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Technical Paper

Simulator Development for Steer-by-Wire Concept Evaluation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0099
In the recent years steering feel characteristics have emerged as one of the important brand image attributes of automotive OEMs. Since past few decades, the hydraulic assisted steering system (HPAS) on which lot of research was done to tune the steering feel has been taken over by electric power assisted steering (EPAS) system. The EPAS primarily uses an electric motor controlled by an electronic control unit to assist the driver in maneuvering the vehicle. The next big leap in the steering system advancement is steer-by-wire (SbW) technology where the mechanical linkage between the steering wheel and the road wheels is eliminated. The advantages of this system are ease to use, elimination of noise-vibration-harshness of steering system caused by road forces, modularly of steering system for packaging, improved visibility to front-end displays and road ahead and a fun to drive concept.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Heavy Commercial Vehicle Response to Rear Super Single Tire Blow Out

2017-01-10
2017-26-0341
The fuel economy of heavy commercial vehicles can be significantly improved by reducing the rolling resistance of tires. To reduce the rolling resistance of 6×4 tractor, the super single tires instead of rear dual wheel tires are tried. Though the field trials showed a significant increase in fuel economy by using super single tires, it posed a concern of road safety when these tires blowout during operation. Physical testing of tire blowout on vehicle is very unsafe, time consuming and expensive. Hence, a full vehicle simulation of super single tire blowout is carried out. The mechanical properties of tires such as cornering stiffness, radial stiffness and rolling resistance changes during the tire blowout; this change is incorporated in simulation using series of events that apply different gains to these mechanical properties.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Clutch Inertial Effects on Gear Shifting, Synchronizer Capacity and Accelerated Testing of Synchronizers

2013-11-27
2013-01-2807
In today's scenario, most of the OEMs use manual transmissions with synchronizer gear shifting system for ease of gear shifting. It gives very high fuel efficiency. Gear shifting is a customer touch point, hence it is very important to select adequate synchronizer capacity so that it will perform in better and last longer. To test the synchronizers, there are many test methods which give the idea about life of synchronizer and its performance, in different conditions. Regular synchronizer rig tests consume lot of time in deriving the results. So it is very important to find out a way which will give same results within short time period. To carry out the short time test or accelerated test, we need to understand the effect of various factors like reflected inertia, drag torque, differential speed, synchronizing time, and gear shifting force on synchronizer capacity.
Technical Paper

Recycling of Used Up Crankshaft Grinding Wheels

2012-04-16
2012-01-1060
For sustainability in automobile manufacturing, recycle, reuse, and repair of used up cutting tools is now an established process. Although many types of tools were designed for one time use and then throw, an increasing awareness of the impact on the natural resources have made manufacturers to put some of these back to use or sell it back to suppliers who have put up a mechanism to extract the elements e.g. Tungsten and use it for manufacturing of new tools. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1], by redesigning of a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2] or reusing short length drills that are used in making of long oil holes in crank case, cylinder head, cam shaft or connecting rods [3]. This paper demonstrates successful use of used up crankshaft grinding wheels.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Seat Rail and Steering Wheel Vibration at Idle Using Crank Drive and 16-DOF ADAMS Model

2019-01-09
2019-26-0181
Due to the recent trend in auto industry to opt for higher power engines, causes increase in vibrations levels in the passenger’s compartment. This requires a better and comprehensive model to analyze vibrations from engine to seat and steering wheel much before the proto stage of development in the design stage itself. For this purpose, modelling is done in ADAMS multi dynamics and assuming the 16 degrees of freedom of the vehicle. Further, a crank drive model is developed to simulate engine excitation forces comprising unbalanced inertia forces and torque fluctuations and their effects seat rail and steering wheel vibration is derived. This tool is an attempt to predict such vibrations caused and assist in design enhancement and streamline the procedure.
Technical Paper

Multi Body Dynamics Based Method for Twist Beam Cross Articulations Evaluation in Realistic Hilly Area Scenarios

