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Technical Paper

Weight Optimisation of Dumper Body Structure Conserving Stiffness, Buckling and Dent Performance

The entire commercial vehicle industry is moving towards weight reduction to leverage on the latest materials available to benefit in payload & fuel efficiency. General practice of weight reduction using high strength steel with reduced thickness in reference to Roark’s formula does not consider the stiffness & dent performance. While this helps to meet the targeted weight reduction keeping the stress levels within the acceptable limit, but with a penalty on stiffness & dent performance. The parameters of stiffener like thickness, section & pitching are very important while considering the Stiffness, bucking & dent performance of a dumper body. The Finite Element Model of subject dumper body has been studied in general particularly on impact of dent performance and is correlated with road load data to provide unique solution to the product. The impact of payload during loading of dumper is the major load case.
Technical Paper

Virtual Analysis of Engine Mount Stiffness and Stopper Gap Tuning for Better NVH Performance

Key on/off Vibrations plays an important role in the quality of NVH on a vehicle. Hence having a good KOKO in the vehicle is desirable by every OEM. The vibration transfer to the vehicle can be refined by either reducing the source vibrations or improving isolation. In this study, critical factors affecting KOKO vibration has been identified. Focus has been given on improving the KOKO by change in mounting system stiffness & stopper gap, and assuming other parameters as constant. The study highlights a new simulation approach using ADAMS View to help run a DOE for solving KOKO issue on vehicle. The contribution of C mount stiffness and stopper gap is shown through simulation results. The correlation between simulation & test results has been established by measuring rigid body modes and KOKO vibration on vehicle for a set of mount configuration. Test results show significant KOKO improvement with the mount configuration optimized through simulation.
Technical Paper

Transmission Breather Evaluation

Breather assembly is mounted on transmission to maintain the pressure equilibrium inside transmission. Breather allows the transmission to breathe air when the air inside transmission expands or contracts due to heating and cooling of lubricating oil during vehicle running. Breather allows the hot air to escape and cool air to enter into the transmission to prevent overheating issue. Failure of breather assembly can lead to pressure buildup inside transmission and further leading to leakage from transmission oil seals. Oil leakage through the breather assembly is governed by parameters such as opening pressure, location and orientation of breather etc. The transmission undergoes different operating conditions of input speed, load, temperature, inclination etc. Also, breather assembly is designed and positioned in such a way that there is no leakage through breather due to oil splash inside the transmission.
Technical Paper

Transient 1D Mathematical Model for Drum Brake System to Predict the Temperature Variation with Realistic Boundary Conditions

Brake system is the most important system in the vehicle considering the overall vehicle safety and speed control. Brake applications are repetitive during a city traffic and hilly terrain on downhill gradient. Frequent braking gives rise to an overheating of the brake drum and its components. Braking operations at high temperature gives rise to problems like reduced deceleration due to loss of brake pad friction characteristics, pad softening and sticking to drum, pad distortion and wear etc. All these factors collectively result in deterioration of the braking performance and reduction of brake pad durability with time. Till date most of the thermal analysis performed for brake drum heating are through physical testing using brake system prototypes and by means of CFD tools. These methods are time consuming and expensive. There is a need for an alternative method to reduce physical trials and prototype building and reduce dependency on CFD analysis.
Technical Paper

Torsional Fluctuations Consideration while Design of Synchro Rings

In today’s manual transmissions of car, gearshift system requires high performance with particular emphasis on low effort, minimal travel and positive feel. To meet these targets, a high capacity multi cone synchronizers along with higher co-efficient of friction material used for lower gears. The design of synchronizer with these specifications is influenced by torsional fluctuations from engine. Excessive torsional vibrations leads to wobbling of synchro rings within the peripheral clearances with surrounding parts. Wobbling leads to abrasion wear of frictional area of synchro ring causing grating or crashing noise of gears during shifting. This paper presents the optimization of the multiple cone synchronizer design exposed to excessive torsional vibrations and validation of the same on test bench during development stage instead vehicle level validation.
Technical Paper

