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Technical Paper

Virtual Test of Injector Design Using CFD

Diesel exhaust aftertreatment solutions using injection, such as urea-based SCR and lean NOx trap systems, effectively reduce the emission NOx level in various light vehicles, commercial vehicles, and industrial applications. The performance of the injector plays an important role in successfully utilizing this type of technology, and the CFD tool provides not only a time and cost-saving, but also a reliable solution for extensively design iterations for optimizing the injector internal nozzle flow design. Inspired by this fact, a virtual test methodology on injector dosing rate utilizing CFD was proposed for the design process of injector internal nozzle flows.
Technical Paper

Transient Performance of an HC LNC Aftertreatment System Applying Ethanol as the Reductant

As emissions regulations around the world become more stringent, emerging markets are seeking alternative strategies that align with local infrastructures and conditions. A Lean NOx Catalyst (LNC) is developed that achieves up to 60% NOx reduction with ULSD as its reductant and ≻95% with ethanol-based fuel reductants. Opportunities exist in countries that already have an ethanol-based fuel infrastructure, such as Brazil, improving emissions reduction penetration rates without costs and complexities of establishing urea infrastructures. The LNC performance competes with urea SCR NOx reduction, catalyst volume, reductant consumption, and cost, plus it is proven to be durable, passing stationary test cycles and adequately recovering from sulfur poisoning. Controls are developed and applied on a 7.2L engine, an inline 6-cylinder non-EGR turbo diesel.
Technical Paper

The Role of CFD Combustion Simulation in Diesel Burner Development

Diesel burners introduce combustion of diesel fuel to raise exhaust gas temperature to Diesel Oxidization Catalyst (DOC) light-off or Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration conditions, thereby eliminating the need of engine measures such as post-injections. Such diesel combustion requirement nevertheless poses challenges to burner development especially in combustion control and risk mitigation of DPF material failure. In particular, burner design must satisfy good soot distribution and heat distribution at DPF front face after meeting minimum requirements of ignition, heat release, and backpressure. In burner development, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models have been developed based on commercial codes for burner thermal and flow management with capability of predicting comprehensive physical and chemical phenomena including turbulence induced mixing, fuel injection, fuel droplet transport, diesel combustion, radiation, conjugate heat transfer and etc.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effect in Exhaust System Fatigue Life Prediction

Automotive exhaust system experiences vibratory and thermal loads. Bogey test had been the major validation method until recent years when the strain-life approach was adopted to evaluate component's fatigue life. In practice, when using the strain-life model to evaluate a component subjected to elevated temperature, temperature effect on component fatigue life is considered by introducing a temperature scale factor KC that is used to scale up the measured nominal strain, hence the mechanical load. This paper intends to propose a method to estimate KC by designing component bench tests at room temperature and at elevated temperature, respectively. Two major failure modes in the exhaust system are investigated and different temperature effects on the base metal fatigue and on the weld or heat-affected zone are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Probabilistic Isothermal, Anisothermal, and High-Temperature Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Life Assessment and CAE Implementations

Fatigue life assessment is an integral part of the durability and reliability evaluation process of vehicle exhaust components and systems. The probabilistic life assessment approaches, including analytical, experimental, and simulation, CAE implementation in particular, are attracting significant attentions in recent years. In this paper, the state-of-the-art probabilistic life assessment methods for vehicle exhausts under combined thermal and mechanical loadings are reviewed and investigated. The loading cases as experienced by the vehicle exhausts are first categorized into isothermal fatigue, anisothermal fatigue, and high-temperature thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) based on the failure mechanisms. Subsequently, the probabilistic life assessment procedures for each category are delineated, with emphasis on product validation.
Technical Paper

Potential Failure Modes and Accelerating Test Strategy of Burner

Driven by diesel engine emission regulation, more emission aftertretment products have been under development by Tenneco to address the Particular Matter (PM) and NOx reduction needs. The T.R.U.E. (Thermal Regeneration Unit for Exhaust) Clean active thermal management system is one of the examples to reduce PM. The system is designed to increase exhaust temperatures for DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) regeneration. This product is exposed to high temperature and high oxidation. Therefore, thermal fatigue, creep, oxidation and the interaction become critical mechanism to be considered for its durability. One of the key challenges to validate this product is to find a way of accelerated testing for thermal, creep, and oxidation as well as for vibration. In this paper, accelerated durability test strategy for high temperature device like T.R.U.E Clean is addressed.
Technical Paper

Optimization of a Urea SCR System for On-Highway Truck Applications

In order to satisfy tightening global emissions regulations, diesel truck manufacturers are striving to meet increasingly stringent Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) reduction standards. The majority of heavy duty diesel trucks have integrated urea SCR NOx abatement strategies. To this end, aftertreatment systems need to be properly engineered to achieve high conversion efficiencies. A EuroV intent urea SCR system is evaluated and failed to meet NOx conversion targets with severe urea deposit formation. Systematic enhancements of the design have been performed to enable it to meet targets, including emission reduction efficiency via improved reagent mixing, evaporation, distribution, back pressure, and removing of urea deposits. Multiple urea mixers, injector mounting positions and various system layouts are developed and evaluated, including both CFD analysis and full scale laboratory tests.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Close-Coupled SCR Concepts to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements for Heavy-Duty Engines

