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Technical Paper

Water-Gas-Shift Catalyst Development and Optimization for a D-EGR® Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1968
Dedicated Exhaust Gas Recirculation (D-EGR®) technology provides a novel means for fuel efficiency improvement through efficient, on-board generation of H2 and CO reformate [1, 2]. In the simplest form of the D-EGR configuration, reformate is produced in-cylinder through rich combustion of the gasoline-air charge mixture. It is also possible to produce more H2 by means of a Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst, thereby resulting in further combustion improvements and overall fuel consumption reduction. In industrial applications, the WGS reaction has been used successfully for many years. Previous engine applications of this technology, however, have only proven successful to a limited degree. The motivation for this work was to develop and optimize a WGS catalyst which can be employed to a D-EGR configuration of an internal combustion engine. This study consists of two parts.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery from Gasoline Engine Exhaust for Water Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-0369
Water injection (WI) can improve gasoline engine performance and efficiency, and on-board water recovery technology could eliminate the need for customers to refill an on-board water reservoir. In this regard, the technical feasibility of exhaust water recovery (EWR) is described in this paper. Water injection testing was conducted at a full load condition (5000 rpm/18.1 bar BMEP) and a high load condition (3000 rpm/14.0 bar BMEP) on a turbocharged gasoline direction injection (GTDI) engine. Water recovery testing was conducted both after the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler and after the charge air cooler (CAC) at a high load (3000 rpm/14.0 bar BMEP), as well as a part load (2080 rpm/6.8 bar BMEP) condition, at temperatures ca. 10-15 °C below the dew point of the flow stream. Three types of water separation designs were tested: a passive cyclone separator (CS), a passive membrane separator (MEM), and an active separator (AS).
Journal Article

Visual, Thermodynamic, and Electrochemical Analysis of Condensate in a Stoichiometric Spark-Ignited EGR Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1406
The objectives of this project were to investigate the corrosivity of condensate in a stoichiometric spark-ignited (SI) engine when running exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and to determine the effects of sulfur-in-fuel on corrosion. A 2.0 L turbocharged direct-injected SI engine was operated with low-pressure EGR for this study. The engine was instrumented for visual, thermodynamic, and electrochemical analyses to determine the potential for corrosion at locations where condensation was deemed likely in a low-pressure loop EGR (LPL-EGR) engine. The electrochemical analysis was performed using multi-electrode array (MEA) corrosion probes. Condensate was also collected and analyzed. These analyses were performed downstream of both the charge air cooler (CAC) and the EGR cooler. It was found that while conditions existed for sulfuric acid to form with high-sulfur fuel, no sulfuric acid was detected by any of the measurement methods.
Technical Paper

Validation Method for Diesel Particulate Filter Durability

2007-10-29
2007-01-4086
The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a critical aftertreatment device for control of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a diesel engine. DPF survivability is challenged by several key factors such as: excessive thermal stress due to DPF runaway regenerations (or uncontrolled regeneration) may cause DPF substrate and washcoat failure. Catalyst poisoning elements from the diesel fuel and engine oil may cause performance degradation of the catalyzed DPF. Harsh vibration from the powertrain, as well as from the road surface, may lead to mechanical failure of the substrate and/or the matting material. Evaluations of these important validation parameters were performed.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emissions and High Efficiency from an On-Highway Natural Gas Engine

1998-05-04
981394
Results from work focusing on the development of an ultra low emissions, high efficiency, natural gas-fueled heavy- duty engine are discussed in this paper. The engine under development was based on a John Deere 8.1L engine; this engine was significantly modified from its production configuration during the course of an engine optimization program funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Previous steady-state testing indicated that the modified engine would provide simultaneous reductions in nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption while maintaining equivalent or lower NOx levels. Federal Test Procedure transient tests confirmed these expectations. Very low NOx emissions, averaging 1.0 g/bhp-hr over hot-start cycles, were attained; at these conditions, reductions in engine-out nonmethane hydro-carbons emissions (NMHC) were approximately 30 percent, and fuel consumption over the cycle was also reduced relative to the baseline.
Technical Paper

