A technique was demonstrated that can quantify the state of mixture preparation during the critical periods of ignition and very early flame development in a “production” spark-ignited engine. To determine the degree of stratification and vaporization two fast-response hydrocarbon (HC) probes were placed in a specially adapted spark plug. Data from the HC analyzer was correlated with cylinder pressure data to relate changes in mixture preparation to classic engine measures, such as indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) and ignition delay.
Technical Paper

Miller Cycle Application to the Scuderi Split Cycle Engine (by Downsizing the Compressor Cylinder)

The Scuderi engine is a split cycle design that divides the four strokes of a conventional combustion cycle over two paired cylinders, one intake/compression cylinder and one power/exhaust cylinder, connected by a crossover port. This configuration provides potential benefits to the combustion process, as well as presenting some challenges. A Miller cycle configuration of the engine is made possible by turbocharging with a downsized compressor cylinder and has been modeled in 1-dimensional cycle simulation software.