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Technical Paper

Transmission Breather Evaluation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0339
Breather assembly is mounted on transmission to maintain the pressure equilibrium inside transmission. Breather allows the transmission to breathe air when the air inside transmission expands or contracts due to heating and cooling of lubricating oil during vehicle running. Breather allows the hot air to escape and cool air to enter into the transmission to prevent overheating issue. Failure of breather assembly can lead to pressure buildup inside transmission and further leading to leakage from transmission oil seals. Oil leakage through the breather assembly is governed by parameters such as opening pressure, location and orientation of breather etc. The transmission undergoes different operating conditions of input speed, load, temperature, inclination etc. Also, breather assembly is designed and positioned in such a way that there is no leakage through breather due to oil splash inside the transmission.
Technical Paper

Transient 1D Mathematical Model for Drum Brake System to Predict the Temperature Variation with Realistic Boundary Conditions

2017-01-10
2017-26-0299
Brake system is the most important system in the vehicle considering the overall vehicle safety and speed control. Brake applications are repetitive during a city traffic and hilly terrain on downhill gradient. Frequent braking gives rise to an overheating of the brake drum and its components. Braking operations at high temperature gives rise to problems like reduced deceleration due to loss of brake pad friction characteristics, pad softening and sticking to drum, pad distortion and wear etc. All these factors collectively result in deterioration of the braking performance and reduction of brake pad durability with time. Till date most of the thermal analysis performed for brake drum heating are through physical testing using brake system prototypes and by means of CFD tools. These methods are time consuming and expensive. There is a need for an alternative method to reduce physical trials and prototype building and reduce dependency on CFD analysis.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology with Shock Loads and Fatigue Limit of Press Fitted Gears on Shaft

2013-11-27
2013-01-2794
In case of new generation of commercial vehicles, three shaft transmissions are designed with press fitted gears on counter shaft. It allows user to save the cost of transmission manufacturing by considerable amount. In case of heavy commercial vehicles, which are being used in abusive conditions such as mining and off-road applications, it becomes absolutely necessary to ensure that the gears press fit should withstand the continuous loads and impact loads. There are design guidelines available to ensure proper fit and torque carrying capacity between the mating parts. Still, there are gear slippage, shaft and gear breakage failures in the field. In this scenario, there is a need to develop bench test procedure which will capture such failures in the prototype stage. Looking at the failures in the field, it is necessary to capture all above hidden failures in design validation phase.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Clutch Inertial Effects on Gear Shifting, Synchronizer Capacity and Accelerated Testing of Synchronizers

2013-11-27
2013-01-2807
In today's scenario, most of the OEMs use manual transmissions with synchronizer gear shifting system for ease of gear shifting. It gives very high fuel efficiency. Gear shifting is a customer touch point, hence it is very important to select adequate synchronizer capacity so that it will perform in better and last longer. To test the synchronizers, there are many test methods which give the idea about life of synchronizer and its performance, in different conditions. Regular synchronizer rig tests consume lot of time in deriving the results. So it is very important to find out a way which will give same results within short time period. To carry out the short time test or accelerated test, we need to understand the effect of various factors like reflected inertia, drag torque, differential speed, synchronizing time, and gear shifting force on synchronizer capacity.
Technical Paper

Recycling of Used Up Crankshaft Grinding Wheels

2012-04-16
2012-01-1060
For sustainability in automobile manufacturing, recycle, reuse, and repair of used up cutting tools is now an established process. Although many types of tools were designed for one time use and then throw, an increasing awareness of the impact on the natural resources have made manufacturers to put some of these back to use or sell it back to suppliers who have put up a mechanism to extract the elements e.g. Tungsten and use it for manufacturing of new tools. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1], by redesigning of a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2] or reusing short length drills that are used in making of long oil holes in crank case, cylinder head, cam shaft or connecting rods [3]. This paper demonstrates successful use of used up crankshaft grinding wheels.
Technical Paper