2019-01-09
2019-26-0251
Twist beam is a semi-independent suspension having two trailing arms attached to the chassis via rubber bushes. Closed profile ‘V’ shaped cross beam interconnects left and right side arms. It provides roll stiffness of the suspension, by twisting as the two wheels moves relative to each other. Due to driving and road conditions twist beam structures are subjected to cyclic twist loads resulting into roll fatigue failure mode [1]. To design twist beam for mass, package and performance it is required to find realistic cross articulations based on vehicle application, usage pattern and protect twist beam from roll fatigue failure mode. The objective of this paper is to develop a virtual method using ‘ADAMS ®’ multibody dynamics software for maximum relative wheel center displacements during realistic hilly areas conditions. This paper describes half and full vehicle based virtual approach for twist beam cross articulations in hilly area conditions.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of Pneumatic Brake System for Commercial Vehicles by Model Based Design Approach

2017-09-17
2017-01-2493
Apart from being an active safety system the brake system represents an important aspect of the vehicle dynamics. The vehicle retardation and stopping distance completely depend upon the performance of brake system and the functionality of all components. However, the performance prediction of the entire system is a challenging task especially for a complex configuration such as multi-axial vehicle applications. Furthermore, due to its complexity most often the performance prediction by some methods is limited to static condition. Hence, it is very important to have equivalent mathematical models to predict all performance parameters for a given configuration in all different conditions This paper presents the adopted system modelling approach to model all the elements of the pneumatic brake system such as dual brake valve, relay valve, quick release valve, front and rear brake actuators, foundation brake etc.
Technical Paper

Jute Fibre Based Composite for Automotive Headlining

2011-04-12
2011-01-0224
With increased awareness about environmental issues, the trend of automobile industry is to use ‘Recycled’ or ‘Biodegradable’ or ‘Energy Recoverable’ material. As a part of this programme, to make the vehicle ‘Green’ in nature, many automobile OEMs have taken the initiative to make use of natural fibre composite in their vehicles. Natural fibre based composite has been successfully proven for less critical as well as for semi-structural applications in an automobile. These typical applications are insulations, headlining, carpets, door pad etc. There is a demanding task for automotive OEMs to meet 85% Recyclability and 95% Recoverability targets by year 2015. To meet the RRR (Reuse, Recycle & Recover) and the ELV (End of Life) regulatory requirements, increased use of natural fibre based composite/ biopolymers is unavoidable. Natural fibre can offer potential advantages such as weight saving and improve overall green rating of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Cabin Noise while Accelerating on Low Mu Track through Simulation Approach Using Full Vehicle ADAMS/Car Model

2019-01-09
2019-26-0179
Cabin noise is a significant product quality criteria which enables the customers for product differentiation. There are various sources of cabin noise such as wind, structures(panels), engine, suspension, tire and roads. During product development phase, extensive tests has been conducted to improve vehicle dynamics behavior on various climatic conditions. One such test is accelerating vehicle on low mu or icy surface. While performing acceleration manoeuvre (tractions) on a low mu tracks, Cabin noise with source identified from front underbody & low tractive torque build up is reported. This undesirable behavior may occur due to following reason (1) Excitation of coupled modes between suspension and powertrain which induces torque fluctuation. (2) Transmissibility of various subsystem can be the reason for above problem statement. (3) Poorly chosen tire compounds and design leads to fluctuation in torque.
Technical Paper

External Aerodynamic Drag Coefficient Prediction of Full Scale Passenger Car Based on Scale Model Assessment

2019-01-09
2019-26-0224
Aerodynamics performance evaluation of passenger cars is important during early vehicle development phase as it influences fuel economy, vehicle stability and drivability. Usually during initial styling phase, scale model is prepared and tested in wind tunnel to check aerodynamic performance like drag coefficient and these are used to predict aerodynamic performance of full scale model as testing on full scale model is costly and time consuming. To ensure its correctness, it is important to understand difference in physics from scale model to full scale model. In predicting full vehicle aerodynamics performance from scale model assessment; importance of Reynolds number, effect of geometric scaling on flow i.e. flow separation and wake zone change needs to be understood and addressed. This paper discusses about effect of scaling on aerodynamic flow behavior and drag.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Anti Scratch Additives on Polypropylene Compound