The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system (ATS). Several different aftertreatment architectures and technologies, all based on selective catalytic reduction (SCR), are being considered to meet this need. One of these architectures, the close-coupled SCR (ccSCR), was evaluated in this study using two different physics-based, 1D models; the simulations focused on the first 300 seconds of the cold-start Federal Test Procedure (FTP). The first model, describing a real, EuroVI-compliant engine equipped with series turbochargers, was used to evaluate a ccSCR located either i) immediately downstream of the low-pressure turbine, ii) in between the two turbines, or iii) in a by-pass around the high pressure turbine.
Technical Paper

Modal Transient FEA Study to Simulate Exhaust System Road Load Test

Durability life is one of the major concerns in the automotive industry. Road Load Data Acquisition (RLDA) is one of the most important steps to verify exhaust system durability performance. RLDA will not only provide data for system level rig testing drive file development but also for exhaust components validation (computing safety factors). Modal transient FEA can be utilized to simulate either vehicle durability testing or sub-system level rig testing. How to simulate correctly is critical in the simulation. One of the most challenging portions in the full exhaust system simulation is isolator modeling due to its non-linear characteristics. However, we have to use linear modeling to simulate isolator in modal transient analysis, which induces errors.
Technical Paper

Low Temperature SCR Catalysts Optimized for Cold-Start and Low-Load Engine Exhaust Conditions

The main objective of this work is to develop a low-temperature SCR catalyst for the reduction of nitrogen oxides at cold start, low-idle and low-load conditions. A series of metal oxide- incorporated beta zeolite catalysts were prepared by adopting incipient wetness technique, cation-exchange, deposition-precipitation and other synthesis techniques. The resulting catalysts were characterized and tested for reduction of NOx in a fixed bed continuous flow quartz micro-reactor using ammonia as the reductant gas. Initial catalyst formulations have been exhibited good NOx reduction activity at low-temperatures. These catalyst formulations showed a maximum NOx conversion in the temperature range of 100 - 350°C. Besides, more experiments were performed with the aim of optimizing these formulations with respect to the metal atomic ratio, preparation method, active components and supported metal type.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Urea Deposits in Urea SCR Systems for Medium and Heavy Duty Trucks

With increasing applications of urea SCR for NOx emission reduction, improving the system performance and durability has become a high priority. A typical urea SCR system includes a urea injector, injector housing, mixer, and appropriate pipe configurations to allow continuous urea injection into the exhaust stream and evaporation of urea solution into gaseous products. Continuous operation at various conditions with high NOx reduction is possible, but one problem that threatens the life and performance of these systems is urea deposit. When urea or its byproducts become deposited on the inner surfaces of the system including walls, mixers, injector housings and substrates it can create concerns of backpressure and material deteriorations. In addition, deposits as a waste of reagents can negatively affect engine operation, emissions performance and DEF economy. Urea deposit behavior is explored in terms of heat transfer, pipe geometry, injector layout and mixing mechanisms.
Technical Paper

Integration of Diesel Burner for Large Engine Aftertreatment using CFD

Diesel burners recently have been used in Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration process, in which the exhaust gas temperature is raised through the combustion process to burn off the soot particles. The feasibility of such process using the burner in large diesel applications is investigated along with a mixer and DPF. For such applications, only partial flow of the exhaust stream is fed into the burner and the resulting hot flow from combustion process is then mixed with the rest of the main stream. The amount of flow into the burner plays a vital role in overall system performance as it determines the amount of hot gas needed for Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) light-off (to facilitate DPF regeneration) and also oxygen amount needed for secondary combustion. A passive valve plate design is proposed for such flow split applications for the burner.
Technical Paper

Failure Analysis and Problem Solving of Component Fatigue Tested Parts

Automotive exhaust system is supported by the hanger rods welded to it. Tenneco validates the structural integrity of these joints to customer specific reliability and confidence targets. As part of that validation, it is common to hold part of the exhaust system and apply constant amplitude, fully-reversed load on the hanger rod and perform a fatigue test till there is a failure somewhere in the toe of the weld or in the hanger rod. The exhaust system is designed, engineered and manufactured per system design specification of the customer. In an exhaust system program life cycle, the same fatigue test is performed on Prototype and Production parts. The same test is also performed on an additional batch of Pre-Production parts in the current case. Prototype, pre-production and production parts are referred here as Design Verification (DV), Pre-Production Verification (PPV) and Process Verification (PV) tests and parts.
Journal Article

Durability and Reliability Test Planning and Test Data Analysis

Durability/reliability design of products, such as auto exhaust systems, is essentially based on the observation of test data and the accurate interpretation of these data. Therefore, test planning and related data analysis are critical to successful engineering designs. To facilitate engineering applications, testing and data analysis methods have been standardized over the last decades by several standard bodies such as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). However, over the last few years, several effective testing and data analysis methods have been developed, and the existing standard procedures need to be updated to incorporate the new observations, knowledge, and consensus. In this paper, the common practices and the standard test planning and data analysis procedures are reviewed first. Subsequently, the recent development in accelerated testing, equilibrium based data fitting, design curve construction, and Bayesian statistical data analysis is presented.
Technical Paper