US 2010 Emissions Capable Camless Heavy-Duty On-Highway Natural Gas Engine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1930
The goal of this project was to demonstrate a low emissions, high efficiency heavy-duty on-highway natural gas engine. The emissions targets for this project are to demonstrate US 2010 emissions standards on the 13-mode steady state test. To meet this goal, a chemically correct combustion (stoichiometric) natural gas engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a three way catalyst (TWC) was developed. In addition, a Sturman Industries, Inc. camless Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system was used to improve efficiency. A Volvo 11 liter diesel engine was converted to operate as a stoichiometric natural gas engine. Operating a natural gas engine with stoichiometric combustion allows for the effective use of a TWC, which can simultaneously oxidize hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and reduce NOx. High conversion efficiencies are possible through proper control of air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Transient Control of a Dedicated EGR Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0616
Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has successfully demonstrated the cooled EGR concept via the High Efficiency Dilute Gasoline Engine (HEDGE) consortium. Dilution of intake charge provides three significant benefits - (1) Better Cycle Efficiency (2) Knock Resistance and (3) Lower NOx/PM Emissions. But EGR dilution also poses challenges in terms of combustion stability, condensation and power density. The Dedicated EGR (D-EGR) concept brings back some of the stability lost due to EGR dilution by introducing reformates such as CO and H2 into the intake charge. Control of air, EGR, fuel, and ignition remains a challenge to realizing the aforementioned benefits without sacrificing performance and drivability. This paper addresses the DEGR solution from a controls standpoint. SwRI has been developing a unified framework for controlling a generic combustion engine (gasoline, diesel, dual-fuel natural gas etc.).
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology to Measure Real-Time Wear in Engines and Other Mechanical Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1437
Radioactive tracer technology (RATT™) is an important tool for measuring real-time wear in operating engines and other mechanical systems. The use of this technology provides important wear information that is not available by other, more conventional wear measurement methods. The technology has advanced to the point where several components can be interrogated simultaneously, and new methods have extended the method to materials that are normally not amenable to radioactive tracer evaluation. In addition, sensitivity has increased so that the onset of wear can be detected long before practical with non-tracer methods. This improves the ability to measure and determine cause and effect relationships, thus providing a better understanding of wear responses to specific operating conditions and to changes in operating conditions. This paper reviews the radioactive tracer process and recent improvements that have extended its reach in both automotive and non-automotive applications.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 4: Fuel Consumption, Emissions, and Cost-Effectiveness of an Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Compared to Conventional Diesel Fuels

2005-04-11
2005-01-1724
The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an ultra-low-sulfur, low aromatic, high cetane number diesel fuel (TxLED, Texas Low Emission Diesel) in June 2003. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness to reduce emissions and influence fuel economy of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel used in both their on-road and off-road equipment. The study incorporated analyses for the fleet operated by the Association of General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Some members of AGC use 2D off-road diesel in their equipment. One off-road engine, two single-axle dump trucks, and two tandem-axle dump trucks were tested. The equipment tested included newer electronically-controlled diesels. The off-road engine was tested over the TxDOT Telescoping Boom Excavator Cycle. The dump trucks were tested using the “route” technique over the TxDOT Single-Axle Dump Truck Cycle or the TxDOT Tandem-Axle Dump Truck Cycle.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 2: Comparisons of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for a Fuel/Water Emulsion and Conventional Diesel Fuels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0087
The Texas Department of Transportation began using an emulsified diesel fuel in 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel and 2D off-road diesel. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsion, Lubrizol PuriNOx®, relative to conventional diesel fuels. Two engines and eight trucks, four single-axle dump trucks, and four tandem-axle dump trucks were tested. The equipment tested included both older mechanically-controlled diesels and newer electronically-controlled diesels. The two engines were tested over two different cycles that were developed specifically for this project. The dump trucks were tested using the “route” technique over one or the other of two chassis dynamometer cycles that were developed for this project In addition to fuel efficiency, emissions of NOx, PM, CO, and HCs were measured. Additionally, second-by-second results were obtained for NOx and HCs.
Journal Article

