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Technical Paper

The Generation of Cyclic Blockloading Test Profiles from Rainflow Histograms

A numerical method for generating a blockloading profile from a rainflow histogram is described. Unlike previous techniques, this method produces a blockloading profile which, when rainflow-counted, yields a rainflow histogram identical to the original. When implemented with modern data acquisition and signal-processing techniques, this generation method provides a means of developing blockloading test profiles which are correlated with actual service data. This key benefit elevates existing simple testing systems as useful and productive tools despite the emrgence of more complex testing systems.
Technical Paper

The Development of Tools for the Automatic Extraction of Desired Information from Large Amounts of Engineering Data

Product development processes generate large quantities of experimental and analytical data. The data evaluation process is usually quite lengthy since the data needs to be extracted from a large number of individual output files and arranged in suitable formats before they can be compared. When the data quantity grows extremely large, manual extraction cannot be done in a limited timeframe. This paper describes a set of tools developed by MTS engineers to automatically extract the desired information from a large number of files and perform data post-processing. The tools greatly improved both speed and accuracy of the evaluation process during the development of a sound quality-based end-of-line inspection system for seat tracks [1]. It allowed engineers to quickly gather a comprehensive understanding of the relative importance of individual design parameters and of their correlation to the subjective perception of the sound quality of the seat track.
Technical Paper

Racing Motorcycle Design Process Using Physical and Virtual Testing Methods

Recently, the use of laboratory-based physical prototype testing as well as the design of virtual models and virtual test equipment has accelerated the pace and quality of racing vehicle development. In particular, the combined use of both virtual and physical testing, when correlated to racetrack improvements, yields a powerful development tool(1), (2),(3). In this study, we applied these techniques from the first stages of the design of a unique Grand Prix racing motorcycle. First, a wire-frame CAD model, then a parametric CAD solid model of the motorcycle was created after preliminary calculations specified the approximate design of structural elements. Subsequently, a virtual dynamic model was created and subjected to a variety of inputs, including sine sweeps, shaped white noise and simulated road time-histories. Loads and other dynamic responses were measured on the virtual model, so that it's design could then be optimized to yield acceptable performance and durability.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Load Transducer Design Using Computer-Based Analytical Tools

Rapid development of advanced multi-axial load transducer systems now requires the use of computer-based analytical tools to assist the development engineer optimize the design to meet often-conflicting design targets. This paper presents a case study based on the development of a wheel force load transducer to meet a challenging set of performance goals including accuracy, repeatability, durability and insensitivity to the external environment. The paper also highlights the limitations of some of the current analytical tools when used for load transducer design, and how these limitations can be overcome by cost-effective combinations of analytical performance prediction and physical test confirmation.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Steady State Handling Characteristics of Formula Vehicle with Antiroll Bars

Antiroll bar plays an important role in rollover stability of the vehicle. But not only does it limit the vehicle roll during cornering, but also alters the lateral load transfer between the tracks, which in turn affects the cornering performance of the vehicle. This paper deals with the design and mathematical modeling of antiroll bars to reduce the body roll of the vehicle from 1.5°/g to less than 1.0°/g. Rear bar uses a conventional torsion type bar but the front anti roll mechanism is an unconventional antiroll bar using a rotating double cantilever mechanism. Mathematical modeling is done for pushrod rod actuated antiroll mechanisms to simulate its non-linear roll rates. Antiroll bars for front and rear are designed for the calculated stiffness. Finite Element Analysis of antiroll bar and its components is done and the mechanism is tested on the vehicle. Steady state tire model parameters are generated by curve fitting tire testing data into pacejka coefficients.
Technical Paper

LEAN Techniques for Effective, Efficient and Secure Information Processing in Automotive Homologation

It is an established fact that virtual knowledge based engineering has revolutionized R & D activities by streamlining processes, ensuring productivity and accuracy. This has resulted in freeing up time for quality interpretational work and decision making for engineering the best of products. Subsequently, homologation is a mandatory requisite activity for product signoff. It certifies the quality of the product and is an important factor in giving the product an authenticity for sale in the market. Homologation entails compliance to regulations existing in form of well-established standards which elaborate systematic and detailed guidelines on conducting physical testing for automotive systems, sub-systems or components for specific vehicle types.
Technical Paper

Integration of Real and Virtual Tools for Suspension Development

Suspension development is one of the key steps in a complete vehicle development program. Computer simulation and analysis tools such as Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) simulation are used to refine initial concept and suspension parameters. Later on when a physical prototype is available the suspension system can be experimentally optimized at vehicle level. In this paper a new methodology is proposed which integrates virtual and experimental tools so that design, development and validation of the suspension system is carried out in the early phase of the vehicle development cycle with actual suspension components and without the need of a vehicle prototype. With this new approach, the design of any critical suspension components such as dampers can be optimized at the vehicle level. The new approach consists of combining the actual physical components on loading rig in closed loop with vehicle dynamic model running in real time.
Technical Paper