Recycling of Metal Cutting Inserts: A Different Approach

2010-04-12
2010-01-0273
A large number of metal cutting inserts are used in the manufacturing of automobile parts. These are made from hard metals like Carbide, Ceramic, Cermet, PCD and CBN. Since making of these hard metal inserts involve a high amount of energy in addition to natural resources namely Titanium, Tungsten, Cobalt etc, any attempt made therefore for reusing of the used up inserts will benefit environment because this reuse will lower down the demand on natural resource. Reuse can be done in a number of ways [ 1 ]. Many of these recycling techniques involve removing the dull portion developed during the first use by re sharpening [ 2 ]. A different approach is being suggested here in which used up inserts can be used directly. This approach leads to use of the unused cutting edges /corners of the insert without any re sharpening. Thus the cost of machining becomes half of the original cost or even more depending on the application for reuse.
Technical Paper

Radiated Noise Reduction in a Single Cylinder Direct Injection (DI) Naturally Aspirated (NA) Engine

2011-05-17
2011-01-1503
Small goods carrier and passenger vehicles powered by Naturally Aspirated (NA) Direct Injection (DI) diesel engines are popular in Indian automobile market. However, they suffer from inherently high radiated noise and poorly perceived sound quality. This paper documents the steps taken to reduce the radiated noise level from such an engine through structural modifications of major noise radiating components identified in the sound power analysis. The work is summarized as follows; Baseline radiated noise measurements of power train and identification of major noise sources through sound intensity mapping and noise source ranking (NSR) in an Engine Noise Test Cell (ENTC) Design modifications for identified major sources in engine structure Vehicle level assessment of the radiated noise in a Vehicle Semi-Anechoic Chamber (VSAC) for all the design modifications. A reduction of 7 dB at hot idle and 4 - 8 dB in loaded speed sweep conditions was observed with the recommended modifications.
Technical Paper

Practical Approach for Vehicle HVAC Noise Reduction and Comfort Improvement

2011-05-17
2011-01-1592
Comfortable cabin environment from temperature, noise and vibration point of view is one of the most desirable aspects of any vehicle operating in hot or cold environment. Noise generated from HVAC system is one of the most irritating phenomena resulting in customer dissatisfaction and complaints. It becomes absolutely necessary to have low HVAC noise levels when the target market has hot weather all round the year. Balance between control of temperature in desired way with least possible noise and vibration is the key for HVAC performance optimization within constrains posed by design and cost. This paper describes the approach for NVH refinement of front HVAC system proposed for a vehicle with limited off-road capability for which packaging constraints and late changes related to airflow and HVAC unit design for meeting comfort and crash requirements resulted in deterioration of noise and vibrations while operation.
Technical Paper

NVH Refinement of Small Gasoline Engine through Digital and Experimental Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0211
Today’s competitive market demands for low cost passenger cars with lighter, smaller size, peppy response and fuel efficient engines and having world class NVH refinement levels. For such requirements, it is essential to optimize the product starting from the design conceptual stage, considering all performance aspects. Generally, three cylinder engines, due to less reciprocating masses, compared to four-cylinder engine, are said to be fuel efficient for the same capacity. Nevertheless, NVH problems caused by inherent imbalance forces and couples remain as drawback of the three-cylinder engine. However, through optimal design of the crank train, control of cylinder to cylinder pressure variation, stiffening of the engine structure, optimizing the integration with a vehicle through proper design of mounts, NVH refinement levels can be improved.
Technical Paper

Innovative Concept of Front Disc Brake Module with Weight Reduction and Cost Optimisation

2014-09-28
2014-01-2505
The customer satisfaction index is higher for disc brake systems because of the advantages like less reaction time, shorter stopping distance and improved pedal feel compared to drum brake system. In current competitive market scenario and as per customer requirements, front disc brake module is becoming necessary. The brake system design is challenging task due to stringent performance meeting criteria and packaging constraints with weight optimization. Brake disc is very important component in the brake system which is expected to withstand high braking torque and dissipate heat during braking event. In existing car to replace front drum brake with disc brake module, vehicle needs to undergo legislative verifications and certifications with respect to pedal effort, stopping distance and circuit failed conditions etc.
Technical Paper

