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Technical Paper

Vehicle Level Remote Range Improvement with Low Cost Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0789
Basic Function: Vehicle remote is used for vehicle lock/unlock/search/Hazard lights /approach light functions for customer convenience and vehicle security system. Conventional approach: 1 Use of separate RF (Radio Frequency) receiver -Additional Cost impact. 2 High remote RF power - Reduced remote battery life and bigger remote size required 3 High sensitivity RF receiver - High cost. Low Cost approach: It involves the followings: 1 Integration of RF receiver inside the Body Control Module (BCM). 2 Low Power Remote and Optimization of Remote PCB layout to get the maximum power. 3 External wired antenna taken out from BCM and proper routine need be ensured to get the best performance. 4 BCM mounting location to get the best remote range in all vehicle directions. This paper relates to the methodology for low cost approach for the RF communication between remote transmitter and receiver with achieving the best remote performance at vehicle level condition.
Technical Paper

Transmission Breather Evaluation

2019-01-09
2019-26-0339
Breather assembly is mounted on transmission to maintain the pressure equilibrium inside transmission. Breather allows the transmission to breathe air when the air inside transmission expands or contracts due to heating and cooling of lubricating oil during vehicle running. Breather allows the hot air to escape and cool air to enter into the transmission to prevent overheating issue. Failure of breather assembly can lead to pressure buildup inside transmission and further leading to leakage from transmission oil seals. Oil leakage through the breather assembly is governed by parameters such as opening pressure, location and orientation of breather etc. The transmission undergoes different operating conditions of input speed, load, temperature, inclination etc. Also, breather assembly is designed and positioned in such a way that there is no leakage through breather due to oil splash inside the transmission.
Technical Paper

Transient 1D Mathematical Model for Drum Brake System to Predict the Temperature Variation with Realistic Boundary Conditions

2017-01-10
2017-26-0299
Brake system is the most important system in the vehicle considering the overall vehicle safety and speed control. Brake applications are repetitive during a city traffic and hilly terrain on downhill gradient. Frequent braking gives rise to an overheating of the brake drum and its components. Braking operations at high temperature gives rise to problems like reduced deceleration due to loss of brake pad friction characteristics, pad softening and sticking to drum, pad distortion and wear etc. All these factors collectively result in deterioration of the braking performance and reduction of brake pad durability with time. Till date most of the thermal analysis performed for brake drum heating are through physical testing using brake system prototypes and by means of CFD tools. These methods are time consuming and expensive. There is a need for an alternative method to reduce physical trials and prototype building and reduce dependency on CFD analysis.
Technical Paper

The Generation of Cyclic Blockloading Test Profiles from Rainflow Histograms

1992-02-01
920664
A numerical method for generating a blockloading profile from a rainflow histogram is described. Unlike previous techniques, this method produces a blockloading profile which, when rainflow-counted, yields a rainflow histogram identical to the original. When implemented with modern data acquisition and signal-processing techniques, this generation method provides a means of developing blockloading test profiles which are correlated with actual service data. This key benefit elevates existing simple testing systems as useful and productive tools despite the emrgence of more complex testing systems.
Technical Paper

The Development of Tools for the Automatic Extraction of Desired Information from Large Amounts of Engineering Data

2001-03-05
2001-01-0707
Product development processes generate large quantities of experimental and analytical data. The data evaluation process is usually quite lengthy since the data needs to be extracted from a large number of individual output files and arranged in suitable formats before they can be compared. When the data quantity grows extremely large, manual extraction cannot be done in a limited timeframe. This paper describes a set of tools developed by MTS engineers to automatically extract the desired information from a large number of files and perform data post-processing. The tools greatly improved both speed and accuracy of the evaluation process during the development of a sound quality-based end-of-line inspection system for seat tracks [1]. It allowed engineers to quickly gather a comprehensive understanding of the relative importance of individual design parameters and of their correlation to the subjective perception of the sound quality of the seat track.
Technical Paper

Solar Assisted Vehicle Electrical System (S.A.V.E.)

