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Technical Paper

Water-Gas-Shift Catalyst Development and Optimization for a D-EGR® Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1968
Dedicated Exhaust Gas Recirculation (D-EGR®) technology provides a novel means for fuel efficiency improvement through efficient, on-board generation of H2 and CO reformate [1, 2]. In the simplest form of the D-EGR configuration, reformate is produced in-cylinder through rich combustion of the gasoline-air charge mixture. It is also possible to produce more H2 by means of a Water Gas Shift (WGS) catalyst, thereby resulting in further combustion improvements and overall fuel consumption reduction. In industrial applications, the WGS reaction has been used successfully for many years. Previous engine applications of this technology, however, have only proven successful to a limited degree. The motivation for this work was to develop and optimize a WGS catalyst which can be employed to a D-EGR configuration of an internal combustion engine. This study consists of two parts.
Technical Paper

Water Recovery from Gasoline Engine Exhaust for Water Injection

2018-04-03
2018-01-0369
Water injection (WI) can improve gasoline engine performance and efficiency, and on-board water recovery technology could eliminate the need for customers to refill an on-board water reservoir. In this regard, the technical feasibility of exhaust water recovery (EWR) is described in this paper. Water injection testing was conducted at a full load condition (5000 rpm/18.1 bar BMEP) and a high load condition (3000 rpm/14.0 bar BMEP) on a turbocharged gasoline direction injection (GTDI) engine. Water recovery testing was conducted both after the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) cooler and after the charge air cooler (CAC) at a high load (3000 rpm/14.0 bar BMEP), as well as a part load (2080 rpm/6.8 bar BMEP) condition, at temperatures ca. 10-15 °C below the dew point of the flow stream. Three types of water separation designs were tested: a passive cyclone separator (CS), a passive membrane separator (MEM), and an active separator (AS).
Technical Paper

Validation Method for Diesel Particulate Filter Durability

2007-10-29
2007-01-4086
The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a critical aftertreatment device for control of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a diesel engine. DPF survivability is challenged by several key factors such as: excessive thermal stress due to DPF runaway regenerations (or uncontrolled regeneration) may cause DPF substrate and washcoat failure. Catalyst poisoning elements from the diesel fuel and engine oil may cause performance degradation of the catalyzed DPF. Harsh vibration from the powertrain, as well as from the road surface, may lead to mechanical failure of the substrate and/or the matting material. Evaluations of these important validation parameters were performed.
Technical Paper

Using Advanced Emission Control Systems to Demonstrate LEV II ULEV on Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

1999-03-01
1999-01-0774
A program to demonstrate the performance of advanced emission control systems in light of the California LEV II light-duty vehicle standards and the EPA's consideration of Tier II emission standards was conducted. Two passenger cars and one light-duty pick-up truck were selected for testing, modification, and emission system performance tuning. All vehicles were 1997 Federal Tier I compliant. The advanced emission control technologies evaluated in this program included advanced three-way catalysts, high cell density substrates, and advanced thermally insulated exhaust components. Using these engine-aged advanced emission control technologies and modified stock engine control strategies (control modifications were made using an ERIC computer intercept/control system), each of the three test vehicles demonstrated FTP emission levels below the proposed California LEV II 193,000 km (120,000 mile) ULEV levels.
Technical Paper

Ultra Low Emissions and High Efficiency from an On-Highway Natural Gas Engine

1998-05-04
981394
Results from work focusing on the development of an ultra low emissions, high efficiency, natural gas-fueled heavy- duty engine are discussed in this paper. The engine under development was based on a John Deere 8.1L engine; this engine was significantly modified from its production configuration during the course of an engine optimization program funded by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Previous steady-state testing indicated that the modified engine would provide simultaneous reductions in nonmethane hydrocarbon emissions and fuel consumption while maintaining equivalent or lower NOx levels. Federal Test Procedure transient tests confirmed these expectations. Very low NOx emissions, averaging 1.0 g/bhp-hr over hot-start cycles, were attained; at these conditions, reductions in engine-out nonmethane hydro-carbons emissions (NMHC) were approximately 30 percent, and fuel consumption over the cycle was also reduced relative to the baseline.
Technical Paper