Improvement in Shift Quality in a Multi Speed Gearbox of an Electric Vehicle through Synchronizer Location Optimization

2017-03-28
2017-01-1596
Electrical and Series Hybrid Vehicles are generally provided with single speed reduction gearbox. To improve performance and drive range, a two-speed gearbox with coordinated control of traction motor and gearshift actuator is proposed. For a two-speed gearbox, gearshift without clutch would increase the shifting effort. Active Synchronization is introduced for a smoother gearshift even without clutch. The quality of gearshift is considered as a function of applied shift force and time taken. To enhance the quality of the gearshift further, the location of the synchronizer in the transmission system is optimized. To validate the improvement in the quality of the gearshift, a mathematical model of the two-speed gearbox incorporating proposed location of synchronizer assembly along with active synchronization is developed. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of the results achieved is presented.
Technical Paper

Grit Blasting on Synchronizer - To Resolve Early Crashing Complaint

2017-06-05
2017-01-1769
In today’s automobile market, most OEMs use manual transmission for cars. Gear Shifting is a crucial customer touch point. Any issue or inconvenience caused while shifting gears can result into customer dissatisfaction and will affect the brand image. Synchronizer is a vital subsystem for precise gear shifting mechanism. Based on vehicle application selection of synchronizer for given inertia and speed difference is a key factor which decides overall shift quality of gearbox. For more demanding driver abuse conditions like skip shifting, conventional brass synchronizers have proved inadequate for required speed difference and gear inertia, which eventually results into synchronizer crashing and affects driving performance. To increase synchronizer performance of multi-cone compact brass synchronizer, a ‘Grit blasting process’ has been added. These components tested with an accelerated test plan successfully.
Journal Article

Gearshift Quality Sensitivity Analysis

2019-01-09
2019-26-0328
Gearshift quality is a perceived quality parameter. Hence, is getting much importance because of the increased awareness about comfortable and refined driving experience, especially in the case of passenger cars. When the topic of gearshift feeling is broached in manual transmission vehicles, synchronizer pack (shifter sleeve, engaging gear, strut, synchronizer and gear synchro ring assembly) have been the focus point for optimization. Synchronizer type (single, double or triple cone), lining material, datch chamfer angle of shifter sleeve/synchro ring of gear/synchronizer, all of these have been extensively studied in the past to improve the gearshift quality. With stringent timelines for vehicle development, OEMs prefer to use off-the-shelf powertrain systems developed by powertrain manufacturers. Due to this, avenues to refine gearshift feel gets reduced to a large extent and hence refinement becomes difficult.
Technical Paper

Fiber Reinforced Plastic Durability: Nonlinear Multi-Scale Modeling for Structural Part Life Predictions

2019-01-09
2019-26-0278
OEMs are seeking to develop vehicle light weighting strategies that will allow them to meet weight and fuel economy targets hence increasingly shifting their focus towards incorporating lighter material solutions at mass produced scales. Composites are seen by automotive manufacturers as the solution to lightweight vehicles without affecting their performance. More and more parts are made of short fiber reinforced plastics (SFRP) as well as continuous fiber composites. However, replacing metals by composites requires a new design approach and a clear understanding of the composite behavior. This paradigm however requires a dedicated tool for composite design in order to take into account the specific composite behavior. Traditional design tools are not able to state accurately the composite material behavior and sometime leading to use high safety of factors and lack of confidence in the design.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Cylinder Head Bolts for Torque - Tension Characteristics for Ensuring Sealing Performance of Single Layer Steel Gasket

2010-04-12
2010-01-1315
IC Engine manufacturers are constantly in pursuit of better sealability of cylinder head and engine block interface for meeting performance and durability targets. In order to overcome variation in torque - tension characteristics of cylinder head bolt because of friction variations, yield based clamping are being extensively adopted. Current study is done on torque - tension characteristics of a cylinder head bolt with a controlled quality. The paper enumerates the experimental setup representing a sub 1 liter all aluminum engine's head-block joinery. Studies on torque - tension characteristics of cylinder head bolt and the effect of sealing interface using a cost effective single layer steel gasket are being discussed in the paper. Subject work has led to a successful implementation of angular torque parameters on head bolts to meet functional and durability targets.
Technical Paper

