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Technical Paper

The Development of Vibration Damping Steel Sheets for Inner Panels of Automotive Vehicles

Vibration damping steel sheets (VDSS), which have sandwich structures with intermediate layers of resin, have been studied. The most important characteristics of VDSS for inner panels of automotive vehicles are the vibration damping properties, press formability and spot weldability. Vibration damping properties, which are quantified by loss factor,η, were influenced by both tanδ, which indicates damping capacity of resins, and elastic modulus of core resin. From a view point of vibration damping properties, resins with larger tanδ and relatively lower elastic modulus were favorable. Because these mechanical characteristics vary considerably with temperature, it is important to select the most suitable resin for the service temperature range. The relationship between noise reduction effect and loss factor of VDSS were also studied. It was experimentally confirmed that noise reduction effect of VDSS is proportional to the logarithm of their loss factor.
Technical Paper

The Corrosion Resistance of Organic Composite-Coated Steel Sheets

In order to investigate the corrosion resistance of organic composite-coated steel sheets ( OCS ) in a real automotive environment, many kinds of corrosion tests were performed on test pieces and real automotive doors. Tests with a corrosive solution including iron rust were introduced to simulate the real corrosive environment of automotive doors. The relationship between the components of OCS and the corrosion resistance in the rust-including tests was examined. In addition, electrochemical studies were performed. Results indicate OCS has much better corrosion resistance than plated steel sheets with heavier coating weight in all tests. OCS shows excellent corrosion resistance in rust-free corrosive solution, however, some types of OCS do have corrosion concerns in rust-including tests. It became clear that these OCS types have an organic coating with lower cross-linking.
Technical Paper

Residual Stress in the Induction Hardened Surface of Steel, 1969

The residual stresses produced by static and progressive induction hardening processes were investigated using different diameter bars and different heating conditions. The x-ray diffraction method of stress measurement was used. Compressive stresses were observed at and slightly below the surface in the hardened zone, while lower compressive stresses or tensile stresses were seen at the ends of this zone. These stresses depended on the shapes and sizes of the heated zone and the cooling patterns. Shot peening was seen to convert the tensile stress to a compressive value.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Strength of Spot-Welded Joints by Measurements of Local Mechanical Properties

Tensile testing technique for the small sample was newly developed. Small tensile specimens with gage length of 1mm were taken from spot welds of high tensile strength steel sheets, and stress-strain relationships and ductility of base metal, heat affected zone including corona bond and nugget were individually measured. Finite element analyses of spot-welded joints under the conditions of static and dynamic tensile-shear loading were carried out with these local mechanical properties to predict the fracture mode and strength of the joints. It was clarified that the effects of both nugget diameter and class of steels were evaluated with good accuracy.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Ni-Zn Alloy Plated Steel Sheet “SZ” and Its Application to Automotive Usages

Recently, it has become more important to improve the corrosion resistance of automotive body panels, and the amount of coated steel sheets has been increasing for this application. Several types of coated steel sheet, such as Zincrometal, hot-dip galvanized steel sheets, galvannealed steel sheets and electrogalvanized steel sheets are widely available. Sumitomo Metal Industries have studied new coated steel sheets for automotive body panels, and have succeeded in the development of the new NiZn alloy plated product “SZ”, the deposit of which includes about 13% nickel. This paper discusses the plating conditions, production process, properties and performance of SZ.
Technical Paper

Newly Developed Hot Rolled High Strength Steel Sheets and Their Formability

A wider usage of hot rolled high strength steels (HRHSSs) are intensively studied for more complicated underbody structural parts of cars now. With an emphasis placed on the improvement of sheared-edge flangeability, we have developed new types of HRHSSs ranging from 440N/mm2 to 690N/mm2 in ultimate tensile strength (UTS). The microstructure and chemistry of these steels were controlled: The hard second phase in the polygonal ferrite matrix was controlled both by adjusting the chemical composition, mainly, silicon-content, and by applying thermomechanical treatment to a hot strip mill. Compared to conventional high strength steels such as a high-carbon, low-silicon steel and a niobium-bearing steel, various formability-performances of the developed steels were found to be good.
Technical Paper

New Type of Hardenable Hot-Rolled High-Strength Steels

Two types of TS 450 to 600 MPa grade hot rolled high strength steels have been developed whose strength increases by a post-deformation heat treatment. One is a nitrogen added steel, produced by a low temperature coiling method. This steel shows an increase in tensile strength by about 60 to 90 MPa after a conventional baking treatment. The other is a Cu-bearing steel, produced also by a low temperature coiling method. This steel shows much larger increase in tensile strength by about 200 MPa due to the precipitation hardening of copper, but it requires an additional heat treatment at a relatively high temperature such as 600° C.
Technical Paper

New Frictional Testing Method for Stamping Formability - Development of Dr. STAMP (Direct & Rapid, Surface Tribology Analyzing Method for Press) Method -

Galvannealed steel sheet (GA) is very extensively used for vehicle panels. However ζ-phase (FeZn13) in GA coat causes poor stamping formability. Previously, there were no easy methods to evaluate the influence of ζ-phase on the frictional characteristics other than the X-ray diffraction method. This study will discuss the development of a new testing method: Dr. STAMP Method that is both efficient and convenient with pin-on-disc tester.
Technical Paper

