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Technical Paper

Torsional Fluctuations Consideration while Design of Synchro Rings

2018-09-10
2018-01-1823
In today’s manual transmissions of car, gearshift system requires high performance with particular emphasis on low effort, minimal travel and positive feel. To meet these targets, a high capacity multi cone synchronizers along with higher co-efficient of friction material used for lower gears. The design of synchronizer with these specifications is influenced by torsional fluctuations from engine. Excessive torsional vibrations leads to wobbling of synchro rings within the peripheral clearances with surrounding parts. Wobbling leads to abrasion wear of frictional area of synchro ring causing grating or crashing noise of gears during shifting. This paper presents the optimization of the multiple cone synchronizer design exposed to excessive torsional vibrations and validation of the same on test bench during development stage instead vehicle level validation.
Technical Paper

Test Methodology with Shock Loads and Fatigue Limit of Press Fitted Gears on Shaft

2013-11-27
2013-01-2794
In case of new generation of commercial vehicles, three shaft transmissions are designed with press fitted gears on counter shaft. It allows user to save the cost of transmission manufacturing by considerable amount. In case of heavy commercial vehicles, which are being used in abusive conditions such as mining and off-road applications, it becomes absolutely necessary to ensure that the gears press fit should withstand the continuous loads and impact loads. There are design guidelines available to ensure proper fit and torque carrying capacity between the mating parts. Still, there are gear slippage, shaft and gear breakage failures in the field. In this scenario, there is a need to develop bench test procedure which will capture such failures in the prototype stage. Looking at the failures in the field, it is necessary to capture all above hidden failures in design validation phase.
Technical Paper

Procedure for Material Failure Characterization through GISSMO

2019-01-09
2019-26-0284
Vehicle crashworthiness is an important aspect of vehicle development. Vehicle structural performance plays a critical role during crash for controlling the occupant injuries. During a crash event, vehicle energy management governs the structural performance and passenger compartment integrity. However, these parameters are dependent on material properties such as yield/ultimate tensile strength, work hardening effects, strain rate dependency, material elongations and material fracture strains. Appropriate representation of these material properties in CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) environment is very critical for reliable prediction of vehicle structural performance during development phase. Among all material properties, material fracture strain is the most complex one and needs detailed material characterization approach for failure definitions.
Technical Paper

Practical Approach for Vehicle HVAC Noise Reduction and Comfort Improvement

2011-05-17
2011-01-1592
Comfortable cabin environment from temperature, noise and vibration point of view is one of the most desirable aspects of any vehicle operating in hot or cold environment. Noise generated from HVAC system is one of the most irritating phenomena resulting in customer dissatisfaction and complaints. It becomes absolutely necessary to have low HVAC noise levels when the target market has hot weather all round the year. Balance between control of temperature in desired way with least possible noise and vibration is the key for HVAC performance optimization within constrains posed by design and cost. This paper describes the approach for NVH refinement of front HVAC system proposed for a vehicle with limited off-road capability for which packaging constraints and late changes related to airflow and HVAC unit design for meeting comfort and crash requirements resulted in deterioration of noise and vibrations while operation.
Technical Paper

Jute Fibre Based Composite for Automotive Headlining

2011-04-12
2011-01-0224
With increased awareness about environmental issues, the trend of automobile industry is to use ‘Recycled’ or ‘Biodegradable’ or ‘Energy Recoverable’ material. As a part of this programme, to make the vehicle ‘Green’ in nature, many automobile OEMs have taken the initiative to make use of natural fibre composite in their vehicles. Natural fibre based composite has been successfully proven for less critical as well as for semi-structural applications in an automobile. These typical applications are insulations, headlining, carpets, door pad etc. There is a demanding task for automotive OEMs to meet 85% Recyclability and 95% Recoverability targets by year 2015. To meet the RRR (Reuse, Recycle & Recover) and the ELV (End of Life) regulatory requirements, increased use of natural fibre based composite/ biopolymers is unavoidable. Natural fibre can offer potential advantages such as weight saving and improve overall green rating of the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Fiber Reinforced Plastic Durability: Nonlinear Multi-Scale Modeling for Structural Part Life Predictions

2019-01-09
2019-26-0278
OEMs are seeking to develop vehicle light weighting strategies that will allow them to meet weight and fuel economy targets hence increasingly shifting their focus towards incorporating lighter material solutions at mass produced scales. Composites are seen by automotive manufacturers as the solution to lightweight vehicles without affecting their performance. More and more parts are made of short fiber reinforced plastics (SFRP) as well as continuous fiber composites. However, replacing metals by composites requires a new design approach and a clear understanding of the composite behavior. This paradigm however requires a dedicated tool for composite design in order to take into account the specific composite behavior. Traditional design tools are not able to state accurately the composite material behavior and sometime leading to use high safety of factors and lack of confidence in the design.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Tire Wear Possibility due to Non-Steerable Twin Tire Lift Axle on Heavy Commercial Vehicle