Effect of Flywheel Mass and Its Center of Gravity on Crankshaft Endurance Limit Safety Factor and Dynamics

2013-04-08
2013-01-1743
The crankshaft is the component which transmits dynamic loads from cylinder pressure and inertial loads in engine operating conditions. Because of its crucial importance in functioning of engine and requisite to sustain high dynamic and torsional loading, crankshaft fatigue life is desired to be higher than the predicted engine operating life. Performance of the crank train in diesel engine applications largely depends on the components of its mass elastic system. Flywheel is one such component whose design affects the life of crankshaft. In the present study, the crank train comprising of torsional vibration damper, crankshaft and flywheel along with clutch cover is considered for analysis. Crankshaft dynamic simulation is performed with multi body dynamics technique, fatigue safety factors of crankshaft are calculated with dynamic loads under engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Drills for Long Oil Holes: A Good Potential for Recycle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1154
Recycle, Reuse, Repair is an established process for sustainability. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1] or by redesigning a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2]. This paper explores the possibility of reuse of HSS drills that are used for making long oil holes in automobile parts like crankcase (cylinder block), cylinder head, crankshaft, etc. Design/manufacture of such drills is peculiar by virtue of their size and length and are also known as thick web high helix drills. Making of oil holes entails use of drills that are 500 to 600 mm long depending on the size of the component. In most of the long oil hole drilling operations, a limited portion of the drill is useable. This is because there is a possibility of fouling of the holding elements with guiding element, or with the part being drilled and the chance of accidental damage to part or machine.
Technical Paper

Development of Hose and Pipe Assembly for Automatic Transmission Cooling System

2019-01-09
2019-26-0327
Rubber hose and metallic pipe with crimped joints are extensively used in steering system assembly, transmission oil cooler system, brake system etc. to carry hydraulic fluid or lubricants from one place to another. The pipe and rubber hose assembly provides necessary flexibility for complex routing on the vehicle level. Design of hose and pipe assembly for this application are different due to difference in operating pressure and temperature requirement for vehicle application. This paper defines the criteria for design and validation of hose & pipe assembly used to connect automatic transmission with the cooler. Crimped joints are validated for their separation force, leakages, ability to withstand pressure pulsations, burst test etc. Parameters which influence the hose & pipe assembly durability are pipe end flaring dimensions, type of crimping, reinforcement type, its size, material and pattern, rubber material properties, crimping force, effective crimping diameter etc.
Technical Paper

Design for Recycle of Used Up Metal Cutting Tools

2013-03-25
2013-01-0132
For sustainability, industries are now focusing on methodologies for Recycle, Reuse, Repair of a variety of industrial material. Cutting tools used in manufacturing of automobiles have therefore become a part of it. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1] or by redesigning a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2]. An automobile part was redesigned for reuse of a used up tool [3]. By reforming, very large size grinding wheel used for crankshaft grinding can be reused after it gets smaller in diameter during crankshaft grinding operation [4]. This paper deals with two more implemented ideas to show that with a redesigned tool holder it was possible to reuse used up carbide inserts and significantly cut the manufacturing cost in addition to avoid manufacturing of new inserts and thus conserve natural resources.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of a Mini-Truck Hydraulic Power Steering System Based on Road Load Data (RLD)

2010-04-12
2010-01-0198
Today's automotive industry demands high quality component as well as system designs within very short period of time to provide more value added features to customers on one hand and to meet stringent safety standards on the other. To reconcile economy issues, design optimization has become a key issue. In the last few decades, many OEMs took to analytical tools like Computer-Aided-Engineering (CAE) tools in order to decrease the number of prototype builds and to speed up the time of development cycle. Although such analytical tools are relatively inexpensive to use and faster to implement as compared to the costly traditional design and testing processes: however, there are many variables that CAE tools cannot adequately consider, such as manufacturing processes, assembly, material anisotropy and residual stresses. Therefore, still smart measuring and testing techniques are required to substantiate the CAE results.
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