The Role of EGR in PM Emissions from Gasoline Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0353
A dilute spark-ignited engine concept has been developed as a potential low cost competitor to diesel engines by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), with a goal of diesel-like efficiency and torque for light- and medium-duty applications and low-cost aftertreatment. The targeted aftertreatment method is a traditional three-way catalyst, which offers both an efficiency and cost advantage over typical diesel aftertreatment systems. High levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) have been realized using advanced ignition systems and improved combustion, with significant improvements in emissions, efficiency, and torque resulting from using high levels of EGR. The primary motivation for this work was to understand the impact high levels of EGR would have on particulate matter (PM) formation in a port fuel injected (PFI) engine. While there are no proposed regulations for PFI engine PM levels, the potential exists for future regulations, both on a size and mass basis.
Technical Paper

The Potential for Achieving Low Hydrocarbon and NOx Exhaust Emissions from Large Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1261
Two large, heavy light-duty gasoline vehicles (2004 model year Ford F-150 with a 5.4 liter V8 and GMC Yukon Denali with a 6.0 liter V8) were baselined for emission performance over the FTP driving cycle in their stock configurations. Advanced emission systems were designed for both vehicles employing advanced three-way catalysts, high cell density ceramic substrates, and advanced exhaust system components. These advanced emission systems were integrated on the test vehicles and characterized for low mileage emission performance on the FTP cycle using the vehicle's stock engine calibration and, in the case of the Denali, after modifying the vehicle's stock engine calibration for improved cold-start and hot-start emission performance.
Technical Paper

The New BAIC High Efficiency Turbocharged Engine with LPL-EGR

2017-10-08
2017-01-2414
The new Beijing Automotive Industry Corporation (BAIC) engine, an evolution of the 2.3L 4-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine from Saab, was designed, built, and tested with close collaboration between BAIC Motor Powertrain Co., Ltd. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI®). The upgraded engine was intended to achieve low fuel consumption and a good balance of high performance and compliance with Euro 6 emissions regulations. Low fuel consumption was achieved primarily through utilizing cooled low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL-EGR) and dual independent cam phasers. Cooled LPL-EGR helped suppress engine knock and consequently allowed for increased compression ratio and improved thermal efficiency of the new engine. Dual independent cam phasers reduced engine pumping losses and helped increase low-speed torque. Additionally, the intake and exhaust systems were improved along with optimization of the combustion chamber design.
Journal Article

The Interaction of Fuel Anti-Knock Index and Cooled EGR on Engine Performance and Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-1149
Experiments were performed on a 2.4L boosted, MPI gasoline engine, equipped with a low-pressure loop (LPL) cooled EGR system and an advanced ignition system, using fuels with varying anti-knock indices. The fuels were blends of 87, 93 and 105 Anti-Knock Index (AKI) gasoline. Ignition timing and EGR sweeps were performed at various loads to determine the tradeoff between EGR level and fuel octane rating. The resulting engine data was analyzed to establish the relationship between the octane requirement and the level of cooled EGR used in a given application. In addition, the combustion difference between fuels was examined to determine the effect that fuel reactivity, in the form of anti-knock index (AKI), has on EGR tolerance and burn rate. The results indicate that the improvement in effective AKI of the fuel from using EGR is constant across commercial grade gasolines at about 0.5 ON per % EGR.
Journal Article

The Interaction between Fuel Anti-Knock Index and Reformation Ratio in an Engine Equipped with Dedicated EGR

2016-04-05
2016-01-0712
Experiments were performed on a small displacement (< 2 L), high compression ratio, 4 cylinder, port injected gasoline engine equipped with Dedicated EGR® (D-EGR®) technology using fuels with varying anti-knock properties. Gasolines with anti-knock indices of 84, 89 and 93 anti-knock index (AKI) were tested. The engine was operated at a constant nominal EGR rate of ∼25% while varying the reformation ratio in the dedicated cylinder from a ϕD-EGR = 1.0 - 1.4. Testing was conducted at selected engine speeds and constant torque while operating at knock limited spark advance on the three fuels. The change in combustion phasing as a function of the level of overfuelling in the dedicated cylinder was documented for all three fuels to determine the tradeoff between the reformation ratio required to achieve a certain knock resistance and the fuel octane rating.
Journal Article