Development of Low Temperature Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) Catalysts for Future Emissions Regulations

A series of novel metal-oxide (TiO2, TiO2-SiO2)-supported Mn, Fe, Co, V, Cu and Ce catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness technique and investigated for the low-temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia at industrial relevantly conditions. Among all the prepared catalysts, Cu/TiO2 showed superior de-NOx performance in the temperature range of 150-200 °C followed by Mn/TiO2 in the temperature range of 200-250 °C. The Ce/TiO2 catalyst exhibited a broad temperature window with notable de-NOx performance in the temperature regime of 250-350 °C. The phyico-chemical characterization results revealed that the activity enhancement was correlated with the properties of the support material. All the anatasetitania-supported catalysts (M/TiO2 (Hombikat)) demonstrated significantly high de-NOx performance above 150 °C.
Technical Paper

Developing Design Guidelines for an SCR Assembly Equipped for RF Sensing of NH3 Loading

The Cu-zeolite (CuZ) SCR catalyst enables higher NOx conversion efficiency in part because it can store a significant amount of NH3. “NH3 storage control”, where diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is dosed in accord with a target NH3 loading, is widely used with CuZ catalysts to achieve very high efficiency. The NH3 loading actually achieved on the catalyst is currently estimated through a stoichiometric calculation. With future high-capacity CuZ catalyst designs, it is likely that the accuracy of this NH3 loading estimate will become limiting for NOx conversion efficiency. Therefore, a direct measurement of NH3 loading is needed; RF sensing enables this. Relative to RF sensing of soot in a DPF (which is in commercial production), RF sensing of NH3 adsorbed on CuZ is more challenging. Therefore, more attention must be paid to the “microwave resonance cavity” created within the SCR assembly. The objective of this study was to develop design guidelines to enable and enhance RF sensing.
Technical Paper

DPF Acoustic Performance: An Evaluation of Various Substrate Materials and Soot Conditions

The Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is used on today's diesel vehicles to reduce the amount of soot being released into the atmosphere from diesel exhaust. The DPFs are typically wall-flow filtration devices of various extruded porous ceramic materials with more than 95% efficiency. Once the filter has loaded with soot, the DPF undergoes regeneration where the exhaust temperature is raised to burn off the soot. With the DPF being relatively new aftertreatment technology, the exhaust industry must investigate the acoustic and performance effects of the DPF when added to an exhaust system. In many applications the DPF replaces the exhaust muffler because of limited packaging space. The acoustic performance of the DPF changes with increasing soot density and exhaust backpressure. The acoustic response is measured with physical testing at multiple soot load densities. This study is part of a graduation thesis project for Kettering University[1].
Technical Paper

Comparative Corrosion Evaluation of Ferritic Stainless Steels Utilized in Automotive Exhaust Applications

The purpose of this work was to initiate a comparative evaluation of the aqueous corrosion resistance of ferritic stainless steels currently used to fabricate automotive exhaust systems. Both acid condensate and double loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) testing using both as-received and heat treated test coupons prepared from Types 409, 409Al, 436 and 439 stainless steel was conducted for this purpose. A truncated version of an in-house acid condensate testing protocol revealed that Type 409Al stainless steel was the most resistant to corrosion of the four ferritic stainless steels examined, whereas Type 409 stainless steel was the least resistance to corrosion.
Technical Paper

Clean EGR for Gasoline Engines – Innovative Approach to Efficiency Improvement and Emissions Reduction Simultaneously

External Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) has been used on diesel engines for decades and has also been used on gasoline engines in the past. It is recently reintroduced on gasoline engines to improve fuel economy at mid and high engine load conditions, where EGR can reduce throttling losses and fuel enrichment. Fuel enrichment causes fuel penalty and high soot particulates, as well as hydrocarbon (HC) emissions, all of which are limited by emissions regulations. Under stoichiometric conditions, gasoline engines can be operated at high EGR rates (> 20%), but more than diesel engines, its intake gas including external EGR needs extreme cooling (down to ~50°C) to gain the maximum fuel economy improvement. However, external EGR and its problems at low temperatures (fouling, corrosion & condensation) are well known.
Technical Paper

CFD Study of Sensitivity Parameters in SCR NOx Reduction Modeling

The Diesel engine combustion process results in harmful exhaust emissions, mainly composed of Particulate Matter (PM), Hydro Carbon (HC), Carbon monoxide (CO) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). Several technologies have been developed in the past decades to control these diesel emissions. One of the promising and well matured technology of reducing NOx is to implement Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) using ammonia (NH3) as the reducing agent. For an effective SCR system, the aqueous urea solutions should be fully decomposed into ammonia and it should be well distributed across the SCR. In the catalyst, all the ammonia is utilized for NOx reduction process. In the design stage, it is more viable to implement Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for design iterations to determine an optimized SCR system based on SCR flow distribution. And in later stage, experimental test is required to predict the after-treatment system performance based on NOx reduction.