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Technical Paper

Unregulated Exhaust Emissions from Alternate Diesel Combustion Modes

Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions (individual hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and nitro-polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH)) were characterized for the following alternate diesel combustion modes: premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), and low-temperature combustion (LTC). PCCI and LTC were studied on a PSA light-duty high-speed diesel engine. Engine-out emissions of carbonyl compounds were significantly increased for all LTC modes and for PCCI-Lean conditions as compared to diesel operation; however, PCCI-Rich produced much lower carbonyl emissions than diesel operations. For PAH compounds, emissions were found to be substantially increased over baseline diesel operation for LTC-Lean, LTC-Rich, and PCCI-Lean conditions. PCCI-Rich operation, however, gave PAH emission rates comparable to baseline diesel operation.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emissions and High Efficiency from an On-Highway Natural Gas Engine

Results from work focusing on the development of an ultra low emissions, high efficiency, natural gas-fueled heavy- duty engine are discussed in this paper. The engine under development was based on a John Deere 8.1L engine; this engine was significantly modified from its production configuration during the course of an engine optimization program funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Previous steady-state testing indicated that the modified engine would provide simultaneous reductions in nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption while maintaining equivalent or lower NOx levels. Federal Test Procedure transient tests confirmed these expectations. Very low NOx emissions, averaging 1.0 g/bhp-hr over hot-start cycles, were attained; at these conditions, reductions in engine-out nonmethane hydro-carbons emissions (NMHC) were approximately 30 percent, and fuel consumption over the cycle was also reduced relative to the baseline.
Technical Paper

Transient Emissions from Two Natural Gas-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines

The use of compressed natural gas as an alternative to conventional fuels has received a great deal of attention as a strategy for reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. In many cases, regulatory action has been taken to displace diesel fuel with natural gas in truck and bus applications. Emissions results of heavy-duty transient FTP testing of two Cummins L10-240G natural gas engines are presented. Regulated emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons, total hydrocarbons, CO, NOx, and particulate were characterized, along with emissions of formaldehyde. The effects of air/fuel ratio adjustments on these emissions were explored, as well as the effectiveness of catalytic aftertreatment in reducing exhaust emissions. Compared to typical heavy-duty diesel engine emissions, CNG-fueled engines using exhaust aftertreatment have great potential for meeting future exhaust emission standards, although in-use durability is unproven.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Technology for Off-Road Equipment Engines

A project was conducted by Southwest Research Institute on behalf of the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District to demonstrate the technical feasibility of utilizing closed-loop three-way catalyst technology in off-road equipment applications. Five representative engines were selected, and baseline emission-tested using both gasoline and LPG. Emission reduction systems, employing three-way catalyst technology with electronic fuel control, were designed and installed on two of the engines. The engines were then installed in a fork lift and a pump system, and limited durability testing was performed. Results showed that low emission levels, easily meeting CARB's newly adopted large spark-ignited engine emission standards, could be achieved.
Technical Paper

The Winch-Dozer - A Tool for Area Mine Spoil Leveling

A new approach to reclaiming the spoil areas produced by area-type mining operations has been developed. This system uses a machine known as a winch-dozer, consisting of a pair of large back-to-back buckets which are drawn by cable across spoil piles, moving back and forth between a “tailblock” anchor and a “drawworks” winch unit developed as an attachment to a large crawler tractor. The system is expected to reduce the cost of reclamation leveling by 40-50%. The system permits more effective power utilization due to the blade system's light weight, induces caving of spoil banks, and permits moving spoil in both directions of blade travel.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 1: Development of TxDOT-Specific Test Cycles with Emphasis on a “Route” Technique for Comparing Fuel/Water Emulsions and Conventional Diesel Fuels

The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an emulsified diesel fuel in July 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel, which they use in both their on-road and off-road equipment. The study also incorporated analyses for the fleet operated by the Associated General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Some members of AGC use 2D off-road diesel fuel in their equipment. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsified fuel relative to the conventional diesel fuels. Cycles that are known to be representative of the typical operations for TxDOT and AGC equipment were required for use in this study. Four test cycles were developed from data logged on equipment during normal service: 1) the TxDOT Telescoping Boom Excavator Cycle, 2) the AGC Wheeled Loader Cycle, 3) the TxDOT Single-Axle Dump Truck Cycle, and 4) the TxDOT Tandem-Axle Dump Truck Cycle.
Technical Paper

The Potential for Achieving Low Hydrocarbon and NOx Exhaust Emissions from Large Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

