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Technical Paper

Vision Based Surface Roughness Characterization of Flat Surfaces Machined with EDM

Surface roughness measurement is an important one in any manufacturing next to dimensions. In this investigation, a vision system and image processing tools were used to develop reliable surface roughness characterization technique for Electrical Discharge Machined surfaces. A CMOS camera with red LED light source were used for capturing images of EDMed surfaces. A separate signal vector generated for all the images from its image pixel intensity matrices. The mean, skewness and kurtosis were obtained from the signal vector. The mean, skewness and kurtosis of the images signal vector correlates very well with the stylus measured hybrid roughness parameters Rda and Rdq. Hence the technique may be preferred for online surface roughness characterization of Electrical Discharge Machined (EDMed) surfaces.
Technical Paper

The Generation of Cyclic Blockloading Test Profiles from Rainflow Histograms

A numerical method for generating a blockloading profile from a rainflow histogram is described. Unlike previous techniques, this method produces a blockloading profile which, when rainflow-counted, yields a rainflow histogram identical to the original. When implemented with modern data acquisition and signal-processing techniques, this generation method provides a means of developing blockloading test profiles which are correlated with actual service data. This key benefit elevates existing simple testing systems as useful and productive tools despite the emrgence of more complex testing systems.
Technical Paper

The Development of Tools for the Automatic Extraction of Desired Information from Large Amounts of Engineering Data

Product development processes generate large quantities of experimental and analytical data. The data evaluation process is usually quite lengthy since the data needs to be extracted from a large number of individual output files and arranged in suitable formats before they can be compared. When the data quantity grows extremely large, manual extraction cannot be done in a limited timeframe. This paper describes a set of tools developed by MTS engineers to automatically extract the desired information from a large number of files and perform data post-processing. The tools greatly improved both speed and accuracy of the evaluation process during the development of a sound quality-based end-of-line inspection system for seat tracks [1]. It allowed engineers to quickly gather a comprehensive understanding of the relative importance of individual design parameters and of their correlation to the subjective perception of the sound quality of the seat track.
Technical Paper

Surface Modification of Aluminium Alloy 5083 Reinforced with Cr2O3/TiO2 by Friction Stir Process

The surface properties have a vital role in the overall performance of the parts like brake shoe pad and other frame system. The mechanical and residual stress measurements of aluminium alloy 5083 were investigated on friction stir processed plates using the reinforcements of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) separately as well as combination of these powders. A comparative study was made to analyze the effects of reinforcements, tool type (cylindrical and threaded), parameters and the volume fraction of the reinforcements. The mechanical properties such as surface hardness and residual stress of the friction stir processed specimens were investigated. The experimental results shows that there was a significant increase in surface hardness (118 HRC) as well as a decrease in residual stress compare to the base metal. This study also reveals that the threaded tool with a reinforcement of Cr2O3 and TiO2 reflected better mechanical properties than the cylindrical tool.
Technical Paper

Stress and Model Analysis of Upper and Lower Bolster Components of Molten Steel Transfer Vehicle

The transportation of hot metal from blast furnaces to melting shops is carried out by molten steel transfer vehicle such as Torpedo ladle car in the steel plants. In need to design Torpedo ladle car within size limitation, capacity requirement and withstanding the impact, static, thermal shock and abrasion conditions, structural analysis is essential for validation. In this paper, stress and model analysis for upper and lower bolsters of Torpedo Ladle Car is carried out. The components are modelled in CAD and analysed using finite element method using software with the required boundary conditions. The results of structural analysis of bolster components are presented and discussed. The results shows that the deflection at the centre of upper and lower bolster was due to bending and applied load. The modal analysis predicted the natural frequencies by using block lanczos method.
Technical Paper

Simulation Based Approach for FIS Configuration Selection

Environmental pollution is of great concern; hence the emission norms for the diesel engines are made more stringent. The purpose of this work is to develop a process to optimize the FIS parameters and select a most suitable FIS by simulation to meet the target emissions. During the combustion optimization exercise of diesel engine, different hardware combinations like injector, HPP etc are matched through testing to achieve the required performance and emissions. The process requires the real testing of the engine on engine dynamometer with various hardware combinations, which is expensive and time consuming. A simulation model of diesel FIS is constructed using ‘AVL Hydsim’. The model is validated by comparing the predicted and the experimental results. The validated model is used for further work. Critical parameters were listed based on the sensitivity analysis on the base model.
Technical Paper

SIZE INDIA- Anthropometric Size Measurement of Indian Driving Population

Anthropometric data of a country is vital database for automotive design and other design applications. It is also an important parameter in population studies. Most developed countries have invested resources over the years to develop such a database and this information is accessed by many OEMs and major Design Houses. However, an updated and comprehensive Anthropometry of Indian Population is largely unknown. In the past, a few institutions have done projects to bring out a picture of the Indian Anthropometry. However, keeping in view the rapid industrialization and increase of India-specific designs which require an access to latest Anthropometric database, the project “SIZE INDIA” has been initiated. For the first time in India, a state of the art 3D Whole body scanner technology has been used and thereby large volume of data has been generated in a very short span of time.
Technical Paper

