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Technical Paper

Weight Optimisation of Dumper Body Structure Conserving Stiffness, Buckling and Dent Performance

2017-01-10
2017-26-0304
The entire commercial vehicle industry is moving towards weight reduction to leverage on the latest materials available to benefit in payload & fuel efficiency. General practice of weight reduction using high strength steel with reduced thickness in reference to Roark’s formula does not consider the stiffness & dent performance. While this helps to meet the targeted weight reduction keeping the stress levels within the acceptable limit, but with a penalty on stiffness & dent performance. The parameters of stiffener like thickness, section & pitching are very important while considering the Stiffness, bucking & dent performance of a dumper body. The Finite Element Model of subject dumper body has been studied in general particularly on impact of dent performance and is correlated with road load data to provide unique solution to the product. The impact of payload during loading of dumper is the major load case.
Technical Paper

Transmission Breather Evaluation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0339
Breather assembly is mounted on transmission to maintain the pressure equilibrium inside transmission. Breather allows the transmission to breathe air when the air inside transmission expands or contracts due to heating and cooling of lubricating oil during vehicle running. Breather allows the hot air to escape and cool air to enter into the transmission to prevent overheating issue. Failure of breather assembly can lead to pressure buildup inside transmission and further leading to leakage from transmission oil seals. Oil leakage through the breather assembly is governed by parameters such as opening pressure, location and orientation of breather etc. The transmission undergoes different operating conditions of input speed, load, temperature, inclination etc. Also, breather assembly is designed and positioned in such a way that there is no leakage through breather due to oil splash inside the transmission.
Technical Paper

Torsional Fluctuations Consideration while Design of Synchro Rings

2018-09-10
2018-01-1823
In today’s manual transmissions of car, gearshift system requires high performance with particular emphasis on low effort, minimal travel and positive feel. To meet these targets, a high capacity multi cone synchronizers along with higher co-efficient of friction material used for lower gears. The design of synchronizer with these specifications is influenced by torsional fluctuations from engine. Excessive torsional vibrations leads to wobbling of synchro rings within the peripheral clearances with surrounding parts. Wobbling leads to abrasion wear of frictional area of synchro ring causing grating or crashing noise of gears during shifting. This paper presents the optimization of the multiple cone synchronizer design exposed to excessive torsional vibrations and validation of the same on test bench during development stage instead vehicle level validation.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology with Shock Loads and Fatigue Limit of Press Fitted Gears on Shaft

2013-11-27
2013-01-2794
In case of new generation of commercial vehicles, three shaft transmissions are designed with press fitted gears on counter shaft. It allows user to save the cost of transmission manufacturing by considerable amount. In case of heavy commercial vehicles, which are being used in abusive conditions such as mining and off-road applications, it becomes absolutely necessary to ensure that the gears press fit should withstand the continuous loads and impact loads. There are design guidelines available to ensure proper fit and torque carrying capacity between the mating parts. Still, there are gear slippage, shaft and gear breakage failures in the field. In this scenario, there is a need to develop bench test procedure which will capture such failures in the prototype stage. Looking at the failures in the field, it is necessary to capture all above hidden failures in design validation phase.
Technical Paper

Tackle Low Frequency Structural Vibration in AMT Car using Gear Shift Schedule Optimization

2017-01-10
2017-26-0198
The present work focuses on optimization of gear shift pattern of an AMT vehicle to improve its NVH performance without causing any adverse effect on any other vehicle performance attribute. The vehicle which was identified with the structural body resonance at low frequency had discomforting boom noise in a particular engine rpm zone and at corresponding vehicle speed. With the initial shift pattern (will be referred as V1 gear shift schedule), the gear shifts were calibrated such that when vehicle is driven in the city with 20 to 60 kmph speed, the vehicle operated mostly in the best fuel economy zone but it used to pass through structural resonance frequency. This resulted in the presence of continuous boom leading to an unpleasant driving experience. In order to avoid the presence of boom noise during city driving, the gear shift points were optimized (will be referred as V2 gear shift schedule) such that the vehicle did not operate in affected engine speed range.
Technical Paper