2012-04-16
2012-01-1058
S.A.V.E. (SOLAR-ASSISTED VEHICLE ELECTRICAL SYSTEM) is a microcontroller-based closed loop system designed to optimize the duty cycle of alternator in conventional vehicle electrical system. This has been done by integrating a SOLAR PANEL on the rooftop of a popular hatchback. The SOLAR PANEL supplies continuous power to battery for charging thereby reducing alternator duty cycle. Consequently, in order to optimize/control alternator functioning based on demand, a microcontroller has been incorporated. S.A.V.E. consists of a microcontroller which senses the instantaneous electrical load (in terms of current & voltage drawn) from battery. The controller using the intelligent algorithm keeps on checking this real-time consumption with the threshold values & decides when to activate/deactivate alternator. Thus with this controller, a) reduction in actual CO₂ emission & consequent, and b) 6% improvement in vehicle fuel efficiency has been achieved.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Driveline Rattle using Elastic Multi Body Dynamics Approach

2017-01-10
2017-26-0191
As automotive technology has evolved, gear rattle has become a prominent contributor for cabin noise as the masking from the engine noise has decreased. The market and customer expectation make the rattle noise a question to be addressed as early as possible in the vehicle development process. However, to simulate rattle, it calls for a detailed modeling of different complex subsystems of driveline to represent their true characteristics. Thus, the paper adopts an FE based elastic multi body dynamics model to predict gear rattle. The approach involves modeling of a complete flexible driveline using condensed FE models from Nastran in AVL Excite Powerunit/Transmission module. It includes combustion pressure as input excitations to crankshaft and then predicts parameters like gear teeth impacts, gear normal meshing force, dynamic mesh stiffness & overall contact state in transient and frequency domain. The output parameters are then analyzed to evaluate the rattle index.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Development, Component Optimization and Integration for a Metropolitan Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2017-01-10
2017-26-0084
The authors of this technical paper conceptualize and illustrate a powertrain architecture for a hybrid electric vehicle coupled with a unique strategy to reduce a real life problem of driving in snail paced traffic. This architecture utilizes a relatively low powered hybrid electric prime mover that is generally used in mild hybrid vehicles, in an arrangement similar to a parallel hybrid system. Here, the electric machine is mounted on the input shaft of the gearbox and the clutch is actuated automatically through an Automated Manual Transmission (AMT) system. Therefore, it is possible to completely disengage the engine from the driveline and drive the vehicle independently through an appropriately sized electric prime mover. The high gear ratio between the drivetrain and the electric prime mover at lower gears can be leveraged to provide low velocity electric creep mode during which the vehicle can function as a pure Electric Vehicle (EV) while engine remains off.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Approach for FIS Configuration Selection

2011-10-06
2011-28-0132
Environmental pollution is of great concern; hence the emission norms for the diesel engines are made more stringent. The purpose of this work is to develop a process to optimize the FIS parameters and select a most suitable FIS by simulation to meet the target emissions. During the combustion optimization exercise of diesel engine, different hardware combinations like injector, HPP etc are matched through testing to achieve the required performance and emissions. The process requires the real testing of the engine on engine dynamometer with various hardware combinations, which is expensive and time consuming. A simulation model of diesel FIS is constructed using ‘AVL Hydsim’. The model is validated by comparing the predicted and the experimental results. The validated model is used for further work. Critical parameters were listed based on the sensitivity analysis on the base model.
Technical Paper

SIZE INDIA- Anthropometric Size Measurement of Indian Driving Population

2011-01-19
2011-26-0108
Anthropometric data of a country is vital database for automotive design and other design applications. It is also an important parameter in population studies. Most developed countries have invested resources over the years to develop such a database and this information is accessed by many OEMs and major Design Houses. However, an updated and comprehensive Anthropometry of Indian Population is largely unknown. In the past, a few institutions have done projects to bring out a picture of the Indian Anthropometry. However, keeping in view the rapid industrialization and increase of India-specific designs which require an access to latest Anthropometric database, the project “SIZE INDIA” has been initiated. For the first time in India, a state of the art 3D Whole body scanner technology has been used and thereby large volume of data has been generated in a very short span of time.
Technical Paper

