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Technical Paper

The Generation of Cyclic Blockloading Test Profiles from Rainflow Histograms

1992-02-01
920664
A numerical method for generating a blockloading profile from a rainflow histogram is described. Unlike previous techniques, this method produces a blockloading profile which, when rainflow-counted, yields a rainflow histogram identical to the original. When implemented with modern data acquisition and signal-processing techniques, this generation method provides a means of developing blockloading test profiles which are correlated with actual service data. This key benefit elevates existing simple testing systems as useful and productive tools despite the emrgence of more complex testing systems.
Technical Paper

The Development of Tools for the Automatic Extraction of Desired Information from Large Amounts of Engineering Data

2001-03-05
2001-01-0707
Product development processes generate large quantities of experimental and analytical data. The data evaluation process is usually quite lengthy since the data needs to be extracted from a large number of individual output files and arranged in suitable formats before they can be compared. When the data quantity grows extremely large, manual extraction cannot be done in a limited timeframe. This paper describes a set of tools developed by MTS engineers to automatically extract the desired information from a large number of files and perform data post-processing. The tools greatly improved both speed and accuracy of the evaluation process during the development of a sound quality-based end-of-line inspection system for seat tracks [1]. It allowed engineers to quickly gather a comprehensive understanding of the relative importance of individual design parameters and of their correlation to the subjective perception of the sound quality of the seat track.
Technical Paper

Racing Motorcycle Design Process Using Physical and Virtual Testing Methods

2000-11-13
2000-01-3576
Recently, the use of laboratory-based physical prototype testing as well as the design of virtual models and virtual test equipment has accelerated the pace and quality of racing vehicle development. In particular, the combined use of both virtual and physical testing, when correlated to racetrack improvements, yields a powerful development tool(1), (2),(3). In this study, we applied these techniques from the first stages of the design of a unique Grand Prix racing motorcycle. First, a wire-frame CAD model, then a parametric CAD solid model of the motorcycle was created after preliminary calculations specified the approximate design of structural elements. Subsequently, a virtual dynamic model was created and subjected to a variety of inputs, including sine sweeps, shaped white noise and simulated road time-histories. Loads and other dynamic responses were measured on the virtual model, so that it's design could then be optimized to yield acceptable performance and durability.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Load Transducer Design Using Computer-Based Analytical Tools

2001-03-05
2001-01-0787
Rapid development of advanced multi-axial load transducer systems now requires the use of computer-based analytical tools to assist the development engineer optimize the design to meet often-conflicting design targets. This paper presents a case study based on the development of a wheel force load transducer to meet a challenging set of performance goals including accuracy, repeatability, durability and insensitivity to the external environment. The paper also highlights the limitations of some of the current analytical tools when used for load transducer design, and how these limitations can be overcome by cost-effective combinations of analytical performance prediction and physical test confirmation.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Suspension Development Using Ride Comfort Analysis with a Laboratory Test System

1999-09-28
1999-01-3276
An analytical approach to developing motorcycle suspensions is presented. Typical uncontrolled and subjective evaluations that place limits on suspension development are curtailed through the use of a laboratory-based road simulation technique, which evaluates vehicle ride quality. Ride comfort is calculated using a specifically tailored NASA model after primary and secondary frequency regimes have been established for this type of motorcycle. Correlation between road and laboratory simulation is measured and compared to the road data variance. A designed experiment evaluates changes in ride quality as a function of suspension and tire pressure adjustments. Various suspension settings are repeated on the simulator and corresponding ride numbers are calculated for both environments. An analysis is performed to correlate ride quality improvements on the simulator with ride quality improvements in the field.
Technical Paper

LEAN Techniques for Effective, Efficient and Secure Information Processing in Automotive Homologation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0335
It is an established fact that virtual knowledge based engineering has revolutionized R & D activities by streamlining processes, ensuring productivity and accuracy. This has resulted in freeing up time for quality interpretational work and decision making for engineering the best of products. Subsequently, homologation is a mandatory requisite activity for product signoff. It certifies the quality of the product and is an important factor in giving the product an authenticity for sale in the market. Homologation entails compliance to regulations existing in form of well-established standards which elaborate systematic and detailed guidelines on conducting physical testing for automotive systems, sub-systems or components for specific vehicle types.
Technical Paper

Integration of Real and Virtual Tools for Suspension Development

2011-01-19
2011-26-0115
Suspension development is one of the key steps in a complete vehicle development program. Computer simulation and analysis tools such as Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) simulation are used to refine initial concept and suspension parameters. Later on when a physical prototype is available the suspension system can be experimentally optimized at vehicle level. In this paper a new methodology is proposed which integrates virtual and experimental tools so that design, development and validation of the suspension system is carried out in the early phase of the vehicle development cycle with actual suspension components and without the need of a vehicle prototype. With this new approach, the design of any critical suspension components such as dampers can be optimized at the vehicle level. The new approach consists of combining the actual physical components on loading rig in closed loop with vehicle dynamic model running in real time.
Technical Paper