Two large, heavy light-duty gasoline vehicles (2004 model year Ford F-150 with a 5.4 liter V8 and GMC Yukon Denali with a 6.0 liter V8) were baselined for emission performance over the FTP driving cycle in their stock configurations. Advanced emission systems were designed for both vehicles employing advanced three-way catalysts, high cell density ceramic substrates, and advanced exhaust system components. These advanced emission systems were integrated on the test vehicles and characterized for low mileage emission performance on the FTP cycle using the vehicle's stock engine calibration and, in the case of the Denali, after modifying the vehicle's stock engine calibration for improved cold-start and hot-start emission performance.
Journal Article

The Effects of Piston Crevices and Injection Strategy on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted SI Engines

The spark ignition (SI) engine has been known to exhibit several different abnormal combustion phenomena, such as knock or pre-ignition, which have been addressed with improved engine design or control schemes. However, in highly boosted SI engines, Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), a pre-ignition event typically followed by heavy knock, has developed into a topic of major interest due to its potential for engine damage. Previous experiments associated increases in hydrocarbon emissions with the blowdown event of an LSPI cycle [1]. Also, the same experiments showed that there was a dependency of the LSPI activity on fuel and/or lubricant compositions [1]. Based on these findings it was hypothesized that accumulated hydrocarbons play a role in LSPI and are consumed during LSPI events. A potential source for accumulated HC is the top land piston crevice.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Biodiesel Fuels on Transient Emissions from Modern Diesel Engines, Part II Unregulated Emissions and Chemical Characterization

The use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as a substitute for conventional petroleum fuel in diesel engines has received increased attention. This interest is based on a number of properties of biodiesel including the fact that it is produced from a renewable resource, its biodegradability, and its potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. As part of Tier 1 compliance requirements for EPA's Fuel Registration Program, a detailed chemical characterization of the transient exhaust emissions from three modern diesel engines was performed, both with and without an oxidation catalyst. This characterization included several forms of hydrocarbon speciation, as well as measurement of aldehydes, ketones, and alcohols. In addition, both particle-phase and semivolatile-phase PAH and nitro-PAH compounds were measured. Unregulated emissions were characterized with neat biodiesel and with a blend of biodiesel and conventional diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Spectrometric Analysis of Used Oils

This paper discusses the techniques and diagnostic significance of atomic absorption, atomic emission, and infrared spectrometric analysis of crankcase lubricants, with the use of supplementary data where pertinent. The parameters affecting used oil analytical data are discussed in terms of examples from Army general purpose vehicle test engines. Wear metals in used gear oils are also discussed and examples are given. Analytical methods and their applications are fully described, and the equipment and procedures for infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques are outlined.
Technical Paper

Snowmobile Engine Emissions and Their Impact

This paper describes a research program on exhaust emissions from snowmobile engines, including both emissions characterization and estimation of national emissions impact. Tests were conducted on three popular 2-stroke twins and on one rotary (Wankel) engine. Emissions that were measured included total hydrocarbons, (paraffinic) hydrocarbons by NDIR, CO, CO2, NO (by two methods), NOx, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulate, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and evaporative hydrocarbons were projected to be negligible for actual snowmobile operation. During emissions tests, intake air temperature was controlled to approximately -7°C (20°F), and room air at approximately 24°C (75°F) was used for engine cooling. Based on test results and the best snowmobile population and usage data available, impact of snowmobile emissions on a national scale was computed to be minimal.
Technical Paper

Small Engine Emissions and Their Impact

In an attempt to characterize emissions from small air-cooled utility engines, five gasoline-fueled models were operated over a variety of speeds and loads, and important exhaust constituents were measured. These emissions included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulates, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of the fuel consumed; evaporative losses of hydrocarbons were also estimated. The impact of small engine emissions was calculated on the basis of the test results and information on national engine populations and usage. From these data, it appears that the 50 million or more small engines currently being used account for only a small part of pollutants from all sources.
Technical Paper

Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds from a Combined Dual Port Injection/Direct-Injection Technology Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle

Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has changed the exhaust composition in comparison with the older port fuel injection (PFI) systems. More recently, light-duty vehicle engine manufactures have combined these two technologies to take advantage of the knock benefits and fuel economy of GDI with the low particulate emission of PFI. These dual injection strategy engines have made a change in the combustion emission composition produced by these engines. Understanding the impact of these changes is essential for automotive companies and aftertreatment developers. A novel sampling system was designed to sample the exhaust generated by a dual injection strategy gasoline vehicle using the United States Federal Test Procedure (FTP). This sampling system was capable of measuring the regulated emissions as well as collecting the entire exhaust from the vehicle for measuring unregulated emissions.
Technical Paper