Simulator Development for Steer-by-Wire Concept Evaluation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0099
In the recent years steering feel characteristics have emerged as one of the important brand image attributes of automotive OEMs. Since past few decades, the hydraulic assisted steering system (HPAS) on which lot of research was done to tune the steering feel has been taken over by electric power assisted steering (EPAS) system. The EPAS primarily uses an electric motor controlled by an electronic control unit to assist the driver in maneuvering the vehicle. The next big leap in the steering system advancement is steer-by-wire (SbW) technology where the mechanical linkage between the steering wheel and the road wheels is eliminated. The advantages of this system are ease to use, elimination of noise-vibration-harshness of steering system caused by road forces, modularly of steering system for packaging, improved visibility to front-end displays and road ahead and a fun to drive concept.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Heavy Commercial Vehicle Response to Rear Super Single Tire Blow Out

2017-01-10
2017-26-0341
The fuel economy of heavy commercial vehicles can be significantly improved by reducing the rolling resistance of tires. To reduce the rolling resistance of 6×4 tractor, the super single tires instead of rear dual wheel tires are tried. Though the field trials showed a significant increase in fuel economy by using super single tires, it posed a concern of road safety when these tires blowout during operation. Physical testing of tire blowout on vehicle is very unsafe, time consuming and expensive. Hence, a full vehicle simulation of super single tire blowout is carried out. The mechanical properties of tires such as cornering stiffness, radial stiffness and rolling resistance changes during the tire blowout; this change is incorporated in simulation using series of events that apply different gains to these mechanical properties.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Driveline Rattle using Elastic Multi Body Dynamics Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0191
As automotive technology has evolved, gear rattle has become a prominent contributor for cabin noise as the masking from the engine noise has decreased. The market and customer expectation make the rattle noise a question to be addressed as early as possible in the vehicle development process. However, to simulate rattle, it calls for a detailed modeling of different complex subsystems of driveline to represent their true characteristics. Thus, the paper adopts an FE based elastic multi body dynamics model to predict gear rattle. The approach involves modeling of a complete flexible driveline using condensed FE models from Nastran in AVL Excite Powerunit/Transmission module. It includes combustion pressure as input excitations to crankshaft and then predicts parameters like gear teeth impacts, gear normal meshing force, dynamic mesh stiffness & overall contact state in transient and frequency domain. The output parameters are then analyzed to evaluate the rattle index.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Clutch Inertial Effects on Gear Shifting, Synchronizer Capacity and Accelerated Testing of Synchronizers

2013-11-27
2013-01-2807
In today's scenario, most of the OEMs use manual transmissions with synchronizer gear shifting system for ease of gear shifting. It gives very high fuel efficiency. Gear shifting is a customer touch point, hence it is very important to select adequate synchronizer capacity so that it will perform in better and last longer. To test the synchronizers, there are many test methods which give the idea about life of synchronizer and its performance, in different conditions. Regular synchronizer rig tests consume lot of time in deriving the results. So it is very important to find out a way which will give same results within short time period. To carry out the short time test or accelerated test, we need to understand the effect of various factors like reflected inertia, drag torque, differential speed, synchronizing time, and gear shifting force on synchronizer capacity.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Development, Component Optimization and Integration for a Metropolitan Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2017-01-10
2017-26-0084
The authors of this technical paper conceptualize and illustrate a powertrain architecture for a hybrid electric vehicle coupled with a unique strategy to reduce a real life problem of driving in snail paced traffic. This architecture utilizes a relatively low powered hybrid electric prime mover that is generally used in mild hybrid vehicles, in an arrangement similar to a parallel hybrid system. Here, the electric machine is mounted on the input shaft of the gearbox and the clutch is actuated automatically through an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) system. Therefore, it is possible to completely disengage the engine from the driveline and drive the vehicle independently through an appropriately sized electric prime mover. The high gear ratio between the drivetrain and the electric prime mover at lower gears can be leveraged to provide low velocity electric creep mode during which the vehicle can function as a pure Electric Vehicle (EV) while engine remains off.
Technical Paper

Simulating Bowden Cable Routing on Virtual Vehicle and Design Guidelines to Achieve the Best Cable Performance