US 2010 Emissions Capable Camless Heavy-Duty On-Highway Natural Gas Engine

2007-07-23
2007-01-1930
The goal of this project was to demonstrate a low emissions, high efficiency heavy-duty on-highway natural gas engine. The emissions targets for this project are to demonstrate US 2010 emissions standards on the 13-mode steady state test. To meet this goal, a chemically correct combustion (stoichiometric) natural gas engine with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and a three way catalyst (TWC) was developed. In addition, a Sturman Industries, Inc. camless Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system was used to improve efficiency. A Volvo 11 liter diesel engine was converted to operate as a stoichiometric natural gas engine. Operating a natural gas engine with stoichiometric combustion allows for the effective use of a TWC, which can simultaneously oxidize hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide and reduce NOx. High conversion efficiencies are possible through proper control of air-fuel ratio.
Technical Paper

Three-Way Catalyst Technology for Off-Road Equipment Engines

1999-09-28
1999-01-3283
A project was conducted by Southwest Research Institute on behalf of the California Air Resources Board and the South Coast Air Quality Management District to demonstrate the technical feasibility of utilizing closed-loop three-way catalyst technology in off-road equipment applications. Five representative engines were selected, and baseline emission-tested using both gasoline and LPG. Emission reduction systems, employing three-way catalyst technology with electronic fuel control, were designed and installed on two of the engines. The engines were then installed in a fork lift and a pump system, and limited durability testing was performed. Results showed that low emission levels, easily meeting CARB's newly adopted large spark-ignited engine emission standards, could be achieved.
Technical Paper

The Winch-Dozer - A Tool for Area Mine Spoil Leveling

1977-02-01
770550
A new approach to reclaiming the spoil areas produced by area-type mining operations has been developed. This system uses a machine known as a winch-dozer, consisting of a pair of large back-to-back buckets which are drawn by cable across spoil piles, moving back and forth between a “tailblock” anchor and a “drawworks” winch unit developed as an attachment to a large crawler tractor. The system is expected to reduce the cost of reclamation leveling by 40-50%. The system permits more effective power utilization due to the blade system's light weight, induces caving of spoil banks, and permits moving spoil in both directions of blade travel.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology to Measure Real-Time Wear in Engines and Other Mechanical Systems

2007-04-16
2007-01-1437
Radioactive tracer technology (RATT™) is an important tool for measuring real-time wear in operating engines and other mechanical systems. The use of this technology provides important wear information that is not available by other, more conventional wear measurement methods. The technology has advanced to the point where several components can be interrogated simultaneously, and new methods have extended the method to materials that are normally not amenable to radioactive tracer evaluation. In addition, sensitivity has increased so that the onset of wear can be detected long before practical with non-tracer methods. This improves the ability to measure and determine cause and effect relationships, thus providing a better understanding of wear responses to specific operating conditions and to changes in operating conditions. This paper reviews the radioactive tracer process and recent improvements that have extended its reach in both automotive and non-automotive applications.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology to Evaluate Engine Wear Under the Influences of Advanced Combustion System Operation and Lubricant Performance

2005-10-24
2005-01-3689
Radioactive tracer technology is an important tool for measuring component wear on a real-time basis and is especially useful in measuring engine wear as it is affected by combustion system operation and lubricant performance. Combustion system operation including the use of early and/or late fuel injection and EGR for emissions control can have a profound effect on aftertreatment contamination and engine reliability due to wear. Liner wear caused by localized fuel impingement can lead to excessive oil consumption and fuel dilution can cause excessive wear of rings and bearings. To facilitate typical wear measurement, the engine's compression rings and connecting rod bearings are initially exposed to thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor to produce artificial radioisotopes that are separately characteristic of the ring and bearing wear surfaces.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology in Studying Lubricant Chemistry to Enhance Bearing and Ring Wear Control in an Operating Engine