Racing Motorcycle Design Process Using Physical and Virtual Testing Methods

Recently, the use of laboratory-based physical prototype testing as well as the design of virtual models and virtual test equipment has accelerated the pace and quality of racing vehicle development. In particular, the combined use of both virtual and physical testing, when correlated to racetrack improvements, yields a powerful development tool(1), (2),(3). In this study, we applied these techniques from the first stages of the design of a unique Grand Prix racing motorcycle. First, a wire-frame CAD model, then a parametric CAD solid model of the motorcycle was created after preliminary calculations specified the approximate design of structural elements. Subsequently, a virtual dynamic model was created and subjected to a variety of inputs, including sine sweeps, shaped white noise and simulated road time-histories. Loads and other dynamic responses were measured on the virtual model, so that it's design could then be optimized to yield acceptable performance and durability.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Thermal Comfort Inside a Midibus Passenger Cabin Using CFD and Its Experimental Validation

This paper presents a methodology for predicting thermal comfort inside Midibus cabin with an objective to modify the Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) duct design and parametric optimization in order to have improved thermal comfort of occupant. For this purpose the bus cavity is extracted from baseline CAD model including fully seated manikins with various seating positions. Solar Load has been considered in the computational model and passenger heat load is considered as per BSR/ASHRAE 55-1992R standard. CFD simulation predicted the air temperature and velocity distribution inside passenger cabin of the baseline model. The experimental measurements have been carried out as per the guidelines set in APTA-BT-RP-003-07 standard. The results obtained from CFD and Experimental test were analysed as per EVS EN ISO7730 standard and calculated occupant comfort in terms of thermal comfort parameters like Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD).
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) for Recovering Waste Heat from a Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

The heat losses through exhaust gases and the engine coolant contribute significantly towards reduction in thermal efficiency of an Internal Combustion (IC) engine. This largely impacts the fuel economy and power output. Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) has proven to be an effective method of overcoming these challenges. A Rankine cycle is a reverse refrigeration cycle that circulates a working fluid through the four basic components namely the pump, evaporator, turbine and condenser. It is a popular WHR approach in automotive applications with varying levels of success in the past. As the heat transfer capability in organic working fluids is greater than the conventionally used inorganic fluids, the former is used to capture maximum waste heat from low grade heat sources such as the automobile engine. A dual-loop Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is proposed for a heavy duty IC Engine with working fluids R245fa and R236fa for the High Temperature (HT) and Low Temperature (LT) loops respectively.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study, the Process Benefits, Optimization and Chip Morphology Study of Machining Parameter on Turning of Inconel 718 Using CVD Coated Tool and Nd: YAG Laser

This paper presents the parametric study, process benefits, optimization and chip appearance of machining parameters on turning of the Inconel 718 using Nd: YAG laser source. To analyze the mentioned above effect on alloy 718, the cutting inserts of chemical vapor disposition coated (CVD) TiN/TICN/Al2O3 are used to turn at the time of machining. To evaluate the linear (mean effect plots) and interaction effect (3D surface plots) of laser parameters on the force, roughness and tool wear to keep the minimal, experiments of the L27 orthogonal array are done by selecting the controllable parameters viz speed, the rate of feed along with laser power. From the parametric study, increase in speed and laser power along with decrement in the rate of feed resulted in lower cutting force. But surface finish and tool wear reduced with a decline in speed and scale of feed and increased with increment in laser power.
Technical Paper

Parameter Optimization during Minimum Quantity Lubrication Turning of Inconel 625 Alloy with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles Dispersed Vegetable-Oil-Based Cutting Fluid

Inconel 625, nickel based alloy, is found in gas turbine blades, seals, rings, shafts, and turbine disks. On the other hand, the manufacturing of this alloy is challenging, mainly when machining processes are used due to excellent mechanical properties. Application of nanofluids in minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) shows gaining importance in the machining process, which is economical and eco-friendly. The principal objective of this investigational work is to study the influence of three types of nanofluids in the MQL turning of Inconel 625 nickel based alloys. The used nanofluids are multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), alumina (Al2O3) and copper oxide (CUO) dispersed in vegetable oil. Taguchi-based L27 orthogonal array is used for the experimental design. The parameter optimization of design variables over response is carried out by the use of Taguchi-based derringer's desirability function.
Technical Paper

Optimizing-What's That?