Review of the Computer Science and Engineering Solutions for Model Sharing and Model Co-Simulation

The process of developing, parameterizing, validating, and maintaining models occurs within a wide variety of tools, and requires significant time and resources. To maximize model utilization, models are often shared between various toolsets and experts. One common example is sharing aircraft engine models with airframers. The functionality of a given model may be utilized and shared with a secondary model, or multiple models may run collaboratively through co-simulation. There are many technical challenges associated with model sharing and co-simulation. For example, data communication between models and tools must be accurate and reliable, and the model usage must be well-documented and perspicuous for a user. This requires clear communication and understanding between computer scientists and engineers. Most often, models are developed by engineers, whereas the tools used to share the models are developed by computer scientists.
Technical Paper

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends

Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent).
Technical Paper

Reduced Energy and Power Consumption for Electrically Heated Extruded Metal Converters

Improved designs of extruded metal electrically heated catalysts (EHC) in combination with a traditional converter achieved the California ultra-low emission vehicle (ULEV) standard utilizing 50% less electrical energy than previous prototypes. This energy reduction is largely achieved by reducing the mass of the EHC. In addition to energy reduction, the battery voltage is reduced from 24 volts to 12 volts, and the power is reduced from 12 kilowatts to 3 kilowatts. Also discussed is the impact EHC mass, EHC catalytic activity, and no EHC preheating has on non-methane hydrocarbon emissions, energy requirements, and power requirements.
Technical Paper

Reduced Cold-Start Emissions Using Rapid Exhaust Port Oxidation (REPO) in a Spark-Ignition Engine

An emissions reduction strategy was developed and demonstrated to significantly reduce cold-start hydrocarbon (HC) and CO emissions from a spark ignition (SI), gasoline-fueled engine. This strategy involved cold-starting the engine with an ultra-fuel rich calibration, while metering near-stoichiometric fractions of air directly into the exhaust ports. Using this approach, exhaust constituents spontaneously ignited at the exhaust ports and burned into the exhaust manifold and exhaust pipe leading to the catalytic converter. The resulting exotherm accelerated catalyst heating and significantly decreased light-off time following a cold-start on the FTP-75 with a Ford Escort equipped with a 1.9L engine. Mass emissions measurements acquired during the first 70 seconds of the FTP-75 revealed total-HC and CO reductions of 68 and 50 percent, respectively, when compared to baseline measurements.
Technical Paper

Reactivity and Exhaust Emissions from an EHC-Equipped LPG Conversion Vehicle Operating on Butane/Propane Fuel Blends

This paper describes experiments conducted to determine Federal Test Procedure (FTP) exhaust emissions, ozone-forming potentials, specific reactivities, and reactivity adjustment factors for several butane/propane alternative fuel blends run on a light-duty EHC-equipped gasoline vehicle converted to operate on liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). Duplicate emission tests were conducted on the light-duty vehicle at each test condition using appropriate EPA FTP test protocol. Hydrocarbon speciation was utilized to determine reactivity-adjusted non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emissions for one test on each fuel.
Technical Paper

Reactivity Comparison of Exhaust Emissions from Heavy-Duty Engines Operating on Gasoline, Diesel, and Alternative Fuels

This paper describes experiments conducted to determine the ozone-forming potentials, specific reactivities, and reactivity adjustment factors for various heavy-duty engines operating on “industry average” (RF-A) gasoline, California Phase 2 gasoline, compressed natural gas (CNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and diesel fuel. Each engine/fuel combination was tested in triplicate using the EPA heavy-duty transient cold- and hot-start test protocol. Hydrocarbon speciation was conducted for all tests to allow for the determination of ozone-forming potentials, using California Air Resources Board maximum incremental reactivity factors as well as determination of the Clean Air Act “toxic” emissions.
Technical Paper

Port Design for Charge Motion Improvement within the Cylinder

The engine intake process governs many aspects of the flow within the cylinder. The inlet valve is the minimum area, so gas velocities at the valve are the highest velocities seen. Geometric configuration of the inlet ports and valves, and the opening schedule create organized large scale motions in the cylinder known as swirl and tumble. Good charge motion within the cylinder will produce high turbulence levels at the end of the compression stroke. As the turbulence resulting from the conversion energy of the inlet jet decays fast, the strategy is to encapsulate some of the inlet jet in the organized motions. In this work the baseline port of a 2.0 L gasoline engine was modified by inserting a tumble plate. The work was done in support of an experimental study for which a new single-cylinder research engine was set up to allow combustion system parameters to be varied in steps over an extensive range. Tumble flow was one such parameter.