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Technical Paper

The Audi Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel: Final Design and First Operational Experience

Audi's new full scale aeroacoustic wind tunnel is under full operation now. The new facility is designed for full scale automotive testing of aerodynamics and aeroacoustics for vehicles up to 3 m2 frontal area at wind speeds up to 300 kph. The highlights are the unique ground simulation system with boundary layer suction and a 5-belt-system, and the extremely low background noise of only 60 dB(A) at 160 kph. First the background of the project is illustrated and the need for the special features of the tunnel is deduced form the industrial requirements. Then an overview of the facility design is given with a detailed description of the key technical components. The calibration of the self-correcting test section will be discussed and the physical background for it will be examined more closely. For the calibrated wind tunnel the results of two correlation tests including open jet as well as closed wall wind tunnels show a reasonable conformity.
Journal Article

Tackling the Complexity of Timing-Relevant Deployment Decisions in Multicore-Based Embedded Automotive Software Systems

Multicore-based ECUs are increasingly used in embedded automotive software systems to allow more demanding automotive applications at moderate cost and energy consumption. Using a high number of parallel processors together with a high number of executed software components results in a practically unmanageable number of deployment alternatives to choose from. However correct deployment is one important step for reaching timing goals and acceptable latency, both also a must to reach safety goals of safety-relevant automotive applications. In this paper we focus at reducing the complexity of deployment decisions during the phases of allocation and scheduling. We tackle this complexity of deployment decisions by a mixed constructive and analytic approach.
Technical Paper

Road Tests Adopted to Analyse Cars’ Vibrational Behaviour

Optimization of ride comfort is becoming increasingly important in chassis development. Constantly rising traffic density and comfort-orientated customer preferences are mainly responsible for this. Comfort and its improvement are important, not only on bad road surfaces, but also on even surfaces. The complexity of analysis leads to a strong link between car testing and simulation. The testing itself is divided in to roadtests and test stands. It is of outstanding importance to analyze the vehicles vibrational behavior from road tests as it is a real life situation. In order to get meaningful results from the roadtest the vehicle has to be seen as a complete vibrational system. The vibrational behavior of a system is clearly defined by input and output of the system. Road tests are chosen in relation to the predicted car. The roads surface is the input of the system exciting the vibrational subsystems of a car. The ride tests are used for the evaluation of drive response behavior.
Technical Paper

Reference Static and Dynamic Pressures in Automotive Wind Tunnels

The reference pressures are determined in automotive wind tunnels by measurement of pressures and pressure differences at upstream positions along the wind tunnel nozzle. For closed wall wind tunnels usually the so called nozzle method is used, where the volume flux is calculated from a pressure difference measured at the nozzle contour and a calibration factor determined in the empty test section. For open jet wind tunnels a choice is available between nozzle and plenum method. For the plenum method the reference static pressure is taken from the plenum chamber and the dynamic pressure also refers to the plenum conditions. The static reference pressure in closed wall tunnels is calculated by subtracting the dynamic pressure from the total pressure in the settling chamber. In this paper, the definitions and the differences between the two methods are discussed in detail.
Technical Paper

Presenting a Fourier-Based Air Path Model for Real-Time Capable Engine Simulation Enhanced by a Semi-Physical NO-Emission Model with a High Degree of Predictability

Longitudinal models are used to evaluate different vehicle-engine concepts with respect to driving behavior and emissions. The engine is generally map-based. An explicit calculation of both fluid dynamics inside the engine air path and cylinder combustion is not considered due to long computing times. Particularly for dynamic certification cycles (WLTC, US06 etc.), dynamic engine effects severely influence the quality of results. Hence, an evaluation of transient engine behavior with map-based engine models is restricted to a certain extent. The coupling of detailed 1D-engine models is an alternative, which rapidly increases the model computation time to approximately 300 times higher than that of real time. In many technical areas, the Fourier transformation (FT) method is applied, which makes it possible to represent superimposed oscillations by their sinusoidal harmonic oscillations of different orders.
Technical Paper