The purpose of this paper is to present the past and present concepts of mechanical test optimization, which means the adjustment of a test machine command signal to achieve desired amplitude and mean levels. In particular, the methods of null pacing, dynamic frequency control, classical amplitude control, and maximum velocity limiting / control are discussed along with their respective application areas, advantages and disadvantages. Also, the factors of data verification and over-complication of the test are noted.
Technical Paper

Optimizing Load Transducer Design Using Computer-Based Analytical Tools

Rapid development of advanced multi-axial load transducer systems now requires the use of computer-based analytical tools to assist the development engineer optimize the design to meet often-conflicting design targets. This paper presents a case study based on the development of a wheel force load transducer to meet a challenging set of performance goals including accuracy, repeatability, durability and insensitivity to the external environment. The paper also highlights the limitations of some of the current analytical tools when used for load transducer design, and how these limitations can be overcome by cost-effective combinations of analytical performance prediction and physical test confirmation.
Technical Paper

Optimization of GENSET Engine for CPCB- II Norms using Cost Effective Techniques

The major challenge that is faced by most of the engine manufacturers nowadays is to meet the stringent emission norms with least modification in the engine design. In achieving the emission norms simplicity of the design has to be maintained as far as possible by optimizing the available emission control techniques. This paper deals with such optimal technique with reduced cost and up gradation of the engine from CPCB I to CPCB II in minimum time with minimum design changes. This difficult task is achieved by adopting direct continuous EGR and intercooler with appropriate injection timing and optimizing the fuel injection pump in a cost effective manner. The experiment is carried out on 2.86 litre turbocharged engine giving power output 44.5 kW @1500 rpm. In order to achieve the NOx emission norms LLR FIP is used, to retard the injection timing at part loads to reduce the in-cylinder temperature.
Technical Paper

Optimization in Forging Process Using Computer Simulation

New process development of forging component require lot of process knowledge and experience. Even lots of trial-and-error methods need to be used to arrive at optimum process and initial billet dimensions. But with help of reliable computer simulation tools, now it is possible to optimize the complete process and billet dimensions without a single forging trial. This saves lot of time, energy and money. Additionally, simulation gives much more insight about the process and possible forging defects. In this paper, a complete forging process was needed to be designed for a complex component. With the help of computer simulation, the complete conventional forging process and modified forging process were simulated and optimized. Forging defects were removed during optimization of the process. Also billet weight optimization was carried out. Deciding the pre-forming shape of the billet was the main challenge.
Technical Paper

Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Intake Flow Structure and Swirl Optimization Strategies in Four-Valve Off-Highway Diesel Engine

Future emission limits for off-highway application engines need advanced power train solutions to meet stringent emissions legislation, whilst meeting customer requirements and minimizing engineering costs. DI diesel engines with four valves per cylinder are widely used in off- highway applications because of the fundamental advantages of higher volumetric efficiency, lower pumping loss, symmetric fuel spray & distribution in combination with the symmetric air motion which can give nearly optimal mixture formation and combustion process. As a result, the fuel consumption, smoke levels and exhaust emissions can be considerably reduced. In particular, the four-valve technology, coupled with mechanical low pressure and electronic high pressure fuel delivery systems set different requirements for inlet port performance. In the present paper four valve intake port design strategies are analysed for off highway engine using mechanical fuel injection systems.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Suspension Development Using Ride Comfort Analysis with a Laboratory Test System

An analytical approach to developing motorcycle suspensions is presented. Typical uncontrolled and subjective evaluations that place limits on suspension development are curtailed through the use of a laboratory-based road simulation technique, which evaluates vehicle ride quality. Ride comfort is calculated using a specifically tailored NASA model after primary and secondary frequency regimes have been established for this type of motorcycle. Correlation between road and laboratory simulation is measured and compared to the road data variance. A designed experiment evaluates changes in ride quality as a function of suspension and tire pressure adjustments. Various suspension settings are repeated on the simulator and corresponding ride numbers are calculated for both environments. An analysis is performed to correlate ride quality improvements on the simulator with ride quality improvements in the field.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Steady State Handling Characteristics of Formula Vehicle with Antiroll Bars

Antiroll bar plays an important role in rollover stability of the vehicle. But not only does it limit the vehicle roll during cornering, but also alters the lateral load transfer between the tracks, which in turn affects the cornering performance of the vehicle. This paper deals with the design and mathematical modeling of antiroll bars to reduce the body roll of the vehicle from 1.5°/g to less than 1.0°/g. Rear bar uses a conventional torsion type bar but the front anti roll mechanism is an unconventional antiroll bar using a rotating double cantilever mechanism. Mathematical modeling is done for pushrod rod actuated antiroll mechanisms to simulate its non-linear roll rates. Antiroll bars for front and rear are designed for the calculated stiffness. Finite Element Analysis of antiroll bar and its components is done and the mechanism is tested on the vehicle. Steady state tire model parameters are generated by curve fitting tire testing data into pacejka coefficients.
Technical Paper

Methodology Development for External Aerodynamic Evaluation of a Bus and Its Impact on Fuel Economy along with Experimental Validation

The objective of this study is to develop, demonstrate and validate the methodology of external aerodynamic analysis of a State Road Transport bus for prediction of drag coefficient and its impact on fuel consumption with experimental validation. It has been verified that vehicle consumes around 40% of the available engine power to overcome the air drag. This gives us a huge scope to study the effect of aerodynamic drag. Baseline model of State Road Transport Bus was evaluated for estimating fuel consumption using Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD) methodology. The CFD results were validated with the experimental data with less than 10% deviation. Bus design was optimized with an objective of reducing the fuel consumption with parameters like angle of windshield, rounding and tapering corners and rear draft angle. Optimized bus design is also ensured to meet functional specifications as per AIS052.