1994-10-01
941982
Radioactive tracer technology (RAT) is an important tool in measuring component wear in an operating engine on a real-time basis. This paper will discuss the use of RAT to study and evaluate boundary lubricant and surfactant chemistries aimed at providing benefits in wear control. In particular, RAT was employed to study ring and bearing wear as a function of engine operating condition (speed, load, and temperature) and lubricant characteristics. Prior to testing, the engine's compression rings and connecting rod bearings were subjected to bulk thermal neutron bombardment in a nuclear reactor to produce artificial radioisotopes that were separately characteristic of the ring and bearing wear surfaces. The irradiated parts were installed in the test engine, after which testing to a specific test matrix was accomplished.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 4: Fuel Consumption, Emissions, and Cost-Effectiveness of an Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel Fuel Compared to Conventional Diesel Fuels

2005-04-11
2005-01-1724
The Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT) began using an ultra-low-sulfur, low aromatic, high cetane number diesel fuel (TxLED, Texas Low Emission Diesel) in June 2003. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness to reduce emissions and influence fuel economy of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel used in both their on-road and off-road equipment. The study incorporated analyses for the fleet operated by the Association of General Contractors (AGC) in the Houston area. Some members of AGC use 2D off-road diesel in their equipment. One off-road engine, two single-axle dump trucks, and two tandem-axle dump trucks were tested. The equipment tested included newer electronically-controlled diesels. The off-road engine was tested over the TxDOT Telescoping Boom Excavator Cycle. The dump trucks were tested using the “route” technique over the TxDOT Single-Axle Dump Truck Cycle or the TxDOT Tandem-Axle Dump Truck Cycle.
Technical Paper

The Texas Diesel Fuels Project, Part 2: Comparisons of Fuel Consumption and Emissions for a Fuel/Water Emulsion and Conventional Diesel Fuels

2004-03-08
2004-01-0087
The Texas Department of Transportation began using an emulsified diesel fuel in 2002. They initiated a simultaneous study of the effectiveness of this fuel in comparison to 2D on-road diesel fuel and 2D off-road diesel. The study included comparisons of fuel economy and emissions for the emulsion, Lubrizol PuriNOx®, relative to conventional diesel fuels. Two engines and eight trucks, four single-axle dump trucks, and four tandem-axle dump trucks were tested. The equipment tested included both older mechanically-controlled diesels and newer electronically-controlled diesels. The two engines were tested over two different cycles that were developed specifically for this project. The dump trucks were tested using the “route” technique over one or the other of two chassis dynamometer cycles that were developed for this project In addition to fuel efficiency, emissions of NOx, PM, CO, and HCs were measured. Additionally, second-by-second results were obtained for NOx and HCs.
Journal Article

The Role of EGR in PM Emissions from Gasoline Engines

2010-04-12
2010-01-0353
A dilute spark-ignited engine concept has been developed as a potential low cost competitor to diesel engines by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), with a goal of diesel-like efficiency and torque for light- and medium-duty applications and low-cost aftertreatment. The targeted aftertreatment method is a traditional three-way catalyst, which offers both an efficiency and cost advantage over typical diesel aftertreatment systems. High levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) have been realized using advanced ignition systems and improved combustion, with significant improvements in emissions, efficiency, and torque resulting from using high levels of EGR. The primary motivation for this work was to understand the impact high levels of EGR would have on particulate matter (PM) formation in a port fuel injected (PFI) engine. While there are no proposed regulations for PFI engine PM levels, the potential exists for future regulations, both on a size and mass basis.
Technical Paper

The Potential for Achieving Low Hydrocarbon and NOx Exhaust Emissions from Large Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

2007-04-16
2007-01-1261
Two large, heavy light-duty gasoline vehicles (2004 model year Ford F-150 with a 5.4 liter V8 and GMC Yukon Denali with a 6.0 liter V8) were baselined for emission performance over the FTP driving cycle in their stock configurations. Advanced emission systems were designed for both vehicles employing advanced three-way catalysts, high cell density ceramic substrates, and advanced exhaust system components. These advanced emission systems were integrated on the test vehicles and characterized for low mileage emission performance on the FTP cycle using the vehicle's stock engine calibration and, in the case of the Denali, after modifying the vehicle's stock engine calibration for improved cold-start and hot-start emission performance.
Technical Paper