On the Application of Classical Wind Tunnel Corrections for Automotive Bodies

The classical theory of wind tunnel corrections calculated from potential flow theory is revisited. In this context a flow model uniformly valid for all types of test sections is developed for the correction of drag in automotive wind tunnels. To define and size the singularities setting up the flow model only geometrical properties of the model and measured force coefficients will be used. To achieve a correct representation of the flow about a vehicle body a number of improvements to the classical approach are proposed. Based on the uniformly valid flow model, correction formulae for closed wall, open jet and slotted wall test sections are given. For the open jet and slotted wall case it is shown, that the presented formulae are still incomplete, whereas for the closed wall case the correction is ready to use. The correction approach is validated step by step by comparison with appropriate experimental data.
Journal Article

Influence of Rubber Temperature on Transfer Functions of Bushings

In ride comfort as well as driving dynamics, the behavior of the vehicle is affected by several subsystems and their properties. When analyzing the suspension, especially the characteristics of the main spring and damper but also rubber bushings are of main importance. Still, the properties of the different components are dependent on the present operating conditions. Concerning rubber bushings, several effects have already been investigated, e.g. dependencies of the transfer function of frequency, amplitude or load history. In this context influences of changes in temperature are often neglected. However, in the following research, the focus specifically lies on determination and analysis of the temperature dependency of rubber bushings. For this purpose, initially the relationship between properties of pure rubber and rubber bushings is described, which serves as a basis for correlating respective temperature dependencies.
Technical Paper

Induced Drag of Ground Vehicles and Its Interaction with Ground Simulation

For the aerodynamic development of an aircraft the induced drag is an important quantity and it has a significant impact on the design of the wing. The induced drag corresponds to the power requirement of the wing to generate the necessary lift. In many cases this is the dominant source of drag for aircraft. In ground vehicle aerodynamics the concept of induced drag up to now has attracted much less attention. This is partly due to the fact, that vehicle aerodynamicists usually optimize the vehicles to generate little or no lift. The second reason is that it is much more difficult for a ground vehicle to separate the total drag into the different contributions. During wind tunnel tests of vehicles with and without ground simulation some astonishing results were found, especially when comparing results for different rear end shapes.
Technical Paper

Helmholtz Resonators Acting as Sound Source in Automotive Aeroacoustics

Helmholtz-resonators are discussed in technical acoustics normally in conjunction with attenuation of sound, not with amplification or even production of sound. On the other hand everybody knows the sound produced by a bottle, when someone blows over the orifice. During the investigation of the sound produced in body gaps it was found that the underlying flow physics are closely related to the Helmholtz-resonator. But different from the typical Helmholtz-resonator generated noise – as for example the blown bottle or, from the automotive world, the sun roof buffeting – there is no fluid resonance involved in the process. For body gaps the random pressure fluctuation of the turbulent boundary layer is sufficient to excite the acoustic resonance in the cavity. The sound generation is characterized by a continuous rise in sound pressure level with increasing velocity, the rise is proportional to U with varying exponents.
Technical Paper

Gradient Effects on Drag Due to Boundary-Layer Suction in Automotive Wind Tunnels

A region with floor boundary-layer suction upstream of the vehicle to remove the oncoming boundary layer is often used in automotive wind tunnels. These suction systems inevitably change the empty-tunnel pressure gradient. In this paper, the empty-tunnel pressure gradient created by the use of boundary layer suction and its effect on measured drag are investigated. By using excess suction - more suction than necessary to remove the floor boundary layer – it was possible to show experimentally that the major part of the drag increase due to boundary layer suction is created by unintended gradient effects. Only a minor part of the drag increase is due to the increased flow velocities at the lower parts of the vehicle, or in other words, due to the improved ground simulation. A theoretical model, using the concept of horizontal buoyancy to predict the gradient effect, is proposed. The model is compared to the experimental results as well as to CFD calculations.
Technical Paper