2013-04-08
2013-01-1391
Automotive Industry is constantly upgrading the value offered on their products at optimized cost. Scratch and mar resistance of interiors and exterior parts, is an important attribute which is linked to perceived quality and value offered to customers. Polypropylene material is optimum material of choice for these parts due to its unique advantages. However, filled polypropylene material has poor scratch and mar resistance. Many techniques for scratch resistance improvement are available such as additions of slip agents, co additives, special fillers, siloxanes, etc. However, some of them may offer some disadvantages like stickiness or tackiness on the surfaces. The choice depends on its effectiveness & cost. This paper deals with design of experiments to evaluate effectiveness of 4 types of additives and their optimum % to give scratch resistance improvement without having detrimental impact on other critical properties.
Technical Paper

Electro-Magnetic Parking Brake System for Electric Vehicles

2019-01-09
2019-26-0119
Regular vehicle has the advantage of Engine resistance even when it is not fired, hence chances of vehicle roll back on gradients will be minimized. This is not the case for Electric vehicles, which uses an electric motor that does not have any resistance offered to wheels that prevent vehicle roll back on gradient. This leads to increased load on the conventional hydraulic brakes due to absence of engine inertia. Hence, there is a need for a low cost and reliable automatic braking system which can help in holding the vehicle and assists the driver during launch in case he need to stop at a gradient. An Electromagnetic brake (EM brake) system can be used as a solution for the above-mentioned requirement. EM brake can provide hill hold and hill assist effect in addition to automatic parking brake application when the vehicle is turned-off. This system will assist anyone who need to halt the vehicle at a gradient and then relaunch it without much struggle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Steering System Compliance on Steered Axle Tire Wear

2012-09-24
2012-01-1909
Subject paper focuses primarily on non uniform tire wear problem of front steered wheels in a pickup model. Cause and effect analysis complemented with field vehicle investigations helped to identify some of the critical design areas. Investigation revealed that steering geometry of the vehicle is undergoing huge variations in dynamic condition as compared to initial static setting. Factors contributing to this behavior are identified and subsequently worked upon followed by a detailed simulation study in order to reproduce the field failures on test vehicles. Similar evaluation with modified steering design package is conducted and results are compared for assessing the improvements achieved. In usual practice, it is considered enough if Steering Geometry parameters are set in static condition and ensured to lie within design specifications.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flywheel Mass and Its Center of Gravity on Crankshaft Endurance Limit Safety Factor and Dynamics

2013-04-08
2013-01-1743
The crankshaft is the component which transmits dynamic loads from cylinder pressure and inertial loads in engine operating conditions. Because of its crucial importance in functioning of engine and requisite to sustain high dynamic and torsional loading, crankshaft fatigue life is desired to be higher than the predicted engine operating life. Performance of the crank train in diesel engine applications largely depends on the components of its mass elastic system. Flywheel is one such component whose design affects the life of crankshaft. In the present study, the crank train comprising of torsional vibration damper, crankshaft and flywheel along with clutch cover is considered for analysis. Crankshaft dynamic simulation is performed with multi body dynamics technique, fatigue safety factors of crankshaft are calculated with dynamic loads under engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack for a Range Extender for Electric Vehicles

2019-01-09
2019-26-0087
Severe air pollution in cities caused largely by vehicular emissions, which requires urgent remedial measures. As automobiles are indispensable modes of personal and public mobility, pre-emptive efforts are necessary to reduce the adverse effects arising from their operation. A significant improvement in air quality can be achieved through large-scale introduction of vehicles with extremely low emission such as hybrid-electric and zero emission vehicles. Range extension of electric vehicles (EVs) is also of utmost importance to alleviate the handicap of restricted mileage of purely plug-in EVs as compared to conventional vehicles. This paper presents development of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack used for the range extender electric vehicles. The Fuel cell stack for range extender vehicle operated in a dead end mode using hydrogen and air as open cathode.
Technical Paper