Influence of Rake Angle and Cutting Speed on Residual Stresses Developed in Cutting Tool during Turning Operation

In this work, the effect of tool rake angle and cutting speed on residual stresses of tool was studied, the rake angles of 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, and 20° and a constant clearance (Relief angle) of 8° were used to turn bright mild steel on the lathe machine, A total of 15 experiments were carried out with three different cutting speeds (37.69, 59.37, 94.24 m/min) for each rake angle, keeping the feed rate and depth of cut constant. During the experimentation, the residual stresses were measured using an x-ray diffractiometer. This is all in order to explore the energy savings opportunities during regrinding of tools, useful production time and energy is being wasted due to regrinding or re-sharpening of tools when cutting tools got worn or blunt, selection of the rake angle which generate the optimum residual stresses in the tool, goes a long way in saving these time and energy.
Technical Paper

Effect of Added Mass of Spindle Wheel Force Transducer on Vehicle Dynamic Response

Wheel force and moment transducers (WFT) are widely used in vehicle testing and analysis [1], [2], [3]. There are many benefits of using these sensors. To install the transducer, vehicle wheel has to be modified. Transducer mounting adaptors are required to interface the sensor with the modified wheel rim. To study the effect of added mass with wheel force transducers, three vehicles, two types of passenger cars, and one SUV, were instrumented with an MTS spindle wheel force transducer (SWIFT 30A) as well as with regular wheels. The instrumented vehicles were driven on multiple proving ground surfaces with three passes for each vehicle. This experimental data was analyzed using RPC Pro software to assess both per pass variation and data trends from 3 passes without WFT (baseline) and 3 passes with WFT added mass. A validated ADAMS model of a production passenger vehicle, with and without added weight of the wheel force transducers, was also used to assess the added weight effect.
Technical Paper

Digitally Controlled Servo-Hydraulic Crash Simulator

The value of crash simulation has long been recognized by carmakers as an essential tool for vehicle development and certification programs. Driven by the need to minimize time-to-market for new models, cost reduction, and by consumer demand for safer cars and trucks, the industry is moving to newer technologies in crash simulation. Crash simulation provides an inexpensive means to quickly simulate the effects of a barrier crash by reproducing its basic elements - acceleration, velocity and displacement - in a nondestructive test. Crash event timing and accuracy of reproduction are critical performance factors. This paper describes the unique features and capabilities offered by a new generation of crash simulators.
Technical Paper

Development of a Flat Surface Tire Testing Machine

A low speed continuous belt, flat surface tire testing machine has been developed to perform force and moment tests on automotive and light truck tires. The machine is known as the Flat-Trac™ Tire Testing Machine. The design and development of the machine is presented including discussion of machine geometry, belt tracking, belt support bearing, machine controls and the multi-axis load transducer. The specifications and capacities for the machine are also presented.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Vibration Characteristics in Automotive Seats Using Experimental and CAE Techniques

Seat system resonant frequencies play an important role in seat design and ride dynamics. So NVH performance of the seats should be assessed from the viewpoint of tactile, acoustic and visual sense. Tactile response is the response of sub-systems, which is induced when the human body contacts steering wheel, footrest or seats. Acoustic response is the behavior of the seat system at the cavity resonance frequencies and visual sense is what we perceive under actual operating conditions. The objective of the present work is to conduct and correlate experimental modal test with FE modal test to identify tactile vibrations. Then the identified main seat modes will be used to set the mode map (seat target) at the stage of full vehicle level. This work will present a practical approach in understanding varied methods and techniques for determining resonant characteristics and for subsequent refinement of FE model.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Aircraft Tire Blowouts

While the results of an exploding (bursting) tire have long been recognized as catastrophic to personnel and surrounding equipment, little work has previously been performed to quantify the tire burst phenomena. Using the Wright Laboratory Landing Gear Development Facility at Wright Patterson Air Force Base, the pressure wave released by a bursting tire was investigated as part of the United States Air Force sponsored Extended Life Tire program. This evaluation included pneumatic blowouts of F- 16 Block 30 (25.0>x8.0-14) and B-52 (56x16) main landing gear tires. The results of this testing are detailed in this paper and include the identification of: shock wave propagation, attenuation, and distribution, the potential effects on personnel, and recommendations for analysis / prediction techniques.