Correction of Nozzle Gradient Effects in Open Jet Wind Tunnels

In open jet wind tunnels with high blockage ratios a sharp rise in drag is observed for models approaching the nozzle exit plane. The physical background for this rise in drag will be analyzed in the paper. Starting with a basic analysis of the dependencies of the effect on model and wind tunnel properties, the key parameters of the problem will be identified. It will be shown using a momentum balance and potential flow theory that interaction between model and nozzle exit can result in significant tunnel-induced gradients at the model position. In a second step, a CFD-based investigation is used to show the interaction between nozzle exit and a bluff body. The results cover the whole range between open jet and closed wall test section interaction. The model starts at a large distance from the nozzle, then moves towards the nozzle, enters the nozzle and is finally completely inside the nozzle.
Technical Paper

Cooling Drag of Ground Vehicles and Its Interaction with Ground Simulation

Cooling drag is the increase in the total drag due to the internal flow in the cooling system. Because of the high flow resistance in the heat exchanger the momentum of the fluid needed for engine cooling usually is dissipated nearly completely. The resulting drag penalty can be approximated by the so called ram drag. For ground vehicles the cooling drag is typically lower than this approximation due to positive interference of the cooling flow with the general flow around the vehicle. Different mechanisms for the positive interference have been described in the literature. Inlet interference as well as outlet interference can result in significant reduction of the share of the cooling drag. Positive outlet interference is obtained, when the remaining kinetic energy of the cooling flow contributes significant thrust to the overall momentum balance.
Technical Paper

Contemplation of Nozzle Blockage in Open Jet Wind-Tunnels in View of Different ‘Q’ Determination Techniques

This paper deals with the correction of aerodynamic interference effects taking place between the nozzle of an open jet wind tunnel and a test model. In order to deduce correct aerodynamic coefficients these interference effects have to be allowed for in the determination of the correct wind tunnel speed. In open jet wind tunnels basically two different methods are used to determine the tunnel speed. One is the so-called nozzle-method, utilizing the pressure difference down the nozzle to determine the nozzle exit velocity or tunnel speed. The other procedure is the so-called plenum-method, where the pressure difference between the settling chamber and the surrounding plenum chamber of the test section is measured and used. In this paper it is shown that both methods yield a systematic error, since the velocity distribution in the nozzle differs from the velocity distribution in an unbounded stream measured at the same distance from the model.
Technical Paper

Bayesian Test Design for Reliability Assessments of Safety-Relevant Environment Sensors Considering Dependent Failures

With increasing levels of driving automation, the perception provided by automotive environment sensors becomes highly safety relevant. A correct assessment of the sensors’ perception reliability is therefore crucial for ensuring the safety of the automated driving functionalities. There are currently no standardized procedures or guidelines for demonstrating the perception reliability of the sensors. Engineers therefore face the challenge of setting up test procedures and plan test drive efforts. Null Hypothesis Significance Testing has been employed previously to answer this question. In this contribution, we present an alternative method based on Bayesian parameter inference, which is easy to implement and whose interpretation is more intuitive for engineers without a profound statistical education. We show how to account for different environmental conditions with an influence on sensor performance and for statistical dependence among perception errors.
Technical Paper

Audi Aero-Acoustic Wind Tunnel

The present paper reveals the design concept as well as results of experimental investigations, which were conducted in the early design stage of the planned AUDI Aero-Acoustic Wind Tunnel. This low-noise open-jet facility, featuring a nozzle exit area of 11 m2 and a top speed of approximately 60 m/s, enables aerodynamic as well as acoustic testing of both, full-scale and model-scale ground vehicles. Ground simulation is provided by means of a moving-belt rig. The surrounding plenum is designed as a semi-anechoic chamber to simulate acoustic free-field conditions around the vehicle. Fan noise will be attenuated below the noise level of the open jet. The work reported herein, comprises 1/8-scale pilot-tunnel experiments of aerodynamic and acoustic configurations which were carried out at the University of Darmstadt.
Technical Paper