2019-01-09
2019-26-0066
The commercial vehicle market in India is shifting to higher payload capacity vehicles due to a lower transportation cost per unit goods. To cater this requirement, the vehicle manufacturers are designing the heavy multi-axle commercial vehicles and with higher per axle loading capacity. One of such a vehicle design involves five-axle vehicle with non-steerable, twin tire, lift axle. Though using a twin tires have increased loading capacity of lift axle compared to a single tire self-steerable lift axle, it can cause tire scrub while vehicle is turning and leads to a significant tire wear. The tire wear possibility due to use of non-steerable lift axle is estimated through simulation using full vehicle model in ADAMS. The operating zone of the vehicle, where maximum tire wear can occur, is identified through simulation. Different alternatives to reduce tire wear for this scenario are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Anti Scratch Additives on Polypropylene Compound

2013-04-08
2013-01-1391
Automotive Industry is constantly upgrading the value offered on their products at optimized cost. Scratch and mar resistance of interiors and exterior parts, is an important attribute which is linked to perceived quality and value offered to customers. Polypropylene material is optimum material of choice for these parts due to its unique advantages. However, filled polypropylene material has poor scratch and mar resistance. Many techniques for scratch resistance improvement are available such as additions of slip agents, co additives, special fillers, siloxanes, etc. However, some of them may offer some disadvantages like stickiness or tackiness on the surfaces. The choice depends on its effectiveness & cost. This paper deals with design of experiments to evaluate effectiveness of 4 types of additives and their optimum % to give scratch resistance improvement without having detrimental impact on other critical properties.
Technical Paper

Effect of Steering System Compliance on Steered Axle Tire Wear

2012-09-24
2012-01-1909
Subject paper focuses primarily on non uniform tire wear problem of front steered wheels in a pickup model. Cause and effect analysis complemented with field vehicle investigations helped to identify some of the critical design areas. Investigation revealed that steering geometry of the vehicle is undergoing huge variations in dynamic condition as compared to initial static setting. Factors contributing to this behavior are identified and subsequently worked upon followed by a detailed simulation study in order to reproduce the field failures on test vehicles. Similar evaluation with modified steering design package is conducted and results are compared for assessing the improvements achieved. In usual practice, it is considered enough if Steering Geometry parameters are set in static condition and ensured to lie within design specifications.
Technical Paper

Cost Effective High Strength Electric Resistance Welded Tubes For Structural Applications

2010-10-05
2010-01-1912
The properties of Cold drawn electric resistance welded, as drawn (CEW-AD) tubes and Electric resistance welded (ERW) tubes are vastly different. Deformation resistance of ERW tube is less than half that of CEW-AD tube, hence not preferred for structural applications, common practice being the use of CEW-AD tubes for Chassis cross members in vehicles. A new cost effective high strength ERW tube was developed which has been proved to be superior to the currently used CEW-AD tubes in terms of mechanical properties, formability, consistency and uniformity of the properties over the tube length. The newly developed tube through use of special micro alloy grade in ERW has made it possible to eliminate some of the manufacturing processes like annealing, phosphating, cold drawing etc. which has led to considerable cost saving.
Technical Paper

A Unique and Novel Approach for Increasing the Life of Automotive Audio Signaling Device

2014-04-01
2014-01-0237
Automotive Audio Signaling system is very vital and is controlled by local regulatory requirements. In India, usage of horn is very frequent due to highly congested traffic conditions, and is in the order of 10 to 12 times per kilometer. This results in the deterioration of the “contact”, which enables the functioning of the device. Hence the device requires premature replacement or frequent tuning, which are time consuming and results an increase in warranty costs and cost of service as well. Thus, to overcome this problem a unique and novel approach is proposed in this paper which enhances the life of the automobile horn, by implementing an additional pair of Contacts on circuit breakers, providing a parallel path for the power supply. This effort ensures that the life of the horn is increased by 5 times than the existing design.
Technical Paper

A Method to Evaluate Impact of Power Steering on Fuel Economy and Optimization

2019-01-09
2019-26-0309
Vehicle manufacturers strive hard to achieve best in class fuel economy. Apart from light weighting of the structures, driveline optimization and reduction of tire rolling resistance, tapping of parasitic losses is also important and helps to optimize the design of auxiliary power consuming systems. One of such system studied in this work is power steering system. The effect of parasitic losses on fuel economy is predominant for small commercial vehicle compare to heavy vehicles. The evaluation of deterioration in the fuel economy due to implementation of power steering system on one of the small commercial vehicle is carried out using multiple virtual simulation tools. Virtual route profile is modelled using longitude, latitude and altitude data captured through GPS and steering duty cycle is mapped in terms of steering rotation angle. A system level model of hydraulic power steering system is developed.
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