Thermal Protection of Rear Mounted Engine and Its Components Using a Ventilation Fan with Unique Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis Technique

The engine compartment of passenger car application contains various source which radiates the produced heat and raises the temperature level of the compartment. The rise in compartment temperature increases the body temperature of individual component. The rise in body temperature of critical components can endanger the durability or functionality of the specific component or a system in which it operates. The aim of this paper is to strategize thermal protection of the rear mounted engine and its components of a vehicle having radiator and cooling fan mounted in front. An additional ventilation fan with speed sensor is fitted alongside rear mounted engine and a unique monitoring technique framed in the EMS ECU to protect critical components like HT cables, alternators, ECUs, wiring harness etc. from thermal damage. The EMS continuously monitors the engine speed, vehicle speed and the PWM signal of ventilation fan to ensure the intended operation of the ventilation fan.
Technical Paper

The Impact of Switchable Hydromount during Idle and Ride Performance of Vehicle

Engine mounting system maintains the position of powertrain in the vehicle with respect to chassis and other accessories during inertia, torque reaction loads and roadway disturbances. The mounting system also plays a role in terms of isolation of the rest of the vehicle and its occupants from powertrain and helps in maintaining vehicle ride and handling condition. This paper investigates the performance comparison between hydromount and switchable hydromount during idle and ride performance. The optimization scheme aims to improve the performance of the mounting system in order to achieve overall powertrain performance and NVH attribute balancing through switchable mount technology.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology with Shock Loads and Fatigue Limit of Press Fitted Gears on Shaft

In case of new generation of commercial vehicles, three shaft transmissions are designed with press fitted gears on counter shaft. It allows user to save the cost of transmission manufacturing by considerable amount. In case of heavy commercial vehicles, which are being used in abusive conditions such as mining and off-road applications, it becomes absolutely necessary to ensure that the gears press fit should withstand the continuous loads and impact loads. There are design guidelines available to ensure proper fit and torque carrying capacity between the mating parts. Still, there are gear slippage, shaft and gear breakage failures in the field. In this scenario, there is a need to develop bench test procedure which will capture such failures in the prototype stage. Looking at the failures in the field, it is necessary to capture all above hidden failures in design validation phase.
Technical Paper

Study of Clutch Judder Phenomenon in Manual Transmission Vehicle and Its Analysis Approach

Clutch engagement judder is a phenomenon wherein the driver experiences vibrations on seat during the clutch engagement process for the vehicle launch. Clutch engagement judder is one of the critical vehicle attributes as a part of overall vehicle NHV. Torsional oscillations, specifically originating from clutch in the driveline during clutch engagement, are referred as clutch engagement judder. Judder is a phenomenon wherein friction induced torsional vibrations are generated in the driveline because of sliding contact between clutch and flywheel, during engagement. These resulting oscillations inherit the first resonance frequency of the driveline. The engagement judder not only affects the dynamics of transmission system but also the vehicle, because of excitations being transferred to body via suspensions and mounts. Passengers experience these oscillations as vibrations during vehicle launch. If excitation level is high then it may cause discomfort to passengers.
Technical Paper

Simulator Development for Steer-by-Wire Concept Evaluation

In the recent years steering feel characteristics have emerged as one of the important brand image attributes of automotive OEMs. Since past few decades, the hydraulic assisted steering system (HPAS) on which lot of research was done to tune the steering feel has been taken over by electric power assisted steering (EPAS) system. The EPAS primarily uses an electric motor controlled by an electronic control unit to assist the driver in maneuvering the vehicle. The next big leap in the steering system advancement is steer-by-wire (SbW) technology where the mechanical linkage between the steering wheel and the road wheels is eliminated. The advantages of this system are ease to use, elimination of noise-vibration-harshness of steering system caused by road forces, modularly of steering system for packaging, improved visibility to front-end displays and road ahead and a fun to drive concept.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Driveline Rattle using Elastic Multi Body Dynamics Approach