2016-09-27
2016-01-8060
There has been immense focus on Gear Shift Quality as it is seen as an important factor for subjective evaluation of driving comfort of a vehicle with manual transmission. Synchronizer and driveline stiffness optimization is often the only area of focus for gear shift quality during early design stage. Proven Simulation models are already available for predicting the effect of synchronizer and driveline stiffness. Though Gear shift cable also has a significant effect on gear shift quality, neither design guidelines nor simulation models are available for predicting gear shift cable performance. Designers have relied on physical approach to establish cable routing, since cable routing cannot be predicted on virtual vehicle. In design phase cable routing is imagined and modeled in CAD using constrained curve geometry and later on established by physical trials on vehicle with various cable lengths, routing paths and clamp positions.
Journal Article

Sensor less Wash Fluid Detection in Automotive Application

2013-04-08
2013-01-1338
The proposed paper describes the hardware and software method used for detection of wash fluid level in water tank used in automotive; thereby eliminating the need for sensor (Reed type switch mounted on washer bottle) for low wash fluid detection. Wash motor is used for water spray on windscreen during wash and wipe operation. The proposed system makes use of hardware circuit used to drive the wash motor usually of DC (Direct current) type and a feedback circuitry to read back the current consumed by motor during particular wash operation. This hardware system is coupled with software algorithm such that during IGNITION ON instance wash motor will be turned on such as to get motor current readings to determine amount of load operated by motor which is related to wash fluid inside the washer bottle. Motor operation is optimized so as to avoid water spray causing nuisance to user.
Technical Paper

Refurbished and Repower: Second Life of Batteries from Electric Vehicles for Stationary Application

2019-01-09
2019-26-0156
Rising environmental concerns and depleting natural resources have resulted in faster adoption of green technologies. These technologies are pushed by the government of states through certain schemes and policies as to make the orbit shift ensuring greener environment in near future. Major actions can be easily seen in transportation sector. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (EV), EV and Fuel cell EV are being deployed on roads rapidly but even though some challenges are still unsolved such as battery cost, fast charging and life cycle of the automotive battery. Automotive batteries (Lithium ions) are declared as unfit for automotive usage after the loss of 20% to 15% of their initial capacity. Still 80% to 85% of battery capacity can be utilized in stationary applications other than automotive. Stationary application doesn’t demand high current density or energy density from the battery pack as of automotive requirements.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Steering Effort and Turning Circle Diameter for Mechanical Steering in Light Commercial Vehicles for Better Driver Comfort

2011-09-13
2011-01-2147
New generation light commercial vehicles are expected to have lower steering effort, high self centering and less turning circle diameter covering large variety of wheelbases from 2.8 m to 4.5 m even with mechanical steering and keeping same number of total turns of steering wheel compared to old generation light commercial vehicles. To address above requirements, below parameters related to steering and rigid front axle were studied. 1 Caster angle of front axle 2 Steering compliance and Steering ball joint articulation angle 3 Front axle kingpin axial play 4 Steering gearbox ratio 5 Pitman arm length The effect of above parameters was studied in isolation and combination. This optimization has resulted in least steering effort and least turning circle diameter in light commercial vehicles with mechanical steering and option of power steering could be eliminated for cost reduction.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Idle Shake in a Small Commercial Vehicle

2015-06-15
2015-01-2352
Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) refinement is one of the important parameters in modern vehicle development. In city traffic conditions, idling is an engine operating condition where a driver focuses attention more to his/her vehicle. Tactile vibration & noise levels inside the cab play an important role in all vehicles, especially those powered by diesel engines where combustion pressures are higher. They lead to discomfort & fatigue of passengers of even a low cost vehicle. Now its idle NVH is influenced mainly by vibration-isolation provided by power-train (PT) mounting design, This paper describes steps taken to improve the idle vibrations at a driver seat of a small commercial vehicle (SCV) with a 2-cylinder diesel engine of 800 cc through redesign of PT-mounting along with fine tuning of idle speed of the engine. A resonance was avoided between the first firing order at idling and PT rigid-body mode in pitching.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Brake Pedal Feel and Performance for Dual Air Over Hydraulic System on Light Commercial Vehicles