Development and Prediction of Vehicle Drag Coefficient Using OpenFoam CFD Tool

2019-01-09
2019-26-0235
Vehicle aerodynamic design has a critical impact on fuel efficiency of the vehicle. Reducing aerodynamic wind resistance of the vehicle's exterior shape and reducing losses associated with requirements for engine compartment cooling through vehicle front openings plays key role in achieving desired aerodynamic efficiency. Today fairly large number of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are being performed during the vehicle aerodynamic design and development process and it is rapidly increasing day by day. Vehicle aerodynamic design and development process involves mainly aerodynamic shape development, aerodynamic optimizations of vehicle external components (side view mirror, spoilers, underbody shield etc.) and number of” what if studies during preliminary design process. Licensing costs of the available commercial CFD simulation solver has significant impact on product development cost when numbers of aerodynamic simulations expand.
Technical Paper

Designing In-Cab Sound of Vehicles as per the Customer Driving Pattern on Roads

2019-01-09
2019-26-0170
Vehicle refinement from point of view reduction in its Noise, Vibrations and Harshness (NVH) affects customer’s buying decision and it also directly influences his/her driving experience on road at different speeds. Customer voice, however, indicates that a traditional process of developing design solutions is not aligned with the customers’ expectations. Traditionally the load cases for NVH development are focused only on quietness of passengers’ cabin at idling and in 3rd gear wide open throttle cruising on smooth roads. In reality, the Driver of a premium sedan car or a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV) or a Compact Utility Vehicle (CUV) expects something different than merely the low sound pressure level inside the cabin. His/her driving pattern over a day plays a crucial role. A vehicle-owner wishes to balance various attributes of the in-cab sound and tactile vibrations at a time.
Technical Paper

CAE Based Head Form Impact Simulations for Development of Vehicle Interiors

2019-01-09
2019-26-0237
The interior components of a passenger vehicle are designed to provide comfort and safety to its occupants. In the event of accident, vehicle interiors are primary source of injuries when occupants interact with them. Vehicle interiors consists of Instrument panel (IP), center console, seats and controls in front of seating position etc. Severity of the injuries depends on the energy dissipating characteristics, profiles, projections of different interior components. These are assessed by ECE R21 and IS12553 head form impact tests. To evaluate the Head form impact performance on Interior components, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulations are extensively used during the vehicle development. In order to predict failure of plastic components and snap joints which might lead to expose sharp edges, it is critical to model plastic material and snap joint.
Technical Paper

A Robust Solution for a Power-Train Mounting System for Automotive NVH Refinements

2015-01-14
2015-26-0140
Production variations of a heavy duty truck for its vibrations were measured and then analyzed through an Ishikawa diagram. Noise and Control factors of the truck idle shake were indentified. The major cause was found to be piece to piece variations of its power-train (PT) rubber mounts. To overcome the same, a new nominal level of the mount stiffness was sought based on minimization of a cost function related to vibration transmissibility and fatigue damage of the mounts under dynamic loadings. Physical prototypes of such mounts were proved to minimize the variations of the driver's seat shake at idling among various trucks of the same design. These learning's are useful for design of various subsystems or components to refine the full vehicle-Noise Vibration Harshness (NVH) at the robust design level.
Technical Paper

A Novel Technique to Establish Various Important Characteristic to Analyze Complete Hydraulic Power Steering System using Model Based Design Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0259
Steering system deliver a precise directional control to the vehicle chassis and ensure the safe driving at all maneuvers. Hydraulic power assisted system (HPAS) helps drivers to steer by boosting steering assistance of the steering wheel while retaining the road feel. HPAS performance is associated with the design characteristics of rotary valve, steering, suspension, kinematics, brake, tire, vehicle speed and load transfer. Thus a detailed power steering system model is absolutely necessary to evaluate and optimize the performance characteristics. However, many components of HPAS system are proprietary in nature so it is very challenging to get component characteristic of each sub-system for the complete power steering system model. Hence, it is very important to establish a technique to extract all such influencing characteristics with available test facility.
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