As automotive technology has evolved, gear rattle has become a prominent contributor for cabin noise as the masking from the engine noise has decreased. The market and customer expectation make the rattle noise a question to be addressed as early as possible in the vehicle development process. However, to simulate rattle, it calls for a detailed modeling of different complex subsystems of driveline to represent their true characteristics. Thus, the paper adopts an FE based elastic multi body dynamics model to predict gear rattle. The approach involves modeling of a complete flexible driveline using condensed FE models from Nastran in AVL Excite Powerunit/Transmission module. It includes combustion pressure as input excitations to crankshaft and then predicts parameters like gear teeth impacts, gear normal meshing force, dynamic mesh stiffness & overall contact state in transient and frequency domain. The output parameters are then analyzed to evaluate the rattle index.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Clutch Inertial Effects on Gear Shifting, Synchronizer Capacity and Accelerated Testing of Synchronizers

In today's scenario, most of the OEMs use manual transmissions with synchronizer gear shifting system for ease of gear shifting. It gives very high fuel efficiency. Gear shifting is a customer touch point, hence it is very important to select adequate synchronizer capacity so that it will perform in better and last longer. To test the synchronizers, there are many test methods which give the idea about life of synchronizer and its performance, in different conditions. Regular synchronizer rig tests consume lot of time in deriving the results. So it is very important to find out a way which will give same results within short time period. To carry out the short time test or accelerated test, we need to understand the effect of various factors like reflected inertia, drag torque, differential speed, synchronizing time, and gear shifting force on synchronizer capacity.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Development, Component Optimization and Integration for a Metropolitan Hybrid Electric Vehicle

The authors of this technical paper conceptualize and illustrate a powertrain architecture for a hybrid electric vehicle coupled with a unique strategy to reduce a real life problem of driving in snail paced traffic. This architecture utilizes a relatively low powered hybrid electric prime mover that is generally used in mild hybrid vehicles, in an arrangement similar to a parallel hybrid system. Here, the electric machine is mounted on the input shaft of the gearbox and the clutch is actuated automatically through an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) system. Therefore, it is possible to completely disengage the engine from the driveline and drive the vehicle independently through an appropriately sized electric prime mover. The high gear ratio between the drivetrain and the electric prime mover at lower gears can be leveraged to provide low velocity electric creep mode during which the vehicle can function as a pure Electric Vehicle (EV) while engine remains off.
Technical Paper

Simulating Bowden Cable Routing on Virtual Vehicle and Design Guidelines to Achieve the Best Cable Performance

There has been immense focus on Gear Shift Quality as it is seen as an important factor for subjective evaluation of driving comfort of a vehicle with manual transmission. Synchronizer and driveline stiffness optimization is often the only area of focus for gear shift quality during early design stage. Proven Simulation models are already available for predicting the effect of synchronizer and driveline stiffness. Though Gear shift cable also has a significant effect on gear shift quality, neither design guidelines nor simulation models are available for predicting gear shift cable performance. Designers have relied on physical approach to establish cable routing, since cable routing cannot be predicted on virtual vehicle. In design phase cable routing is imagined and modeled in CAD using constrained curve geometry and later on established by physical trials on vehicle with various cable lengths, routing paths and clamp positions.
Technical Paper

Refurbished and Repower: Second Life of Batteries from Electric Vehicles for Stationary Application

Rising environmental concerns and depleting natural resources have resulted in faster adoption of green technologies. These technologies are pushed by the government of states through certain schemes and policies as to make the orbit shift ensuring greener environment in near future. Major actions can be easily seen in transportation sector. Hybrid Electric Vehicle (EV), EV and Fuel cell EV are being deployed on roads rapidly but even though some challenges are still unsolved such as battery cost, fast charging and life cycle of the automotive battery. Automotive batteries (Lithium ions) are declared as unfit for automotive usage after the loss of 20% to 15% of their initial capacity. Still 80% to 85% of battery capacity can be utilized in stationary applications other than automotive. Stationary application doesn’t demand high current density or energy density from the battery pack as of automotive requirements.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Steering Effort and Turning Circle Diameter for Mechanical Steering in Light Commercial Vehicles for Better Driver Comfort