Recycling of Used Up Crankshaft Grinding Wheels

2012-04-16
2012-01-1060
For sustainability in automobile manufacturing, recycle, reuse, and repair of used up cutting tools is now an established process. Although many types of tools were designed for one time use and then throw, an increasing awareness of the impact on the natural resources have made manufacturers to put some of these back to use or sell it back to suppliers who have put up a mechanism to extract the elements e.g. Tungsten and use it for manufacturing of new tools. There are many ways in which cutting tools can be recycled. Be it by reshaping a used up throwaway type tool [1], by redesigning of a tool holder for the use of unused cutting edges [2] or reusing short length drills that are used in making of long oil holes in crank case, cylinder head, cam shaft or connecting rods [3]. This paper demonstrates successful use of used up crankshaft grinding wheels.
Technical Paper

Racing Motorcycle Design Process Using Physical and Virtual Testing Methods

2000-11-13
2000-01-3576
Recently, the use of laboratory-based physical prototype testing as well as the design of virtual models and virtual test equipment has accelerated the pace and quality of racing vehicle development. In particular, the combined use of both virtual and physical testing, when correlated to racetrack improvements, yields a powerful development tool(1), (2),(3). In this study, we applied these techniques from the first stages of the design of a unique Grand Prix racing motorcycle. First, a wire-frame CAD model, then a parametric CAD solid model of the motorcycle was created after preliminary calculations specified the approximate design of structural elements. Subsequently, a virtual dynamic model was created and subjected to a variety of inputs, including sine sweeps, shaped white noise and simulated road time-histories. Loads and other dynamic responses were measured on the virtual model, so that it's design could then be optimized to yield acceptable performance and durability.
Technical Paper

Procedure for Material Failure Characterization through GISSMO

2019-01-09
2019-26-0284
Vehicle crashworthiness is an important aspect of vehicle development. Vehicle structural performance plays a critical role during crash for controlling the occupant injuries. During a crash event, vehicle energy management governs the structural performance and passenger compartment integrity. However, these parameters are dependent on material properties such as yield/ultimate tensile strength, work hardening effects, strain rate dependency, material elongations and material fracture strains. Appropriate representation of these material properties in CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) environment is very critical for reliable prediction of vehicle structural performance during development phase. Among all material properties, material fracture strain is the most complex one and needs detailed material characterization approach for failure definitions.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Seat Rail and Steering Wheel Vibration at Idle Using Crank Drive and 16-DOF ADAMS Model

2019-01-09
2019-26-0181
Due to the recent trend in auto industry to opt for higher power engines, causes increase in vibrations levels in the passenger’s compartment. This requires a better and comprehensive model to analyze vibrations from engine to seat and steering wheel much before the proto stage of development in the design stage itself. For this purpose, modelling is done in ADAMS multi dynamics and assuming the 16 degrees of freedom of the vehicle. Further, a crank drive model is developed to simulate engine excitation forces comprising unbalanced inertia forces and torque fluctuations and their effects seat rail and steering wheel vibration is derived. This tool is an attempt to predict such vibrations caused and assist in design enhancement and streamline the procedure.
Journal Article

Performance Cascading from Vehicle-Level NVH to Component or Sub-System Level Design

2017-01-10
2017-26-0205
Before a physical proto-vehicle is assembled, various components or subsystems are ready by Tier-I or II suppliers. During final design judgement of the vehicle thru’ CAE or Mule-vehicle testing, performance target compliance need be assured for all these components to meet the Vehicle-level NVH targets. The work here studies some of the major components of a passenger car. Their individual NVH response can be critical to be cascaded for meeting the final targets for the vehicles running over roads. Conclusions of the study challenge some of traditional beliefs or generic targets. Often the component level response deviating from its own targets may not have an adverse influence on NVH of the vehicle facing multiple excitations from tyre/road, wind and power-train in a frequency band of interest.
Technical Paper

Optimizing-What's That?