Influence of Rake Angle and Cutting Speed on Residual Stresses Developed in Cutting Tool during Turning Operation

2014-04-28
2014-28-0014
In this work, the effect of tool rake angle and cutting speed on residual stresses of tool was studied, the rake angles of 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, and 20° and a constant clearance (Relief angle) of 8° were used to turn bright mild steel on the lathe machine, A total of 15 experiments were carried out with three different cutting speeds (37.69, 59.37, 94.24 m/min) for each rake angle, keeping the feed rate and depth of cut constant. During the experimentation, the residual stresses were measured using an x-ray diffractiometer. This is all in order to explore the energy savings opportunities during regrinding of tools, useful production time and energy is being wasted due to regrinding or re-sharpening of tools when cutting tools got worn or blunt, selection of the rake angle which generate the optimum residual stresses in the tool, goes a long way in saving these time and energy.
Technical Paper

Digitally Controlled Servo-Hydraulic Crash Simulator

2000-03-06
2000-01-0048
The value of crash simulation has long been recognized by carmakers as an essential tool for vehicle development and certification programs. Driven by the need to minimize time-to-market for new models, cost reduction, and by consumer demand for safer cars and trucks, the industry is moving to newer technologies in crash simulation. Crash simulation provides an inexpensive means to quickly simulate the effects of a barrier crash by reproducing its basic elements - acceleration, velocity and displacement - in a nondestructive test. Crash event timing and accuracy of reproduction are critical performance factors. This paper describes the unique features and capabilities offered by a new generation of crash simulators.
Journal Article

Development of a Full-Vehicle Hybrid-Simulation Test using Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC)

2012-04-16
2012-01-0763
Hybrid vehicle simulation methods combine physical test articles (vehicles, suspensions, etc.) with complementary virtual vehicle components and virtual road and driver inputs to simulate the actual vehicle operating environment. Using appropriate components, hybrid simulation offers the possibility to develop more accurate physical tests earlier, and at lower cost, than possible with conventional test methods. MTS Systems has developed Hybrid System Response Convergence (HSRC), a hybrid simulation method that can utilize existing durability test systems and detailed non-real-time virtual component models to create an accurate full-vehicle simulation test without requiring road load data acquisition. MTS Systems and Audi AG have recently completed a joint evaluation project for the HSRC hybrid simulation method using an MTS 329 road simulator at the Audi facility in Ingolstadt, Germany.
Video

Advances of Virtual Testing and Hybrid Simulation in Automotive Performance and Durability Evaluation

2012-02-15
Virtual testing is a method that simulates lab testing using multi-body dynamic analysis software. The main advantages of this approach include that the design can be evaluated before a prototype is available and virtual testing results can be easily validated by subsequent physical testing. The disadvantage is that accurate specimen models are sometimes hard to obtain since nonlinear components such as tires, bushings, dampers, and engine mounts are hard to model. Therefore, virtual testing accuracy varies significantly. The typical virtual rigs include tire and spindle coupled test rigs for full vehicle tests and multi axis shaker tables for component tests. Hybrid simulation combines physical and virtual components, inputs and constraints to create a composite simulation system. Hybrid simulation enables the hard to model components to be tested in the lab.
Journal Article

Advances of Virtual Testing and Hybrid Simulation in Automotive Performance and Durability Evaluation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0029
Virtual testing is a method that simulates lab testing using multi-body dynamic analysis software. The main advantages of this approach include that the design can be evaluated before a prototype is available and virtual testing results can be easily validated by subsequent physical testing. The disadvantage is that accurate specimen models are sometimes hard to obtain since nonlinear components such as tires, bushings, dampers, and engine mounts are hard to model. Therefore, virtual testing accuracy varies significantly. The typical virtual rigs include tire and spindle coupled test rigs for full vehicle tests and multi-axis shaker tables for component tests. Hybrid simulation combines physical and virtual components, inputs and constraints to create a composite simulation system. Hybrid simulation enables the hard to model components to be tested in the lab.
Technical Paper

A Survey of Mid-Level Driving Simulators

1995-02-01
950172
The characteristics, functionality, limitations, and applications of mid-level driving simulators are reviewed and discussed. For this paper a mid-level simulator is defined as one which has a large roadway scene display typically comprising animated computer graphics, it may have a motion system or be fixed base, it should have a dedicated cab with a steering feel system and interactive controls and displays, it has a parametrically configurable vehicle dynamics model, data acquisition is provided for, and the simulator is intended to be used for driver behavior research and vehicle or highway research and development studies. Possible simulator sickness issues are discussed, and categories of mid-level driving simulator applications are noted. Approximately 20 different contemporary driving simulators are included in the survey.
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