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Technical Paper

The Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Ethanol on a Port Fuel Injection HCCI Engine

With the application of valve timing strategy to inlet and exhaust valves, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion was achieved by varying the amount of trapped residuals through negative valve overlap on a Ricardo Hydra four-stroke port fuel injection engine fueled with ethanol. The effect of ethanol on HCCI combustion and emission characteristics at different air-fuel ratios, speeds and valve timings was investigated. The results indicate that HCCI ethanol combustion can be achieved through changing inlet and exhaust valve timings. HCCI ethanol combustion range can be expanded to high speeds and lean burn mixture. Meanwhile, the factors influencing ignition timing and combustion duration are valve timing, lambda and speeds. Moreover, NOx emissions are extremely low under HCCI combustion. The emissions-speed and emissions-lambda relationships are obtained and analyzed.
Technical Paper

Study of SI-HCCI-SI Transition on a Port Fuel Injection Engine Equipped with 4VVAS

A strategy to actualize the dual-mode (SI mode and HCCI mode) operation of gasoline engine was investigated. The 4VVAS (4 variable valve actuating system), capable of independently controlling the intake and exhaust valve lifts and timings, was incorporated into a specially designed cylinder head for a single cylinder research engine and a 4VVAS-HCCI gasoline engine test bench was established. The experimental research was carried out to study the dynamic control strategies for transitions between HCCI and SI modes on the HCCI operating boundaries. Results show that equipped with the 4VVAS cylinder head, the engine can be operated in HCCI or SI mode to meet the demands of different operating conditions. 4VVAS enables the rapid and effective control over the in-cylinder residual gas, and therefore dynamic transitions between HCCI and SI can be stably achieved. It is easier to achieve transition from HCCI to SI than reversely due to the influence of thermo-inertia.
Technical Paper

Control Strategies for Steady and Transient Operation of a 4-Stroke Gasoline Engine with CAI Combustion Using a 4-Variable Valve Actuating System (4VVAS)

In the last few years, residual gas trapping has been widely used to achieve CAI combustion operation in the four-stroke gasoline engine by means of the negative valve overlap period. In this paper, a flexible mechanical variable valve actuation system based on the production technologies is described. The 4VVAS system is capable of independent control of intake valve lift and its timing, exhaust valve lift and its timing and it has been incorporated in a specially designed cylinder head for a single cylinder research engine. In addition, an engine simulation program has been developed to investigate the potential of the 4VVAS system for CAI engine operation and the switch between CAI and SI operations on the same engine. The engine simulation program is written with Matlab Simulink and incorporates an engine block, a newly developed CAI ignition and heat release model, a valve profile generator, and an engine control module for spark ignition and fuelling control.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on HCCI Combustion in a Four-Stroke Gasoline Engine with Reduced Valve Lift Operations

To achieve homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion in the range of low speeds and loads, special camshafts with low intake/exhaust cam lift and short intake/exhaust cam duration were designed. The camshafts were mounted in a Ricardo Hydra four-stroke single cylinder port fuel injection gasoline engine. HCCI combustion was achieved by controlling the amount of trapped residuals from previous cycle through negative valve overlap. The results show that indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) depends on valve timings, engine speeds and lambda. Early exhaust valve closing (EVC) timings result in high residual fractions in the cylinder and low air mass sucked into the cylinder. As a result, combustion duration increases, IMEP and peak pressure decrease. However, pumping losses decrease. High engine speed has the similar effect on HCCI combustion characteristics as early EVC timings do. But inlet valve opening timings have slight effect on IMEP compared to EVC timings.