1976-02-01
760316
The purpose of this paper is to present the past and present concepts of mechanical test optimization, which means the adjustment of a test machine command signal to achieve desired amplitude and mean levels. In particular, the methods of null pacing, dynamic frequency control, classical amplitude control, and maximum velocity limiting / control are discussed along with their respective application areas, advantages and disadvantages. Also, the factors of data verification and over-complication of the test are noted.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Load Transducer Design Using Computer-Based Analytical Tools

2001-03-05
2001-01-0787
Rapid development of advanced multi-axial load transducer systems now requires the use of computer-based analytical tools to assist the development engineer optimize the design to meet often-conflicting design targets. This paper presents a case study based on the development of a wheel force load transducer to meet a challenging set of performance goals including accuracy, repeatability, durability and insensitivity to the external environment. The paper also highlights the limitations of some of the current analytical tools when used for load transducer design, and how these limitations can be overcome by cost-effective combinations of analytical performance prediction and physical test confirmation.
Technical Paper

Optimization in Forging Process Using Computer Simulation

2014-04-28
2014-28-0041
New process development of forging component require lot of process knowledge and experience. Even lots of trial-and-error methods need to be used to arrive at optimum process and initial billet dimensions. But with help of reliable computer simulation tools, now it is possible to optimize the complete process and billet dimensions without a single forging trial. This saves lot of time, energy and money. Additionally, simulation gives much more insight about the process and possible forging defects. In this paper, a complete forging process was needed to be designed for a complex component. With the help of computer simulation, the complete conventional forging process and modified forging process were simulated and optimized. Forging defects were removed during optimization of the process. Also billet weight optimization was carried out. Deciding the pre-forming shape of the billet was the main challenge.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Intake Flow Structure and Swirl Optimization Strategies in Four-Valve Off-Highway Diesel Engine

2019-01-09
2019-26-0042
Future emission limits for off-highway application engines need advanced power train solutions to meet stringent emissions legislation, whilst meeting customer requirements and minimizing engineering costs. DI diesel engines with four valves per cylinder are widely used in off- highway applications because of the fundamental advantages of higher volumetric efficiency, lower pumping loss, symmetric fuel spray & distribution in combination with the symmetric air motion which can give nearly optimal mixture formation and combustion process. As a result, the fuel consumption, smoke levels and exhaust emissions can be considerably reduced. In particular, the four-valve technology, coupled with mechanical low pressure and electronic high pressure fuel delivery systems set different requirements for inlet port performance. In the present paper four valve intake port design strategies are analysed for off highway engine using mechanical fuel injection systems.
Technical Paper

Multi Body Dynamics Based Method for Twist Beam Cross Articulations Evaluation in Realistic Hilly Area Scenarios

2019-01-09
2019-26-0251
Twist beam is a semi-independent suspension having two trailing arms attached to the chassis via rubber bushes. Closed profile ‘V’ shaped cross beam interconnects left and right side arms. It provides roll stiffness of the suspension, by twisting as the two wheels moves relative to each other. Due to driving and road conditions twist beam structures are subjected to cyclic twist loads resulting into roll fatigue failure mode [1]. To design twist beam for mass, package and performance it is required to find realistic cross articulations based on vehicle application, usage pattern and protect twist beam from roll fatigue failure mode. The objective of this paper is to develop a virtual method using ‘ADAMS ®’ multibody dynamics software for maximum relative wheel center displacements during realistic hilly areas conditions. This paper describes half and full vehicle based virtual approach for twist beam cross articulations in hilly area conditions.
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