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Technical Paper

the behavior of Radiation-Resistant ANP TURBINE LUBRICANTS

RADIATION can produce almost instantaneous failure of modern aircraft lubricants, tests at Southwest Research Institute show. Two types of failures demonstrated are rapid viscosity rise and loss of heat conductivity. Furthermore, it was found that lubricants can become excessively corrosive under high-level radiation. Generally speaking, the better lubricants appeared to improve in performance while marginal ones deteriorated to a greater extent under radiation. When the better lubricants were subjected to static irradiation prior to the deposition test, there was a minor increase in deposition number as the total dose was increased.
Technical Paper

Updating China Heavy-Duty On-Road Diesel Emission Regulations

With the rapid expansion of the automotive market in China, air quality in the major cities has become a severe concern. Great efforts have been made in introducing new emission regulations; however, fuel and lubricant qualities, emissions aftertreatment system durability and in-use compliance to the emissions regulations still require significant improvement. China follows the European Union (EU) emission regulations in general, but different levels of standards exist. This paper gives a comprehensive overview of the current and near-future heavy-duty diesel emission regulations, as well as fuel and lubricant specifications.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Technology for Off-Road Equipment Engines

A project was conducted by Southwest Research Institute on behalf of the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District to demonstrate the technical feasibility of utilizing closed-loop three-way catalyst technology in off-road equipment applications. Five representative engines were selected, and baseline emission-tested using both gasoline and LPG. Emission reduction systems, employing three-way catalyst technology with electronic fuel control, were designed and installed on two of the engines. The engines were then installed in a fork lift and a pump system, and limited durability testing was performed. Results showed that low emission levels, easily meeting CARB's newly adopted large spark-ignited engine emission standards, could be achieved.
Technical Paper

The Winch-Dozer - A Tool for Area Mine Spoil Leveling

A new approach to reclaiming the spoil areas produced by area-type mining operations has been developed. This system uses a machine known as a winch-dozer, consisting of a pair of large back-to-back buckets which are drawn by cable across spoil piles, moving back and forth between a “tailblock” anchor and a “drawworks” winch unit developed as an attachment to a large crawler tractor. The system is expected to reduce the cost of reclamation leveling by 40-50%. The system permits more effective power utilization due to the blade system's light weight, induces caving of spoil banks, and permits moving spoil in both directions of blade travel.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 1: Development of TxDOT-Specific Test Cycles with Emphasis on a “Route” Technique for Comparing Fuel/Water Emulsions and Conventional Diesel Fuels

The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an emulsified diesel fuel in July 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel, which they use in both their on-road and off-road equipment. The study also incorporated analyses for the fleet operated by the Associated General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Some members of AGC use 2D off-road diesel fuel in their equipment. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsified fuel relative to the conventional diesel fuels. Cycles that are known to be representative of the typical operations for TxDOT and AGC equipment were required for use in this study. Four test cycles were developed from data logged on equipment during normal service: 1) the TxDOT Telescoping Boom Excavator Cycle, 2) the AGC Wheeled Loader Cycle, 3) the TxDOT Single-Axle Dump Truck Cycle, and 4) the TxDOT Tandem-Axle Dump Truck Cycle.
Journal Article

The Impact of Lubricant Volatility, Viscosity and Detergent Chemistry on Low Speed Pre-Ignition Behavior

The impact of additive and oil chemistry on low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) was evaluated. An additive metals matrix varied the levels of zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), calcium sulfonate, and molybdenum within the range of commercially available engine lubricants. A separate test matrix varied the detergent chemistry (calcium vs. magnesium), lubricant volatility, and base stock chemistry. All lubricants were evaluated on a LSPI test cycle developed by Southwest Research Institute within its Pre-Ignition Prevention Program (P3) using a GM LHU 2.0 L turbocharged GDI engine. It was observed that increasing the concentration of calcium leads to an increase in the LSPI rate. At low calcium levels, near-zero LSPI rates were observed. The addition of zinc and molybdenum additives had a negative effect on the LSPI rate; however, this was only seen at higher calcium concentrations.
Journal Article

The Effects of Piston Crevices and Injection Strategy on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted SI Engines

The spark ignition (SI) engine has been known to exhibit several different abnormal combustion phenomena, such as knock or pre-ignition, which have been addressed with improved engine design or control schemes. However, in highly boosted SI engines, Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), a pre-ignition event typically followed by heavy knock, has developed into a topic of major interest due to its potential for engine damage. Previous experiments associated increases in hydrocarbon emissions with the blowdown event of an LSPI cycle [1]. Also, the same experiments showed that there was a dependency of the LSPI activity on fuel and/or lubricant compositions [1]. Based on these findings it was hypothesized that accumulated hydrocarbons play a role in LSPI and are consumed during LSPI events. A potential source for accumulated HC is the top land piston crevice.
Technical Paper