Nd:YAG Laser Welding of Zinc-coated Steel Sheet

This paper describes the lap welding of Zinc-coated steel sheet using a high power continuous wave YAG laser. The well-known problem of welding the Zinc-coated sheet is related to the low boiling point of zinc compared with the melting point of steel. During lap welding, zinc coating at the interface vaporize rapidly and causes defects1)2). In this study, therefore, lap welding was performed by YAG laser. The effects of type of coating layer, welding conditions, tensile strength and corrosion resistance after electro-deposition was examined. It was found that the weldability of coated steel is different by type of coating. Zn-Ni coated steel showed good weldability, but galvanealed steel inevitably pore pits with no gap set up. These defects not only lower the strength of joint, but also produce irregular bead where easily corroded after electro-deposition.
Technical Paper

Frictional Behavior of New Polymer Lubricating Film for Coated Steel Sheets

Recently, many kinds of coated steel sheets are developed and used for automobile panels. Some of them show higher coefficient of friction and poorer formability than a cold rolled steel sheet. New polymer lubricating films are developed and proved to improve frictional characteristics of coated steel sheets in this study. The developed polymer lubricating films are applied to Electro Galvanized steel sheet and Hot Dip Galvannealed steel sheet, and coefficient of friction and formability of them are measured by using model dies. Different coefficients of friction are obtained by a change in a combination of components in a polymer lubricating film. As a result, the most suitable coefficient of friction is able to chose in forming conditions by the developed polymer lubricating films.
Technical Paper

Formable Ferrite - Degenerated Pearlite Steel (FDP-55) for Automotive Use

In order to help the gauge reduction of wheels and chassis parts of automobiles, a form-able and weldable hot rolled steel of 550 MPa grade, named FDP-55, has been developed. FDP-55 is an 0.14% C, 0.1% Si, 1.1% Mn and Nb free A1-killed steel obtained by controlled-cooling to a low coiling temperature on a runout table, and it is featured by ferrite-degenerated pearlite microstructure. Results of co-operative works with automotive makers showed that FDP-55 was successful in the application to wheels and chassis parts attaining the large weight reduction. This paper reports the metallurgical features and characteristics of the steel.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 450 N/mm2 Grade Ultra-Low Carbon Sheet Steel for Automotive Panels

For the automotive exposed panels, several types of 350N/mm2 grade bake-hardenable sheet steel have been developed and actually applied. However for further weight reduction of automotive body panels, especially inner panels, a 450N/mm2 grade sheet steel with excellent formability has been required. For this demand a new 450N/mm2 grade sheet steel has been developed. As the result it was found, that by the co-addition of Mn and P to ultra-low carbon interstitial free steel the recrystallization texture favorable for deep drawability can be formed, accompanied with the increase in tensile strength, when hot band coiled temperature is lower than 773K. In order to improve the property of the 450N/mm2 grade steel, the effect of Si content has been studied. It was found that the deep drawability is not deteriorated by the addition of Si into the Mn and P co-added ultra-low carbon IF-steel.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Resistance of Gas Shielded Metal Arc Welds with E-coat

Gas shielded metal arc welding is generally applied to automobile chassis parts. However, the weld parts with the E-coat show poor corrosion resistance. Therefore, the corrosion mechanism of the weld parts was investigated. The results found two reasons why the weld parts corroded faster than the non weld parts:(1)inadequate phosphating (2)defects in the E-coat. After detailed investigation, it was clarified that the major cause of poor corrosion resistance was the defects in the E-coat caused by slags formed on the surface of the weld bead. Therefore the amount of slag has to be decreased to improve the corrosion resistance. The effect of shielding gas composition on the amount of slag was then investigated. In the case of Ar and oxidizing gas mixture, the corrosion resistance improved as the oxidizing gas content decreased. This was due to the reduction of slags.
Technical Paper

Bake-Hardenable Al-Killed Steel (RBH-35) for Automobile Body Panels

In order to attain the gauge reduction of outer body panels without spoiling the dent-resistance and formability, a bake-hardenable Al-killed steel sheet, named RBH-35, and has been developed in the conventional box-annealing process. RBH-35 is an 0.01% carbon, low manganese and rephosphorized Al-killed steel sheet retaining solute carbon of about 10 ppm. The steel exhibits high r-value, bake-hardenability of 40 MPa, ultimate tensile strength of above 350 MPa and substantially non-aging property. Results of stamping test of door outer panel showed that RBH-35 is the most suitable steel sheet for the thinning of outer body panels by about 10%. This paper reports the metallurgical features, mechanical properties and applications of the steel.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Selection of High Strength Steel Sheets for Auto-Body Panels

In search for thinner auto-body panels, investigation has been made on the level of yield strength of high strength steel sheets in view of the fact that the dent resistance must be at least equal to that of today's mild steel panels. Dent resistance should be evaluated for slight dent, and loss of the dent resistance caused by thinning is most remarkably seen in this case. Rephosphorized aluminum killed steel with bake-hardenability is most favourable, taking the necessary resistance to slight dent and the formability into consideration.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Stress Calculation in Spot Welded Joint and Its Application to Fatigue Life Prediction of Actual Vehicle

A method of fatigue life prediction of spot welded joint under multi-axial loads has been developed by fatigue life estimation working groups in the committee on fatigue strength and structural reliability of JSAE. This method is based on the concept of nominal structural stress ( σ ns) proposed by Radaj and Rupp, and improved so that D value is not involved in stress calculation. The result of fatigue life estimation of actual vehicle with nominal structural stress which was calculated through newly developed method had very good correlation with the result of multi-axial loads fatigue test carried out with test piece including high strength steel.