2010-10-05
2010-01-1888
In current scenario, Light Commercial Vehicle segment (7 ton - 9.6 ton) is gradually experiencing a shift in the focus from being just a goods carrier to a vehicle which is developed to take care of driver's safety and comfort in terms of better ergonomics and aesthetics. As compared to their conventional counterparts the new generation Light Commercial Vehicles are better equipped and tuned to cater to the changing needs of the consumers. In view of this, refinement at the sub system level is becoming far more critical. On the same lines, the present work discusses a refined brake system for Light Commercial Vehicles where the conventional pneumatic system is replaced with Dual Air Over Hydraulic (DAOH) to achieve cost and weight advantages without compromising on its performance. However, during the development process, a lot of issues were observed with respect to the braking performance and the brake pedal feel.
Technical Paper

Optimization of AC Control in Hybrid Electric Vehicles during Urban Drive Conditions

2017-01-10
2017-26-0087
Hybridization of vehicle drive train is an important step to increase energy security, reduce crude oil import, improvement of air quality and GHG reduction. Heavy traffic congestion poses a great challenge in improvement of fuel economy. Nowadays urban climatic condition forces the passenger to keep air-conditioning (AC) on; thus further decreasing the fuel economy. In a typical urban drive; the vehicle commutes with low speed forcing IC Engine to run in its low efficiency operational points. Further it is characterized by frequent start-stop and crawling. It has been observed that the power consumption for AC is comparable to that required for the vehicle propulsion. Hence the AC on condition with propelling vehicle demands higher power from engine creating a challenge for fuel economy improvement.
Technical Paper

Opportunities and Control Measures for Sustainable Transport Growth in Emerging Economy Regions-India

2013-04-08
2013-01-1037
Sustainable development is a very complex concept involving several inter-related issues and concerns. Globalization has given a new dimension to social, economic and environmental development associated with the perceived responsibilities and growth indicators. Both developing and developed countries have the opportunities to exploit comparative advantages in the changing economic, social and environmental scenario while targeting sustainable growth together with expansion of the business prospects. Every region perceives these opportunities with different notion. There is a plethora of indicators for assessing sustainability. However, assessment criteria, prioritization and trade off for a given sustainability parameter against the other could be very complex while evolving transport growth model in emerging economies.
Technical Paper

Multi Body Dynamics Based Method for Twist Beam Cross Articulations Evaluation in Realistic Hilly Area Scenarios

2019-01-09
2019-26-0251
Twist beam is a semi-independent suspension having two trailing arms attached to the chassis via rubber bushes. Closed profile ‘V’ shaped cross beam interconnects left and right side arms. It provides roll stiffness of the suspension, by twisting as the two wheels moves relative to each other. Due to driving and road conditions twist beam structures are subjected to cyclic twist loads resulting into roll fatigue failure mode [1]. To design twist beam for mass, package and performance it is required to find realistic cross articulations based on vehicle application, usage pattern and protect twist beam from roll fatigue failure mode. The objective of this paper is to develop a virtual method using ‘ADAMS ®’ multibody dynamics software for maximum relative wheel center displacements during realistic hilly areas conditions. This paper describes half and full vehicle based virtual approach for twist beam cross articulations in hilly area conditions.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Optimization of Pneumatic Brake System for Commercial Vehicles by Model Based Design Approach

2017-09-17
2017-01-2493
Apart from being an active safety system the brake system represents an important aspect of the vehicle dynamics. The vehicle retardation and stopping distance completely depend upon the performance of brake system and the functionality of all components. However, the performance prediction of the entire system is a challenging task especially for a complex configuration such as multi-axial vehicle applications. Furthermore, due to its complexity most often the performance prediction by some methods is limited to static condition. Hence, it is very important to have equivalent mathematical models to predict all performance parameters for a given configuration in all different conditions This paper presents the adopted system modelling approach to model all the elements of the pneumatic brake system such as dual brake valve, relay valve, quick release valve, front and rear brake actuators, foundation brake etc.
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