Spectrometric Analysis of Used Oils

This paper discusses the techniques and diagnostic significance of atomic absorption, atomic emission, and infrared spectrometric analysis of crankcase lubricants, with the use of supplementary data where pertinent. The parameters affecting used oil analytical data are discussed in terms of examples from Army general purpose vehicle test engines. Wear metals in used gear oils are also discussed and examples are given. Analytical methods and their applications are fully described, and the equipment and procedures for infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques are outlined.
Technical Paper

Sampling System for Solid and Volatile Exhaust Particle Size, Number, and Mass Emissions

A solid particle sampling system (SPSS) that is equipped with a heated oxidation catalyst, micro-dilution tunnels, filter holders and sampling probes, was designed and developed to collect filter-based solid and total (solid plus volatile) particles from the exhaust of internal combustion engines, and to facilitate the measurement of solid and total particles when equipped with particle measuring instruments for size, number, mass, and other particle characteristics. The SPSS was characterized with laboratory aerosol and showed a very low solid particle loss of less than 5 percent using sodium chloride particles, very high volatile particle removal of better than 98 percent using oil droplets, and no formation of sulfuric acid particles when using ammonium sulfate particles. The SPSS is a useful tool for researchers interested in characterizing the solid and volatile fraction of particles emitted from combustion sources.
Technical Paper

Sampling System Investigation for the Determination of Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) Emissions From Engine Exhaust

Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) are a group of compounds that may form during combustion and/or are present in the unburned portion of the fuel and lubricating oil which ultimately become part of the exhaust. Many of these compounds are considered toxic or carcinogenic. Since these compounds are present in very low concentrations in diesel engine exhaust, the methods for sampling, handling, and analyzing these compounds are critical to obtaining representative and repeatable results. Engine testing is typically performed using a dilution tunnel. With a dilution tunnel, the collection of a representative sample is important. Experiments were performed with a modified EPA Method TO-9A to determine the equilibration time and other sampling parameters required for the measurement of SVOC in dilute exhaust. The results show that representative results can be obtained with this method.
Technical Paper

Review of the Computer Science and Engineering Solutions for Model Sharing and Model Co-Simulation

The process of developing, parameterizing, validating, and maintaining models occurs within a wide variety of tools, and requires significant time and resources. To maximize model utilization, models are often shared between various toolsets and experts. One common example is sharing aircraft engine models with airframers. The functionality of a given model may be utilized and shared with a secondary model, or multiple models may run collaboratively through co-simulation. There are many technical challenges associated with model sharing and co-simulation. For example, data communication between models and tools must be accurate and reliable, and the model usage must be well-documented and perspicuous for a user. This requires clear communication and understanding between computer scientists and engineers. Most often, models are developed by engineers, whereas the tools used to share the models are developed by computer scientists.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Steady-State Measurement of PCV-Contribution to Oil Consumption on Ford 4.6 L SI-Engine

Real-time engine oil consumption has been measured at 21 steady-state conditions for a fully broken-in 2-valve Ford 4.6L SI-engine. The sampling location was at the engine stack and the measurement technique was the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) developed SO2-analyzer for real-time oil consumption measurement, referred to as SwRI RTOC-II. PCV contribution to oil consumption was determined by measuring the oil consumption with and without the inclusion of positive crank case ventilation (PCV) flow, which is a differental approach. This method has not been correlated to real world vehicle usage but is valuable for making A-to-B comparisons. The paper is important since it presents novel data for real-time steady-state PCV-contribution to oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Predicting Sequence VI, VIA, and VIB Engine Tests Using Laboratory Methods

Engine tests are widely used to measure the ability of lubricating oils to reduce fuel consumption through improved mechanical efficiency. Previous publications have correlated laboratory-scale tests with the well-established Sequence VI and VIA engine methods. The present paper uses a matrix of 66 oils to produce an empirical model for the recently developed Sequence VIB engine test. A smaller matrix of oils was available for correlation with Sequence VI and VIA results. The models combine a purposely-designed friction test with conventional measures of kinematic and high-temperature high-shear viscosity. Good correlation was obtained with the Sequence VI, VIA and VIB results, as well as each of the five stages in the Sequence VIB test. The effects of lubricant oxidation in the 96-hour FEI-2 portion of the Sequence VIB test were similar for each of the oils. As a result, good correlation was observed between FEI-1 and FEI-2 results from the VIB test.
Technical Paper