The New BAIC High Efficiency Turbocharged Engine with LPL-EGR

2017-10-08
2017-01-2414
The new Beijing Automotive Industry Corporation (BAIC) engine, an evolution of the 2.3L 4-cylinder turbocharged gasoline engine from Saab, was designed, built, and tested with close collaboration between BAIC Motor Powertrain Co., Ltd. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI®). The upgraded engine was intended to achieve low fuel consumption and a good balance of high performance and compliance with Euro 6 emissions regulations. Low fuel consumption was achieved primarily through utilizing cooled low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation (LPL-EGR) and dual independent cam phasers. Cooled LPL-EGR helped suppress engine knock and consequently allowed for increased compression ratio and improved thermal efficiency of the new engine. Dual independent cam phasers reduced engine pumping losses and helped increase low-speed torque. Additionally, the intake and exhaust systems were improved along with optimization of the combustion chamber design.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Engine Operating Conditions on Reformate Production in a D-EGR Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0684
Dedicated EGR has shown promise for achieving high efficiency with low emissions [1]. For the present study, a 4-cylinder turbocharged GDI engine which was modified to a D-EGR configuration was used to investigate the impact of valve phasing and different injection strategies on the reformate production in the dedicated cylinder. Various levels of positive valve overlap were used in conjunction with different approaches for dedicated cylinder over fueling using PFI and DI fuel systems. Three speed-load combinations were studied, 2000 rpm 4 bar IMEPg, 2000 rpm 12 bar IMEPg, and 4000 rpm 12 bar IMEPg. The primary investigation was conducted to map out the dedicated cylinders' performance at the operating limits of intake and exhaust cam phasing. In this case, the limits were defined as conditions that yielded either no reformate benefit or led to instability in the dedicated cylinder.
Technical Paper

The Heavy-Duty Gasoline Engine - An Alternative to Meet Emissions Standards of Tomorrow

2004-03-08
2004-01-0984
A technology path has been identified for development of a high efficiency, durable, gasoline engine, targeted at achieving performance and emissions levels necessary to meet heavy-duty, on-road standards of the foreseeable future. Initial experimental and numerical results for the proposed technology concept are presented. This work summarizes internal research efforts conducted at Southwest Research Institute. An alternative combustion system has been numerically and experimentally examined. The engine utilizes gasoline as the fuel, with a combination of enabling technologies to provide high efficiency operation at ultra-low emissions levels. The concept is based upon very highly-dilute combustion of gasoline at high compression ratio and boost levels. Results from the experimental program have demonstrated engine-out NOx emissions of 0.06 g/hp/hr, at single-cylinder brake thermal efficiencies (BTE) above thirty-four percent.
Technical Paper

The Heavy Duty Gasoline Engine - A Multi-Cylinder Study of a High Efficiency, Low Emission Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-1135
SwRI has developed a new technology concept involving the use of high EGR rates coupled with a high-energy ignition system in a gasoline engine to improve fuel economy and emissions. Based on a single-cylinder study [1], this study extends the concept of a high compression ratio gasoline engine with EGR rates > 30% and a high-energy ignition system to a multi-cylinder engine. A 2000 MY Isuzu Duramax 6.6 L 8-cylinder engine was converted to run on gasoline with a diesel pilot ignition system. The engine was run at two compression ratios, 17.5:1 and 12.5:1 and with two different EGR systems - a low-pressure loop and a high pressure loop. A high cetane number (CN) diesel fuel (CN=76) was used as the ignition source and two different octane number (ON) gasolines were investigated - a pump grade 91 ON ((R+M)/2) and a 103 ON ((R+M)/2) racing fuel.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Biodiesel Fuels on Transient Emissions from Modern Diesel Engines, Part I Regulated Emissions and Performance

2000-06-19
2000-01-1967
The use of biodiesel fuels derived from vegetable oils or animal fats as a substitute for conventional petroleum fuel in diesel engines has received increased attention. This interest is based on a number of properties of biodiesel including the fact that it is produced from a renewable resource, its biodegradability, and its potential beneficial effects on exhaust emissions. Transient exhaust emissions from three modern diesel engines were measured during this study, both with and without an oxidation catalyst. Emissions were characterized with neat biodiesel and with a blend of biodiesel and conventional diesel fuel. Regulated emissions and performance data are presented in this paper, while the results of a detailed chemical characterization of exhaust emissions are presented in a companion paper. The use of biodiesel resulted in lower emissions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter, with some increase in emissions of oxides of nitrogen on some engines.
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