The Impact of Cooled EGR on Peak Cylinder Pressure in a Turbocharged, Spark Ignited Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0744
The use of cooled EGR as a knock suppression tool is gaining more acceptance worldwide. As cooled EGR become more prevalent, some challenges are presented for engine designers. In this study, the impact of cooled EGR on peak cylinder pressure was evaluated. A 1.6 L, 4-cylinder engine was operated with and without cooled EGR at several operating conditions. The impact of adding cooled EGR to the engine on peak cylinder pressure was then evaluated with an attempt to separate the effect due to advanced combustion phasing from the effect of increased manifold pressure. The results show that cooled EGR's impact on peak cylinder pressure is primarily due to the knock suppression effect, with the result that an EGR rate of 25% leads to an almost 50% increase in peak cylinder pressure at a mid-load condition if the combustion phasing is advanced to Knock Limited Spark Advance (KLSA). When combustion phasing was held constant, increasing the EGR rate had almost no effect on PCP.
Technical Paper

The Heavy Duty Gasoline Engine - A Multi-Cylinder Study of a High Efficiency, Low Emission Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-1135
SwRI has developed a new technology concept involving the use of high EGR rates coupled with a high-energy ignition system in a gasoline engine to improve fuel economy and emissions. Based on a single-cylinder study [1], this study extends the concept of a high compression ratio gasoline engine with EGR rates > 30% and a high-energy ignition system to a multi-cylinder engine. A 2000 MY Isuzu Duramax 6.6 L 8-cylinder engine was converted to run on gasoline with a diesel pilot ignition system. The engine was run at two compression ratios, 17.5:1 and 12.5:1 and with two different EGR systems - a low-pressure loop and a high pressure loop. A high cetane number (CN) diesel fuel (CN=76) was used as the ignition source and two different octane number (ON) gasolines were investigated - a pump grade 91 ON ((R+M)/2) and a 103 ON ((R+M)/2) racing fuel.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Fuel Properties on Emissions from a 2.5gm NOx Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

1998-10-19
982491
The engine selected for this work was a Caterpillar 3176 engine. Engine exhaust emissions, performance, and heat release rates were measured as functions of engine configuration, engine speed and load. Two engine configurations were used, a standard 1994 design and a 1994 configuration with EGR designed to achieve a NOx emissions level of 2.5 gm/hp-hr. Measurements were performed at 7 different steady-state, speed-load conditions on thirteen different test fuels. The fuel matrix was statistically designed to independently examine the effects of the targeted fuel properties. Cetane number was varied from 40 to 55, using both natural cetane number and cetane percent improver additives. Aromatic content ranged from 10 to 30 percent in two different forms, one in which the aromatics were predominantly mono-aromatic species and the other, where a significant fraction of the aromatics were either di- or tri-aromatics.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Hydrogen Enrichment on EGR Tolerance in Spark Ignited Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0475
Small (up to 1% by volume) amounts of hydrogen (H2) were added to the intake charge of a single-cylinder, stoichiometric spark ignited engine to determine the effect of H2 addition on EGR tolerance. Two types of tests were performed at 1500 rpm, two loads (3.1 bar and 5.5 bar IMEP), two compression ratios (11:1 and 14:1) and with two fuels (gasoline and natural gas). The first test involved holding EGR level constant and increasing the H2 concentration. The EGR level of the engine was increased until the CoV of IMEP was > 5% and then small amounts of hydrogen were added until the total was 1% by volume. The effect of increasing the amount of H2 on engine stability was measured along with combustion parameters and engine emissions. The results showed that only a very small amount of H2 was necessary to stabilize the engine. At amounts past that level, increasing the level of H2 had no or only a very small effect.
Journal Article

The Effect of EGR on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Boosted SI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0339
The spark ignition (SI) engine has been known to exhibit several different abnormal combustion phenomena, such as knock or pre-ignition, which have been addressed with improved engine design or control schemes. However, in highly boosted SI engines - where the engine displacement is reduced and turbocharging is employed to increase specific power - a new combustion phenomenon, described as Low-Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI), has been exhibited. LSPI is characterized as a pre-ignition event typically followed by heavy knock, which has the potential to cause degradation of the engine. However, because LSPI events occur only sporadically and in an uncontrolled fashion, it is difficult to identify the causes for this phenomenon and to develop solutions to suppress it. Some countermeasures exist that OEMs can use to avoid LSPI, such as load limiting, but these have drawbacks.
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