Port Design for Charge Motion Improvement within the Cylinder

The engine intake process governs many aspects of the flow within the cylinder. The inlet valve is the minimum area, so gas velocities at the valve are the highest velocities seen. Geometric configuration of the inlet ports and valves, and the opening schedule create organized large scale motions in the cylinder known as swirl and tumble. Good charge motion within the cylinder will produce high turbulence levels at the end of the compression stroke. As the turbulence resulting from the conversion energy of the inlet jet decays fast, the strategy is to encapsulate some of the inlet jet in the organized motions. In this work the baseline port of a 2.0 L gasoline engine was modified by inserting a tumble plate. The work was done in support of an experimental study for which a new single-cylinder research engine was set up to allow combustion system parameters to be varied in steps over an extensive range. Tumble flow was one such parameter.
Technical Paper

Parametric Design of Helical Intake Ports

The design of helical Intake ports for swirl generation is a process that has been developed over a number of years through primarily empirical methods. A number of design rules have been established that enable designers to develop ports that approach the state-of-the-art for maximum swirl generation with minimum pressure loss. More recently, computer-aided design (CAD) tools have been introduced that permit geometry and features to be accurately defined by mathematical surface descriptions, and to be parameterized such that derived geometry is updated automatically along with parent features. The author has developed a parametric design approach for helical ports that incorporates the lessons learned from experience into a systematic design procedure. This procedure takes advantage of the current CAD capabilities to expedite the design process and improve the result.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Lubricant and Coolant Pumps for Parasitic Loss Reduction

As fuel economy becomes increasingly important in all markets, complete engine system optimization is required to meet future standards. In many applications, it is difficult to realize the optimum coolant or lubricant pump without first evaluating different sets of engine hardware and iterating on the flow and pressure requirements. For this study, a Heavy Duty Diesel (HDD) engine was run in a dynamometer test cell with full variability of the production coolant and lubricant pumps. Two test stands were developed to allow the engine coolant and lubricant pumps to be fully mapped during engine operation. The pumps were removed from the engine and powered by electric motors with inline torque meters. Each fluid circuit was instrumented with volume flow meters and pressure measurements at multiple locations. After development of the pump stands, research efforts were focused on hardware changes to reduce coolant and lubricant flow requirements of the HDD engine.
Technical Paper

Observations from Cylinder Liner Wear Studies in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines and the Evolution towards Lower Viscosity Heavy Duty Engine Lubricants

Since the invention of the internal combustion engine, the contact between piston ring and cylinder liner has been a major concern for engine builders. The quality and durability of this contact has been linked to the life of the engine, its maintenance, and its exhaust gas and blowby emissions, but also to its factional properties and therefore fuel economy. While the basic design has not changed, many factors that affect the performance of the ring/liner contact have evolved and are still evolving. This paper provides an overview of observations related to the lubrication of the ring/liner contact.
Technical Paper

Method for Analyzing Lubricating Oil Contamination of Aircraft Systems

Cabin air quality is of continuing importance [1]. Contamination of air with particulates or vapors has the potential of affecting the health of passengers and flight crew. Therefore, measures are required to maintain acceptable levels of cabin air quality. One potential source of cabin air contamination is lubricating oils used in the engines. Type II oils are required for the main engines, but Type I or Type II oils can be used for the APU, with Type I recommended by some engine manufacturers for its cold-start properties. Southwest Research Institutes (SwRI®) Department of Emissions Research used an internally developed analytical method called Direct Filter Injection/Gas Chromatograph (DFI/GC™) to analyze for volatile fractions of lubricating oil contaminants on Environmental Control System (ECS) components. Samples of two standard Type II aviation turbine lubricating oils were analyzed with the DFI/GC™ method and their spectra examined.
Technical Paper

Manual Transmission Efficiency Trends and Characteristics

This paper presents a discussion on manual transmission torque losses and focuses specifically on the relationship between torque loss, input speed and torque. It also includes a discussion on other factors affecting torque loss, such as inclination angle and lube oil temperature. Manual transmissions used in compact light truck applications have torque losses that are a function of input speed and torque. Efficiency studies done on manual transmissions in the engine-driving mode indicate that torque losses, in other than direct-drive gears, are considerably more dependent on input torque than input speed. It was also observed that efficiency was significantly affected by the inclination angle and lube oil temperature.
Journal Article

Lubricant Reactivity Effects on Gasoline Spark Ignition Engine Knock

The performance and efficiency of spark ignited gasoline engines is often limited by end-gas knock. In particular, when operating the engine at high loads, combustion phasing is retarded to prevent knock, resulting in a significant reduction of engine efficiency. Since the invention of the spark ignition (SI) engine, much work has been devoted to improve and regulate fuel characteristics, such as octane number, to suppress engine knock. The auto-ignition tendency of the engine lubricant however, as described by cetane number (CN), has received little attention, as it has been assumed that engine lubricant effects on knock are insignificant, primarily due to low levels of average oil consumption. However, with modern SI engines being developed to operate at higher loads and closer to knock limits, the reactivity of engine lubricants can impact the knock behavior.