New generation light commercial vehicles are expected to have lower steering effort, high self centering and less turning circle diameter covering large variety of wheelbases from 2.8 m to 4.5 m even with mechanical steering and keeping same number of total turns of steering wheel compared to old generation light commercial vehicles. To address above requirements, below parameters related to steering and rigid front axle were studied. 1 Caster angle of front axle 2 Steering compliance and Steering ball joint articulation angle 3 Front axle kingpin axial play 4 Steering gearbox ratio 5 Pitman arm length The effect of above parameters was studied in isolation and combination. This optimization has resulted in least steering effort and least turning circle diameter in light commercial vehicles with mechanical steering and option of power steering could be eliminated for cost reduction.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Idle Shake in a Small Commercial Vehicle

Noise Vibration and Harshness (NVH) refinement is one of the important parameters in modern vehicle development. In city traffic conditions, idling is an engine operating condition where a driver focuses attention more to his/her vehicle. Tactile vibration & noise levels inside the cab play an important role in all vehicles, especially those powered by diesel engines where combustion pressures are higher. They lead to discomfort & fatigue of passengers of even a low cost vehicle. Now its idle NVH is influenced mainly by vibration-isolation provided by power-train (PT) mounting design, This paper describes steps taken to improve the idle vibrations at a driver seat of a small commercial vehicle (SCV) with a 2-cylinder diesel engine of 800 cc through redesign of PT-mounting along with fine tuning of idle speed of the engine. A resonance was avoided between the first firing order at idling and PT rigid-body mode in pitching.
Technical Paper

Recycling of Used Up Crankshaft Grinding Wheels

For sustainability in automobile manufacturing, recycle, reuse, and repair of used up cutting tools is now an established process. Although many types of tools were designed for one time use and then throw, an increasing awareness of the impact on the natural resources have made manufacturers to put some of these back to use or sell it back to suppliers who have put up a mechanism to extract the elements e.g. Tungsten and use it for manufacturing of new tools. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1], by redesigning of a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2] or reusing short length drills that are used in making of long oil holes in crank case, cylinder head, cam shaft or connecting rods [3]. This paper demonstrates successful use of used up crankshaft grinding wheels.
Technical Paper

Recycling of Metal Cutting Inserts: A Different Approach

A large number of metal cutting inserts are used in the manufacturing of automobile parts. These are made from hard metals like Carbide, Ceramic, Cermet, PCD and CBN. Since making of these hard metal inserts involve a high amount of energy in addition to natural resources namely Titanium, Tungsten, Cobalt etc, any attempt made therefore for reusing of the used up inserts will benefit environment because this reuse will lower down the demand on natural resource. Reuse can be done in a number of ways [ 1 ]. Many of these recycling techniques involve removing the dull portion developed during the first use by re sharpening [ 2 ]. A different approach is being suggested here in which used up inserts can be used directly. This approach leads to use of the unused cutting edges /corners of the insert without any re sharpening. Thus the cost of machining becomes half of the original cost or even more depending on the application for reuse.
Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Reduction in a Single Cylinder Direct Injection (DI) Naturally Aspirated (NA) Engine

Small goods carrier and passenger vehicles powered by Naturally Aspirated (NA) Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines are popular in Indian automobile market. However, they suffer from inherently high radiated noise and poorly perceived sound quality. This paper documents the steps taken to reduce the radiated noise level from such an engine through structural modifications of major noise radiating components identified in the sound power analysis. The work is summarized as follows; Baseline radiated noise measurements of power train and identification of major noise sources through sound intensity mapping and noise source ranking (NSR) in an Engine Noise Test Cell (ENTC) Design modifications for identified major sources in engine structure Vehicle level assessment of the radiated noise in a Vehicle Semi-Anechoic Chamber (VSAC) for all the design modifications. A reduction of 7 dB at hot idle and 4 - 8 dB in loaded speed sweep conditions was observed with the recommended modifications.