Aeroacoustic Measurements in Turbulent Flow on the Road and in the Wind Tunnel

Aeroacoustics of road vehicles is becoming more and more important as it directly affects the comfort of the passengers. The tests made in the wind tunnel, in low-turbulence flow conditions, show results that are qualitatively different from those measured on the road. To get a better understanding of this, Audi and Pininfarina decided to carry out a test campaign on some cars, both on the road and in the wind tunnel, in various turbulent flow conditions. In the case of road measurements, some typical turbulent flow conditions, like those caused by atmospheric wind and those produced by the traffic, have been investigated. Wind tunnel measurements have been performed both in the base wind tunnel (in Audi and in Pininfarina) and in the presence of turbulent flows generated, in the Pininfarina wind tunnel, by the Turbulence Generator System, already described in previous SAE papers [1,3,5,7].
Technical Paper

Active Suppression of Buffeting at the Audi AAWT: Operational Experiences and Enhancements of the Control Scheme

In order to suppress the well-documented low frequency pressure fluctuations in open jet wind tunnels, termed ‘wind tunnel buffeting’, an Active Resonance Control (ARC) System was implemented in the Audi aero-acoustic wind tunnel several years ago. This ARC-Sys-tem reduces the periodic pressure fluctuations by up to 23 dB and completely eliminates the periodic velocity fluctuations using a simple feedback control scheme. To set up the ARC system in practice, the system's parameters are optimised once for each critical flow velocity, when the vortex shedding frequency coincides with an acoustic resonance mode of the wind tunnel. Due to the fact that both frequency and amplitude of the excited resonances not only depend on flow velocity but also on other parameters such as collector position and test-car geometry, the system has to be adjusted with regard to each of these cases.
Journal Article

A ‘Microscopic’ Structural Mechanics FE Model of a Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell for Quasi-Static Load Cases

This study deals with the experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of a lithium-ion pouch cell and its modelling in an explicit finite element simulation code. One can distinguish between ‘macroscopic’ and ‘microscopic’ modelling approaches. In the ‘macroscopic’ approach, one material model approximates the behaviour of multiple inner cell layers. In the ‘microscopic’ approach, which is used in the present study, all layers and their interactions are modelled separately. The cell under study is a pouch-type lithium-ion cell with a liquid electrolyte. With its cell chemistry, design, size and capacity it is usable for automotive applications and can be assembled into traction batteries. One cell sample was fully discharged and disassembled, and its components (anode, cathode, separator and pouch) were examined and measured by electron microscopy. Components were also tensile tested.
Journal Article

A Stochastic Physical Simulation Framework to Quantify the Effect of Rainfall on Automotive Lidar

The performance of environment perceiving sensors such as e.g. lidar, radar, camera and ultrasonic sensors is safety critical for automated driving vehicles. Therefore, one has to assess the sensors’ performance to assure the automated driving system’s safety. The performance of these sensors is however to some degree sensitive towards adverse weather conditions. A challenge is to quantify the effect of adverse weather conditions on the sensor’s performance early in the development of an automated driving system. This challenge is addressed in this work for lidar sensors. The lidar equation was previously employed in this context to derive estimates of a lidar’s maximum range in different weather conditions. In this work, we present a stochastic simulation framework based on a probabilistic extension of the lidar equation, to quantify the effect of adverse rainfall conditions on a lidar’s raw detection performance.
Journal Article

A Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of Open Jet Wind Tunnel Interferences using the DrivAer Reference Model

The open jet wind tunnel is a widespread test section configuration for developing full scale passenger cars in the automotive industry. However, using a realizable nozzle cross section for cost effective aerodynamic development is always connected to the presence of wind tunnel effects. Wind tunnel wall interferences which are not present under open road conditions, can affect the measurement of aerodynamic forces. Thus, wind tunnel corrections may be required. This work contains the results of a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) approach using unsteady Delayed Detached Eddy Simulations (DDES) to evaluate wind tunnel interferences for open jet test sections. The Full Scale DrivAer reference geometry of the Technical University of Munich (TUM) using different rear end shapes has been selected for these investigations.